Castle Crags is a dramatic and well-known rock formation in Northern California. Elevations range from 2,000 feet along the Sacramento River near the base of the crags, located just west of Interstate 5, between the towns of Castella and Dunsmuir, Castle Crags is today a popular tourist stop along the highway. Although the Northern Coast Ranges of northwestern California consist largely of rocks of volcanic and sedimentary origin, heavy glaciation at this location during the Pleistocene eroded much of the softer surrounding rock leaving the towering crags and spires exposed, from which the Castle Crags pluton derives its name. Exfoliation of huge, convex slabs of granite yielded rounded forms such as the prominent Castle Dome feature of Castle Crags, situated along an ancient trade and travel route known as the Siskiyou Trail, Castle Crags has witnessed dramatic events. Exploitation of the land by lumber and mining operations encouraged concerned citizens in 1933 to acquire much of the land, however much of the crags themselves are part of the Castle Crags Wilderness Area within the Shasta-Trinity National Forest, managed by the U. S.
Forest Service. The forested area of Castle Crags State Park was used by native groups. The wilderness was the home to the Okwanuchu Shasta people. Many features of the Castle Crags Wilderness are considered sacred to Native Americans including all of the streams, the Sacramento River, thousands of miners invaded the Castle Crags Wilderness when false rumors of the fabled Lost Cabin Mine began to circulate in the region. This invasion led to the genocide and forcible displacement of indigenous people, the mineral spring is supported within a rock-built enclosure which was constructed by the Civilian Conservation Corps back in the 1930s. Today it still has a sulfuric smell and bubbles up from the ground, the natural mineral waters are widely reputed to have restorative, healing and therapeutic properties. The massacre of people from the Castle Crags Wilderness opened up the region for commercial and industrial exploitation of the lands resources. The Castle Rock Mineral Spring was one of the earliest land resources seized after a campaign that eliminated Native Americans from this region.
During the 1890s, the Castle Rock Mineral Springs Bottling Works was formed, http, //www. parks. ca. gov/pages/454/files/CastleCragsSP_WebBrochure2014. pdf Lapena, Frank R. Wintu, in Handbook of North American Indians, Volume 8-California
Andrew Molera State Park
Andrew Molera State Park is a state park of California, United States, preserving relatively undeveloped land on the Big Sur coast. Situated at the mouth of the Big Sur River, the property was part of the Rancho El Sur land grant, activities at the park include hiking and beachcombing, with miles of trails winding through meadows and hilltops. A primitive walk-in trail camp, popular with hikers and bikers, is located approximately one-third of a mile from the parking area and it is considered the most reliable surfing area in Big Sur. The park is 20 miles south of Carmel-by-the-Sea on State Route 1, Andrew Molera State Park features the historic Cooper Cabin, built in 1861 or 1862. It is the oldest structure in Big Sur, fur trader Juan Bautista Roger Cooper was Andrew Moleras grandfather. The Ventana Wildlife Society has established a Discovery Center within the park, the Discovery Center includes exhibits on local wildlife, including the California condor, and a bird banding laboratory. Scientists and other employees give regular tours of Andrew Molera State Park, explaining the flora.
The park features a waterfall, 40-foot Highbridge Falls. Other nearby waterfalls include Limekiln Falls, Salmon Creek Falls, McWay Falls in Julia Pfeiffer Burns State Park, Andrew Molera State Park has over 20 miles of hiking trails. Some run along the shore, others along the Big Sur River, the only camping available in the park is in a 24-site walk-in campground. Registration is on a first-come, first-served basis, the campground is particularly popular with European visitors. No dogs are allowed on the trails or campground, point Sur State Marine Reserve and Marine Conservation Area are marine protected areas offshore from Andrew Molera State Park. Like underwater parks, these protected areas help conserve ocean wildlife. John Bautista Rogers Cooper traded Rancho Bolsa del Potrero y Moro Cojo in the northern Salinas Valley with Juan Bautista Alvarado for the Rancho El Sur on which the park is located today. When the Mexican government ceded California to the United States after the Mexican–American War, Cooper filed a claim for Rancho El Sur with the Public Land Commission in 1852, and he received the legal land patent after year of litigation in 1866.
