California is the most populous state in the United States and the third most extensive by area. Located on the western coast of the U. S, California is bordered by the other U. S. states of Oregon and Arizona and shares an international border with the Mexican state of Baja California. Los Angeles is Californias most populous city, and the second largest after New York City. The Los Angeles Area and the San Francisco Bay Area are the nations second- and fifth-most populous urban regions, California has the nations most populous county, Los Angeles County, and its largest county by area, San Bernardino County. The Central Valley, an agricultural area, dominates the states center. What is now California was first settled by various Native American tribes before being explored by a number of European expeditions during the 16th and 17th centuries, the Spanish Empire claimed it as part of Alta California in their New Spain colony. The area became a part of Mexico in 1821 following its war for independence.
The western portion of Alta California was organized as the State of California, the California Gold Rush starting in 1848 led to dramatic social and demographic changes, with large-scale emigration from the east and abroad with an accompanying economic boom. If it were a country, California would be the 6th largest economy in the world, fifty-eight percent of the states economy is centered on finance, real estate services and professional, scientific and technical business services. Although it accounts for only 1.5 percent of the states economy, the story of Calafia is recorded in a 1510 work The Adventures of Esplandián, written as a sequel to Amadis de Gaula by Spanish adventure writer Garci Rodríguez de Montalvo. The kingdom of Queen Calafia, according to Montalvo, was said to be a land inhabited by griffins and other strange beasts. This conventional wisdom that California was an island, with maps drawn to reflect this belief, shortened forms of the states name include CA, Cal. Calif. and US-CA.
Settled by successive waves of arrivals during the last 10,000 years, various estimates of the native population range from 100,000 to 300,000. The Indigenous peoples of California included more than 70 distinct groups of Native Americans, ranging from large, settled populations living on the coast to groups in the interior. California groups were diverse in their organization with bands, villages. Trade and military alliances fostered many social and economic relationships among the diverse groups, the first European effort to explore the coast as far north as the Russian River was a Spanish sailing expedition, led by Portuguese captain Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo, in 1542. Some 37 years English explorer Francis Drake explored and claimed a portion of the California coast in 1579. Spanish traders made unintended visits with the Manila galleons on their trips from the Philippines beginning in 1565
Golden Gate Theater
Golden Gate Theater is a Spanish Baroque Revival Churrigueresque-style movie palace built in 1927 on Whittier Boulevard in East Los Angeles, California. In 1982, it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places, the theater closed in 1986, the retail building built around it was damaged in the 1987 Whittier Narrows earthquake and demolished in 1992. The remaining theater building was vacant for more than 20 years as preservationists fought with owners and developers over the future of the building. It was finally converted into a drugstore and reopened in 2012, the theater seated nearly 1,500 people and was located at one of the major intersections on the east side of Los Angeles, at the corner of Whittier and Atlantic Boulevards. It was designed in the ornate Churrigueresque style, and the entrance replicated the portal of Spains University of Salamanca, the theater proper will seat about 1500 persons, it is declared and will contain thirteen stores. There will be several apartment units and it is planned as a legitimate playhouse, but will be equipped for motion pictures as well.
The theater was located in the courtyard of the L-shaped Vega Building. The Vega Building was known for its four-story octagon tower, Los Angeles County records describing the basis for the landmark designation describe the complex as one with a sense of time and place. The majority of its features, including its conformation, detailing. As a result, the building has retained a sense of architectural integrity. The theater stopped showing movies in 1986, and in 1987 the Vega Building was damaged in the Whittier Narrows earthquake, from 1986-1988, a non-denominational Christian church named Praise Chapel Christian Fellowship occupied the building and held regular services with over 1,000 people. In 1987 the pastors and Donna Neville were forced to move their church because, according to the owner, the Vega Building was demolished in 1992 after officials determined it to be a hazard. The remaining theater building was left sitting vacant in the middle of an empty lot. One writer notes that the shell only hints at what this theater was like in its heyday.