Coopers daughter, married Eusebio Joseph Molera in 1875, when their son Andrew Molera died, his sister Frances, granddaughter of Juan Baustista Roger Cooper, inherited the land. She stipulated that the park should be named Andrew Molera State Park in honor of her brother in 1965, at the county level, Andrew Molera State Park is represented on the Monterey County Board of Supervisors by Supervisor Dave Potter. In the California State Assembly, Molera State Park is in the 17th Senate District, represented by Democrat Bill Monning, in the United States House of Representatives, Molera State Park is in Californias 20th congressional district, represented by Democrat Jimmy Panetta
Julia Pfeiffer Burns State Park
Julia Pfeiffer Burns State Park is a state park in California,12 miles south of Pfeiffer Big Sur State Park on Californias Pacific coast. A main feature of the park is McWay Falls, which drops over a cliff of 80 feet into the Pacific Ocean, the park is home to 300-foot redwoods which are over 2,500 years old. The park is named after Julia Pfeiffer Burns, a resident and rancher in the Big Sur region in the early 20th century. The 3, 762-acre park was established in 1962, the park is located on land originally called the Saddle Rock Ranch. Christopher and Rachel McWay homesteaded the property in the late 1870s, representative Lathrop Brown and his wife Hélène bought the ranch from McWay. Julia Pfeiffer Burns, daughter of pioneer homestead Michael Pfeiffer, married John Burns in 1914 at age 47 leased pasture from the Browns. A daughter of the first permanent settlers in Big Sur and her husband leased a ranch at Burns Creek, Hélène formed a close friendship with Julia until she died in 1928. The Browns first built a redwood cabin on a site at the top of cliffs opposite McWay Falls.
They replaced that in 1940 with a modern two-story home named Waterfall House, the entryway was inlaid with an ornamental brass fish, a gold octopus, and a compass rose. The interior was decorated with furnishings and classic paintings. Construction of the Carmel San Simeon Highway took from 1919-1937, during this time, Saddle Rock Ranch foreman Hans Ewoldsen worked in the machine shop of the highway construction crew to build a Pelton wheel. He used hand-split redwood from the canyon and other materials he bought and he installed the wheel on McWay Creek in 1932. The undershot wheel ran a 32-volt generator and was the first electric power in the Big Sur area and it supplied power to three residences, a blacksmith shop, and the Funicular railway. The residences were the first electrified dwellings in Big Sur, powered by a Pelton wheel they installed on McWay Creek, in 1944, during World War II, they decided to build a house three miles inland on a ridge high above the fog. War-time rationing of vital supplies included building materials required some ingenuity, a side impact of the rationing was that gasoline was in short supply, forcing some gas stations out of business.
The Browns bought two abandoned gas station buildings and they selected a site on a ridge 1,960 ft above the coast. They had a 3 miles road to the built, hired a crew to haul the tin gas station parts up the steep road. When complete, the distinctive, modern house had bold lines and it had a kitchen, living room, and quarters for a maid
Big Basin Redwoods State Park
Big Basin Redwoods State Park is a state park in the U. S. state of California, located in Santa Cruz County, about 36 km northwest of Santa Cruz. The park contains almost all of the Waddell Creek watershed, which was formed by the uplift of its rim. Big Basin is Californias oldest State Park, established in 1902 and its original 3,800 acres have been increased over the years to over 18,000 acres. It is part of the Northern California coastal forests ecoregion and is home to the largest continuous stand of ancient coast redwoods south of San Francisco. It contains 10,800 acres of old-growth forest as well as recovering redwood forest, with mixed conifer, chaparral, elevations in the park vary from sea level to over 600 m. The climate ranges from foggy and damp near the ocean to sunny, the park has over 130 km of trails. Some of these trails link Big Basin to Castle Rock State Park, the Skyline-to-the-Sea Trail threads its way through the park along Waddell Creek to Waddell Beach and the adjacent Theodore J.