The property has been vacant and the subject of attempted demolitions for many years, when the Whittier earthquake damaged the Vega Building, demolition efforts accelerated. County inspectors declared the building unsafe for occupancy, and businesses operating in the building, including a store, a shoe repair shop. In 1988, demolition commenced before officials led by County Supervisor Ed Edelman halted the work with a stop-work order, the Mothers of East Los Angeles and the Los Angeles Conservancy fought the demolition plans. The Conservancy noted that the theatre was one of fewer than two dozen buildings in Los Angeles in the Spanish Churrigueresque style, in August 1994, the Los Angeles County Board of Supervisors, on a motion by Supervisor Gloria Molina, designated the theatre as a historical resource
First Baptist Church of Los Angeles
First Baptist Church of Los Angeles is a Baptist church located at 760 South Westmoreland Avenue in Los Angeles, California. It was designated Los Angeles Historic Cultural Monument 237 in 1981, on September 4,1874, believers came together to pray. In the beginning, they met on North Spring Street, but by 1884, they moved into its first building at the corner of Sixth and Fort Streets and its construction was funded by donations from Isaac Newton Van Nuys and James Boon Lankershim. The second building, constructed in 1897, was located at 727 South Flower Street, billy Sunday preached there in 1913. In 1927, a new building, the current church, was designed by Allison & Allison in the Spanish Gothic style. It was modeled after the Ducal Palace in Mantua, pentecostal revival in Los Angeles is said to have started in this church in 1905 thanks to Rev. Joseph Smale, after he had met Evan Roberts on a trip to Wales. Herbert L. Sutton, Our Heritage and Our Hope, The History of First Baptist Church of Los Angeles, California, 1874-1974 Media related to First Baptist Church of Los Angeles at Wikimedia Commons
Granada Shoppes and Studios
It was built immediately to the southeast of Lafayette Park in the Westlake District, in 1927. The project was designed by architect Franklin Harper with 42 suites combining offices, each unit had two levels, with office or shop space on the ground floor and living space on the second level or loft area. The apartments were located on the level and consisted of kitchen, living room, bath. The dominant feature of the Granada is the running between the four structures. The courtyards serve both a role as the paths to each of the suites and an aesthetic role as a garden area providing shade. One architectural textbook describes the space as the dominant organizing theme for the building, giving the complex all the attributes of the traditional narrow commercial street. The beauty of the Granada has attracted architects, gregory Ain and James Garrott shared office space here before World War II. George Hurrell, a noted Hollywood portrait photographer and worked in Suite 9, the court is one of the monuments of southern California architecture and one that contains the seeds of an urban existence whose promise was never fulfilled.
In 1980, noted Los Angeles Times columnist Jack Smith referred to the structure as the lovely old Spanish-style Granada Building. Later renamed the Granada Buildings, the complex was purchased and restored by the Shidler Group in the late 1980s, in 2003, the complex was named the Best Nonprofit Enclave by LA Weekly. The Granada received the award due to the concentration of non-profits having offices there, including PEN Center USA, Theatre of Hearts, the complex was designated a Historic Cultural Monument by the Los Angeles Cultural Heritage Commission in April 1981. It was listed in the National Register of Historic Places in 1986
Harold Lloyd Estate
The Harold Lloyd Estate, known as Greenacres, is a large mansion and landscaped estate located in the Benedict Canyon section of Beverly Hills, California. Built in the late 1920s by silent film star Harold Lloyd, the estate originally consisted of a 44-room mansion, golf course, and 900-foot canoe run on 15 acres. Greenacres has been called the most impressive movie stars estate ever created, in 1923, Lloyd purchased a historic home site from P. E. Benedict at the mouth of Benedict Canyon in Beverly Hills, the land had been owned by the Benedict family for more than sixty years and was close to the spot where Mary Pickford and Douglas Fairbanks had built their famed Pickfair estate. In 1925, Lloyd hired architect Sumner Spaulding of the firm Webber, Staunton & Spaulding, after an introduction by landscape architect A. E. Hanson, Lloyd hired Hanson to landscape the 15-acre grounds. The final plans for the house were not completed until July 1927, the home was designed in the Italian Renaissance Mediterranean Revival style, modeled after the Villa Palmieri near Florence.