Hoover Natural Preserve, a freshwater marsh. The park has a number of waterfalls, a wide variety of environments, many animals and abundant bird life – including Stellers jays, herons. Contrary to popular belief that people did not inhabit the old growth forests, archaeological evidence has been found, although sporadically. Ohlone tribes that lived on watercoures which begin in Big Basin Redwoods State Park were the Quiroste, Achistaca and Sayante. In October 1769 the Portola expedition discovered the redwoods of southern Santa Cruz County, although many in the party had been ill with scurvy, they gorged themselves on berries and quickly recovered. This miraculous recovery, as it seemed at the time, inspired the name given to the valley, although he did not fight Spanish soldiers until early 1793, Charquin had harbored fugitive neophytes since November 1791. Charquin and his followers retreated into the country behind Point Ano Nuevo in late 1791, lands that were equidistant from the missions San Francisco, Santa Clara.
From there he invited dissatisfied neophytes to join him, on January 6,1793, Mission San Francisco servant Diego Olbera baptized a 22-year-old woman on the verge of death ‘at the Quiroste village in the Mountains’. Olbera was probably in the vicinity to convince Charquin and his followers to return to the Mission, but the success of Charquin goaded the soldiers into action. No known diary stemming from any successful expedition against Charquin exists, yet indirect evidence exist that one did take place, and that it occurred in late April and early May 1793. An entry in the Mission San Francisco Libro de Difuntos on May 3,1793 recorded the death of two children of families in the mountain Quiroste Village of Chipletac. Charquin seems to have captured at that time
Calaveras Big Trees State Park
Calaveras Big Trees State Park is a state park of California, United States, preserving two groves of giant sequoia trees. It is located 4 miles northeast of Arnold, California in the elevations of the Sierra Nevada. It has been a major tourist attraction since 1852, when the existence of the trees was first widely reported, the area was declared a state park in 1931 and now encompasses 6,498 acres in Calaveras and Tuolumne counties. Over the years other parcels of mixed forests, including the much larger South Calaveras Grove of Giant Sequoias, have been added to the park to bring the total area to over 6,400 acres. The North Grove contains about 100 mature giant sequoias, the South Grove, the North Grove included the Discovery Tree, noted by Augustus T. Dowd in 1852 and felled in 1853, leaving a giant stump, the only remainder of the tree. It measured 25 feet in diameter at its base and was determined by ring count to be 1,244 years old when felled. At the time the grove was discovered by explorers, the Discovery Tree was measured by Dowd and others as the largest tree.
In addition to the popular North Grove, the now includes the South Grove. The South Grove includes the Louis Agassiz tree,250 feet tall and more than 25 feet in diameter 6 feet above ground and it is named after zoologist Louis Agassiz. Other attractions in the Park include the Stanislaus River, Beaver Creek, the Lava Bluff Trail, the park houses two main campgrounds with a total of 129 campsites, six picnic areas and hundreds of miles of established trails. The iconic Pioneer Cabin Tree, known as The Tunnel Tree, measuring 33 feet in diameter, its exact age and height were not known. In the 1880s, the tree was hollowed out by a land owner so that tourists could pass through it. The tree was estimated to be one thousand years old. Some speculated that the hole bored through it was a factor in its demise. It was one of several trees in northern California. Dogs are welcome in the park on leash in developed areas like picnic sites, roads, dogs are not allowed on the designated trails, nor in the woods in general
Henry Cowell Redwoods State Park
It is located in Santa Cruz County, primarily in the area between the cities of Santa Cruz and Scotts Valley, near the community of Felton and the University of California at Santa Cruz. The park includes an extension in the Fall Creek area north of Felton. The 4, 623-acre park was established in 1954, the main park covers approximately 1,750 acres, and the separate Fall Creek unit contains an additional 2,390 acres. The park lies within the end of the Northern California coastal forests ecoregion. In the numerous stream canyons live large populations of coast redwood, coast Douglas fir, California bay laurel, tanbark oak, California hazelnut, bigleaf maple and many other native species. Upslope from the redwood forest are found transitional tree species such as Pacific madrone, along with a stand of Ponderosa pine, rare at such a low elevation. Some of the highest and driest ridge slopes in the park support fairly unusual chaparral communities known as elfin forests in addition to the rare and unique Santa Cruz Sandhills community.