Construction of the began in July 1927 and was completed in 1928. The 44-room,45, 000-square-foot house and estate was said to have cost $2 million, a. E. Hanson, Lloyds landscape architect, transformed the 15-acre site with the Villa Lante and Villa Medici as inspiration in Mediterranean Revival and Spanish Revival style motifs. The Los Angeles Times published an illustrated article describing it as a gorgeous fairyland playground. The elaborated design of the landscape and gardens included the following elements. A 900-foot canoe stream stocked with trout and bass, and a 100-foot waterfall that plummeted into the canoe stream, the largest swimming pool in Southern California, measuring 50 feet by 150 feet, and said to be one of the finest swimming pools in the west. The technology of filtering water and adding chlorine for swimming pools was very new at the time of construction, Lloyd famously photographed Marilyn Monroe several times at this pool. Numerous gardens, including tropical forests, sunken gardens, formal gardens, rose gardens, Italian gardens.
Stables for horses and sheep, and a farm for the estates fruits and vegetables. An open-air theater and dancing pavilion, two film vaults within the grounds to store original copies of Lloyds works and negatives. Tennis courts, a bowling green, and a handball court. An automobile entrance court designed as a 120-foot square, surrounded on two sides by a cloister. The landscaping project was so large that 3,500 tons of sandstone were taken from quarries in Chatsworth and trucked to the site for use in building the steps and waterfalls
Hearst Castle is a National Historic Landmark and California Historical Landmark mansion located on the Central Coast of California, United States. It was designed by architect Julia Morgan, between 1919 and 1947, as a residence for newspaper magnate William Randolph Hearst, who died in 1951, in 1954 it became a California State Park. The site was opened to visitors in 1958, since that time it has been operated as the Hearst San Simeon State Historical Monument where the estate, and its considerable collection of art and antiques, is open for public tours. Despite its location far from any urban center, the site attracts millions of travelers each year, Hearst formally named the estate La Cuesta Encantada, but usually called it the ranch. Hearst Castle and grounds are sometimes referred to as San Simeon without distinguishing between the Hearst property and the adjacent unincorporated area of the same name. Invitations to Hearst Castle were highly coveted during its heyday in the 1920s and 1930s, the Hollywood and political elite often visited, usually flying into the estates airfield or taking a private Hearst-owned train car from Los Angeles.
While guests were expected to attend the formal dinners each evening, since the Ranch had so many facilities, guests were rarely at a loss for things to do. The estates theater usually screened films from Hearsts own movie studio, Hearst Castle was the inspiration for the Xanadu mansion of the 1941 Orson Welles film Citizen Kane, a fictionalization of William Randolph Hearsts career. Hearst Castle was not used as a location for the film, commercial filming is rare at Hearst Castle and most requests are turned down. U. Y. One condition of the Hearst Corporations donation of the estate was that the Hearst family would be allowed to use it when they wished. Patty Hearst, a granddaughter of William Randolph, related that as a child, the house is screened from tourist routes by a dense grove of eucalyptus to provide maximum privacy for the guests. In 2001, Patty Hearst hosted a Travel Channel show on the estate, Hearst Castle joined the National Register of Historic Places on June 22,1972 and became a United States National Historic Landmark on May 11,1976.
Hearst Castle was included as one of Americas 10 Amazing Castles by Forbes Travel. com, the estate itself is five miles inland atop a hill of the Santa Lucia Range at an altitude of 1,600 feet. The region is sparsely populated because the Santa Lucia Range abuts the Pacific Ocean, the surrounding countryside visible from the mansion remains largely undeveloped. Its entrance is approximately five miles north of Hearst San Simeon State Park, Hearst Castle was built on Rancho Piedra Blanca that William Randolph Hearsts father, George Hearst, originally purchased in 1865. The younger Hearst grew fond of this site over many childhood family camping trips and he inherited the ranch, which had grown to 250,000 acres and 14 miles of coastline, from his mother Phoebe Hearst in 1919. The Hearst Castle area has a mediterranean climate that is moderated by its relative proximity to the Pacific coastline. Hearst first approached American architect Julia Morgan with ideas for a new project in April 1915, I get tired of going up there and camping in tents
Ace Hotel Los Angeles
It was the tallest building in the city for one year after its completion in 1927, and was the tallest privately owned structure in Los Angeles until 1956. Its style is Spanish Gothic, patterned after Segovia Cathedral in Segovia, the building contains the historic United Artists Theater, the flagship theater built for the United Artists motion picture studio. The theater was used as a church by pastors Gene Scott. In October 2011, Scotts Wescott Christian Center Inc. sold the building to Greenfield Partners and it was converted to a hotel, and opened in 2014. The theater, a movie palace, was one of many constructed by United Artists. The theater occupies three floors of the 13-story building and has a 1, 600-seat auditorium, like many movie theaters, the seat rows sink in toward the front of the orchestra section, so ticket holders there must look up at the stage. The building was first leased by Gene Scott in 1989, to be used as the location from which to broadcast the live Sunday services of his ministry, Scott held his first Sunday service there in 1990 and continued to hold Sunday services there until his death in 2005.
A designated historic monument in itself, the building was for many years topped by the historic Jesus Saves neon signs. They were located in the lower roof, one facing the west and one north, until September 10,2011. The building was claimed to house the largest collection of Bibles in private hands, after leasing for thirteen years, Gene Scott purchased the building in 2002. The building has been restored and renovated to serve as a luxury boutique hotel called Ace Hotel Downtown Los Angeles. It features 182 rooms, a pool, a restaurant and three bars, as well as the restored United Artists Theater, in December 2014, Greenfield Partners put the building up for sale, seeking about $100 million as the sale price. In May 2015, Chesapeake Lodging Trust bought the building for $103 million, the theater was restored as well and re-opened with concerts by the British rock band Spiritualized. The building is a historic district contributing property in the Broadway Theater District on the National Register of Historic Places and it is a Los Angeles Historic-Cultural Monument.
Broadway Theater District — NRHP Historic district
Andalusia is an autonomous community in southern Spain. It is the most populated and the second largest in area of the communities in the country. The Andalusian autonomous community is recognised as historical nationality. The territory is divided into eight provinces, Almería, Cádiz, Córdoba, Huelva, Jaén, Málaga and its capital is the city of Seville. Andalusia is the only European region with both Mediterranean and Atlantic coastlines, the small British overseas territory of Gibraltar shares a three-quarter-mile land border with the Andalusian province of Cádiz at the eastern end of the Strait of Gibraltar. The main mountain ranges of Andalusia are the Sierra Morena and the Baetic System, consisting of the Subbaetic and Penibaetic Mountains, in the north, the Sierra Morena separates Andalusia from the plains of Extremadura and Castile–La Mancha on Spains Meseta Central. To the south the geographic subregion of Upper Andalusia lies mostly within the Baetic System, the name Andalusia is derived from the Arabic word Al-Andalus.
Including an intense relationship with Naples, Andalusia has been a traditionally agricultural region, compared to the rest of Spain and the rest of Europe. However, the growth of the community especially in the sectors of industry and services was above average in Spain, the region has, however, a rich culture and a strong cultural identity. Many cultural phenomena that are seen internationally as distinctively Spanish are largely or entirely Andalusian in origin and these include flamenco and, to a lesser extent and Hispano-Moorish architectural styles. Andalusias hinterland is the hottest area of Europe, with cities like Córdoba, Late evening temperatures can sometimes stay around 35 °C until close to midnight, with daytime highs of over 40 °C common. Seville has the highest average temperature in mainland Spain and mainland Europe. Its present form is derived from the Arabic name for Muslim Iberia. However, the etymology of the name Al-Andalus is disputed, the Spanish place name Andalucía was introduced into the Spanish languages in the 13th century under the form el Andalucía.