The old-growth grove of coast redwood, approximately 40 acres in size, is located entirely in the section of the park, surrounded by many species of fern. Logging activities mostly ceased by the 1920s, and the second growth redwoods are now up to several feet in diameter, both portions of the park have much to offer vacationing families or nature enthusiasts. Hiking, seasonal camping, and a few horse dog-friendly and mountain biking trails, next door to the main parking lot is the Roaring Camp and Big Trees Narrow Gauge Railroad. The park has a modern visitor center, which is open year-round to the public. Additionally, the Mountain Parks Nature Store is open during most park hours, the Redwood Grove comprises old-growth virgin redwoods, the oldest trees of which are approximately 1, 400–1,800 years old and grow to approximately 300 feet tall and over 16 feet in diameter. Featured on the loop are unique old-growth redwoods, including one with albino growth lignotubers and this park provides a good environment for the study of different habitats.
Habitats in this park, often changing back and forth within a few hundred feet of one another, include riparian, sandhill community, mixed evergreen, anglers fish for Steelhead and salmon during the winter. There is an area overlooking the San Lorenzo River. Besides roads, the park may be reached by the Santa Cruz, Big Trees, tent and RV camping with no hook ups are available several miles from the main entrance to the park. The extension of the park contains over 20 miles of hiking trails, mostly along the creeks that flow year-round, there is an 18-hole Disc Golf course run by a local school. Along Fall Creek are the ruins of a 19th-century lime manufacturing operation, including a quarry, the lime works were acquired by industrialist Henry Cowell
Hearst San Simeon State Park
Hearst San Simeon State Park is a state park of California, USA, preserving rocky coast and rare habitats. It is located between Cambria and San Simeon, the 3, 409-acre park was first established in 1932. The park includes the Santa Rosa Creek Natural Preserve, the San Simeon Natural Preserve and the Pa-nu Cultural Preserve, a 3. 3-mile trail runs through parts of the San Simeon Natural Preserve and the Washburn Campground. The trail includes scenic overlooks, rest-stop benches and interpretive panels with information on wildlife, a portion of the trail along the seasonal wetland is wheelchair accessible. Santa Rosa Creek Preserve is an area that includes valuable riparian forests and coastal wetlands, San Simeon Natural Preserve consists of vast wetlands, riparian zones, and several undisturbed native plant communities, including unique mima mound topography. The Preserve is the site for monarch butterfly populations. In 2005 an additional 1,100 acres of lands were added to the state park following an easement agreement.
The 13. 7-acre Pa-nu Cultural Preserve contains the most significant archeological site within Hearst San Simeon State Park, Hearst San Simeon State Historical Monument contains Hearst Castle. Cambria State Marine Conservation Area and White Rock State Marine Conservation Area are marine protected areas offshore from San Simeon campground. Nearby ocean waters are a part of the Monterey Bay National Marine Sanctuary, a large elephant seal rookery is found on many beaches of Hearst San Simeon State Park. Adjacent to the stretches of the park are the Piedras Blancas State Marine Reserve. List of California state parks Hearst San Simeon State Park
Mount Diablo is a mountain of the Diablo Range, in Contra Costa County of the eastern San Francisco Bay Area in Northern California. It is south of Clayton and northeast of Danville and it is an isolated upthrust peak of 3,849 feet, visible from most of the San Francisco Bay Area. The summit is accessible by foot, bicycle, or motor vehicle, Road access is via North Gate Road or South Gate Road. The peak is in Mount Diablo State Park, a park of about 20,000 acres. Preserved lands on and around Mount Diablo total more than 90,000 acres. The day use fee per vehicle for the park is by entrance way, $6 via Macedo Ranch or Mitchell Canyon, on a clear day the Sierra Nevada is plainly visible. The best views are after a storm, a snowy Sierra shows up better. Lassen Peak,181 miles away, is occasionally just visible over the curve of the earth, sentinel Dome in Yosemite National Park is visible, but Half Dome is hidden by the 8000-foot ridge at 37. 755N119. 6657W. Eight bridges are visible, from west to east, San Mateo, Golden Gate, San Rafael, Benicia, claims that the mountains viewshed is the largest in the world—or second largest after Mount Kilimanjaro—are ill founded.