This was a Castilianization of Al-Andalusiya, the form of the Arabic language al-Andalus. The etymology of al-Andalus is itself somewhat debated, but in fact it entered the Arabic language before this came under Muslim rule. Like the Arabic term al-Andalus, in historical contexts the Spanish term Andalucía or the English term Andalusia do not necessarily refer to the territory designated by these terms today. To designate the territories the Christians had regained by that time in the Guadalquivir valley and in the Kingdoms of Granada, in a document from 1253, Alfonso X styled himself Rey de Castilla, León y de toda Andalucía
Balboa Park (San Diego)
Balboa Park is a 1, 200-acre urban cultural park in San Diego, United States. In addition to open areas, natural vegetation zones, green belts and walking paths, it contains museums, several theaters. There are recreational facilities and several gift shops and restaurants within the boundaries of the park. Placed in reserve in 1835, the site is one of the oldest in the United States dedicated to public recreational use. Balboa Park is managed and maintained by the Parks and Recreation Department of the City of San Diego, the park and its historic Exposition buildings were declared a National Historic Landmark and National Historic Landmark District in 1977, and placed on the National Register of Historic Places. Balboa Park contains museums, gardens and venues, the park is essentially rectangular, bounded by Sixth Avenue to the west, Upas Street to the north, 28th Street to the east, and Russ Boulevard to the south. Also encroaching on the perimeter of the park is Roosevelt Middle School. Two north-south canyons — Cabrillo Canyon and Florida Canyon — traverse the park, the Sixth Avenue Mesa is a narrow strip bordering Sixth Avenue on the western edge of the park, which provides areas of passive recreation, grassy spaces, and tree groves.
The Central Mesa is home to much of the cultural facilities, and includes scout camps, the San Diego Zoo, the Prado. East Mesa is home to Morley Field and many of the recreation facilities in the park. The park is crossed by several freeways, which take up a total of 111 acres once designated for parkland, in 1948, California State Route 163 was built through Cabrillo Canyon and under the Cabrillo Bridge. This stretch of road, initially named the Cabrillo Freeway, has called one of Americas most beautiful parkways. A portion of Interstate 5 was built in the park in the 1950s, surrounding the park are many of San Diegos older neighborhoods, including Downtown, Bankers Hill, North Park, and Golden Hill. Balboa Park is an attraction in San Diego and the region. Its many mature, and sometimes rare and groves comprise an urban forest, many of the original trees were planted by the renowned American landscape architect, botanist and gardener Kate Sessions. An early proponent of drought tolerant and California native plants in garden design, Sessions established a nursery to propagate and grow for the park, the main entrance to the park is via the Cabrillo Bridge and through the California Quadrangle.
That entry is currently a two-lane road providing access to the park. El Prado, a long, wide promenade and boulevard, runs through the parks center, fleet Science Center, and the Timken Museum of Art
Hazards Pavilion was a large auditorium in Los Angeles, located at the intersection of Fifth and Olive Streets. The venue was built in 1887 by architects Kysor, Morgan & Walls at a cost of $25,000, an amount for the time. The building was constructed of wood with an exterior. It opened in April,1887 with a modest civic flower festival, but a month it hosted the National Opera Company with 300 singers, ballet dancers, the Pavilion hosted regular religious meetings, including a series in 1888 where famed evangelist Dwight L. In attendance at one of these meetings was Harry A. Ironside, booker T. Washington, William Jennings Bryan and Carrie Nation were among the famous people who spoke to crowds gathered at Hazards Pavilion. The great Italian operatic singer, Enrico Caruso, performed there, from 1901 to 1904, the first great Los Angeles boxing promoter, Uncle Tom McCarey, staged his first boxing shows at the pavilion. It would be McCarey who put the Los Angeles area on the map as a boxing venue.
Many famous boxers fought at the Pavilion, the future World Heavyweight Champion, Jim Jeffries, had only one fully recorded bout in Los Angeles, his hometown, when he fought Joe Goddard there in 1898. In 1892, James J. Corbett fought in a bout with his sparring partner. Later in the year, Corbett would go on to win the World Heavyweight Title from the then-champion. Also at the pavilion, Ex-World Heavyweight Bob Fitzsimmons had one exhibition bout while Jim Jeffries had two, one of them as the World Heavyweight Champion. In late 1904, the Temple Baptist Church leased the pavilion, changing its name to Temple Auditorium and it would be late 1905 when McCarey staged his first card at a new pavilion located on North Main Street in the Naud Junction area. In 1906, Hazards Pavilion was demolished to make way for a new Temple Auditorium, the architect, Charles F. Whittlesey, and civil engineers John B. Leonard and C. R. Harris, created a building with a Spanish Gothic exterior and this was the largest reinforced concrete structure with the only cantilevered balcony in the world.
It had the largest stage west of New York when it was completed, a nine story office block and retail shops were part of the complex. For a number of years during the 1910s, Billy Clune presented silent films in the auditorium, the landmark pro-Klu Klux Klan film, Birth of a Nation, had its world premiere at Clunes Auditorium on its way to becoming a massive success. When the Los Angeles Philharmonic Orchestra began its season in 1920, it chose Clunes Auditorium as its home. The Orchestra played there for 4 decades before the Dorothy Chandler Pavilion was built in 1963, the Philharmonic Auditorium was demolished in 1985
Ambassador Hotel (Los Angeles)
The Ambassador Hotel was a hotel in Los Angeles and location of the Cocoanut Grove nightclub until it was demolished in 2005. S. It was designed by Pasadena architect Myron Hunt in an eclectic Mediterranean Revival style with Art Deco elements, the Ambassador Hotel was frequented by celebrities, some of whom, such as Pola Negri, resided there. From 1930 to 1943, six Academy Awards ceremonies were performed at the hotel, perhaps as many as seven U. S. presidents stayed at the Ambassador, from Hoover to Nixon, along with chiefs of state from around the world. Little Richard, Natalie Cole, and Richard Pryor, the hotel served alcoholic beverages during the Prohibition. During the 1920s, the Ambassador Hotels nightclub Cocoanut Grove was frequented by celebrities like Louis B, Charlie Chaplin, Douglas Fairbanks and Mary Pickford, Howard Hughes, Clara Bow, Rudolph Valentino, Gloria Swanson, Anna May Wong, Norma Talmadge and others. According to Photoplay, Joan Crawford and Carole Lombard were frequent competitors in the Charleston contests held on Friday nights, starting in 1928, Gus Arnheim led the Cocoanut Grove Orchestra.
Six to seven songs were sung a night, there was a two-hour broadcast of the orchestra on the radio. The names of the hotel and its nightclub quickly became synonymous with glamour, Cocoanut Grove would become a name for bars. On February 29,1940, the 1939 Academy Awards Ceremony was held in the Cocoanut Grove, with Bob Hope hosting. Loyce Whiteman, singer for the Cocoanut Grove Orchestra, Joan Crawford would stand at the stand and sing a couple of choruses with the band. It was a full of stars. The Ambassador Los Angeles was built as part of the Ambassador Hotels System, the Santa Barbara property burned down soon after on April 13,1921, and the Alexandria left the chain in 1925, while the Ambassador Palm Beach joined in 1929. The chain was dissolved in the 1930s. The Ambassador Los Angeles was sold to Schine Hotels, the Ambassador New York was sold and operated independently until 1958, when it was sold to Sheraton Hotels and renamed the Sheraton-East. It was demolished in 1966 for the construction of 345 Park Avenue, the Ambassador Atlantic City was gutted in the late 1970s and converted to the Tropicana Casino & Resort.
The Ambassador Palm Beach was sold in 1933 and became the Palm Beach Biltmore, before being converted to condos, was shot along with five other people. Palestinian immigrant Sirhan Sirhan was arrested at the scene and convicted of the murder, Kennedy died one day from his injuries, while the other victims survived their wounds. During the demolition of the Ambassador Hotel during late 2005 and early 2006, the portion of Wilshire Boulevard in front of the hotel has been signed the Robert F. Kennedy Parkway
Spanish Renaissance architecture
It was part of the general movement known as the Renaissance which spread outwards from Italy and affected many aspects of scholarship and the arts. In Spain, the Renaissance began to be grafted to Gothic forms in the last decades of the 15th century. The new style is called Plateresque, because of the decorated facades, that brought to the mind the decorative motifs of the intricately detailed work of silversmiths. Classical orders and candelabra motifs combined freely into symmetrical wholes, examples include the facades of the University of Salamanca and of the Convent of San Marcos in León. As decades passed, the Gothic influence disappeared and the research of an orthodox classicism reached high levels. This phase of Spanish Renaissance is called Purism, an example of this is the palace of Charles V in Granada built by Pedro Machuca