It does boast one of the largest viewsheds in the Western United States, countless peaks in the state are taller, but Mount Diablo has a remarkable visual prominence for a mountain of such low elevation. The summit is used as the datum for land surveying in much of northern California. Mount Diablo is sacred to many California Native American peoples, according to Miwok mythology and Ohlone mythology, prior to European entry, the creation narrative varied among surrounding local groups. In one surviving fragment, Mount Diablo and Reeds Peak were surrounded by water. In another, Molok the Condor brought forth his grandson Wek-Wek the Falcon Hero, about 25 independent tribal groups with well-defined territories lived in the East Bay countryside surrounding the mountain. Their members spoke dialects of three languages, Bay Miwok, and Northern Valley Yokuts. The Chochenyo-speaking Ohlone from Mission San Jose and the East Bay area, called the mountain Tuyshtak, the Nisenan of the Sacramento Valley called it Sukkú Jaman, or as Nisenan elder Dalbert Castro once explained, the place where dogs came from in trade.
A Southern Miwok name was Supemenenu and it has been suggested that an early Indian name for the mountain is Kawukum or Kahwookum, but there is no evidence to confirm the assertion. It resurfaced as a real estate gimmick in 1916 with a new translation, Laughing Mountain
Chino Hills State Park
Chino Hills State Park is a state park of California, in the United States. It is located in the Chino Hills, foothills of the Santa Ana Mountains and it is a critical link in the Chino–Puente Hills wildlife corridor, and a major botanical habitat reserve for resident and migrating wildlife. Visitors can walk, horseback ride, or mountain bike on trails through valleys and along ridge tops through woodlands, sage scrub,60 miles of trails and fire roads offer opportunities for viewing wildlife and native plants. Facilities consist of an area, camping sites, equestrian staging area and corrals. Most of the trails are multiple mode use, a few trails are designated for hiking only for safety or habitat protection. Chino Hills is vitally important as a refuge to many species of California native plants, the park is located near the intersection of Orange and San Bernardino Counties. The park is located 10 miles northwest of Corona, and lies almost entirely in the city of Chino Hills in the southwest corner of San Bernardino County.
Small parts of it spill over into Yorba Linda in northeastern Orange County, the Chino Hills are in the California chaparral and woodlands ecoregion of the California Floristic Province. The native plants here are in the chaparral and oak woodland plant communities, the predominant native trees are coast live oak, California black walnut, and California sycamore. Over the centuries, many people have made use of the spaces and plentiful water, plant. After the Spanish founded Mission San Gabriel in 1771, the Chino Hills were used extensively for grazing by mission cattle, during the Mexican Republic era, the hills were used as spillover grazing from such surrounding Mexican ranchos as Santa Ana del Chino and La Sierra Yorba. The United States conquered the territory in 1848 after battles with Mexican forces who declared US encroachment illegal, after this conquest, the land was still used primarily for grazing. Private land acquisition began in the 1870s and continued into the 1890s, in 1848 the 1, 720-acre Rolling M Ranch was established and the land leased to nearby landowners for cattle grazing.
Some late nineteenth and early twentieth century oil exploration and mining activity took place in the section of what is now the park. A ranch house and several windmills and watering troughs serve as reminders of the cattle ranching days, in 1977 the California legislature passed a resolution directing California State Parks to conduct a study on acquiring Chino Hills land for park purposes. A local citizen group, Hills for Everyone, worked closely with California State Parks, in 1984 the State Park and Recreation Commission officially declared the area a unit of the State Park System. Since that date Chino Hills State Park has been expanded by numerous land acquisitions from private landowners. Current documentation gives the park an area of 14,173 acres, official Chino Hills State Park website
Henry W. Coe State Park
Henry W. Coe State Park is a state park of California, USA, preserving a vast tract of the Diablo Range. The park is located closest to the city of Morgan Hill, the park contains over 87,000 acres, making it the largest state park in northern California, and the second-largest in the state. Managed within its boundaries is a wilderness area of about 22,000 acres. This is officially known as the Henry W. Coe State Wilderness, the 89, 164-acre park was established in 1959. Joaquin Murrieta and his gang used the route to drive stolen horses south from Contra Costa County, horses were held at several locations now contained within the park, including Mustang Flat and Coit Camp. Both Mustang Peak and Mustang Flat derive their names from the activities of Murrieta, the park began as the Pine Ridge Ranch, a private cattle ranch of 12,230 acres. It was the home of Henry Willard Coe, Jr. Coe left the ranch to his son, Henry Sutcliffe Coe, who sold it to the Beach Land and Cattle Company of Fresno County in 1948.
The ranchs road network was expanded during this time. Coes daughter, Sada Coe Robinson, re-purchased the ranch in 1950 and donated it to Santa Clara County in 1953 and it became a state park in 1958. Additional adjacent lands were added, and for years, the parks size stood at 13,000 acres. Indeed, many currently available road maps still show the park in its 13,000 acre configuration. The park expanded considerably in the early 1980s with the purchase of adjacent properties to the east and south, in the early 1990s the Redfern Ranch added some 11,000 acres in the south, and since 2000 lands to the west have been purchased for inclusion. The northern part of the park, including the Orestimba Wilderness, was swept by a massive wildfire starting on September 3,2007, fire officials blamed the fire on burning debris within a barrel at a hunting club adjacent to the park. The person responsible for the fire forward, pleaded no contest to a misdemeanor charge. All areas affected by the fire were re-opened to unrestricted public access on February 16,2008, most of the ridges run around 2,000 to 3,000 feet in elevation, with canyon bottoms usually around 1,000 to 1,500 feet above sea level.
The highest point in the park is on the northernmost boundary and this point may be considered to be on the slopes of Mt. Stakes, a mile north of the parks northern boundary. The lowest point in the park is at the Bell Station access point in the southeast, since this is a mere strip of land along a road right-of-way, it is often not thought of as an integral part of the state park. The lowest point in the body of the park is the place where the North Fork of Pacheco Creek flows out, at about 710 feet elevation
This grove is notable because it allows for the use of self-guided tours of the flat,0. 8-mile loop trail which is easily accessible. Dozens of large, old Redwood trees are located within a few feet of the walking trail, coast Redwoods, are a native tree in the deep valleys and low to middle elevations of the Santa Cruz Mountains. Free-flowing, year-round stream help to enhance environment and the cool moisture-laden air often produces visible fog. The bark of these giants is heavily-laden with tannin which helps to offer protection from damage by fires or insects. This grove has some of the tallest and oldest trees in the Henry Cowell Redwoods State Park, undergrowth is never cleared, there is no logging allowed and deadfalls and lightning-struck trees are allowed to proceed naturally with their processes, unless they impair access to the grove. This rich, biotic environment is filled with natural nutrients which make up for the amounts of waterfall which might otherwise deplete the soil. Old growth groves such as this show the birth and death of ancient redwoods.
Of course, all the flora and fauna which have existed in these mountains for centuries are allowed to remain—even to the extent of the highly-irritating poison oak plants. This part of the California coastline was once an area for the Awaswas division of Ohlone Indian people. In 1769, Gaspar de Portolà camped on the banks of the San Lorenzo River and this exploration offered the peoples of this richly, resourced area, known as Alta California, to be brought under Catholicism by the Friars Minor. Little more than twenty years later, in 1791, a Catholic mission, Mission Santa Cruz was consecrated nearby and this mission, served as a site for ecclesiastical conversion of natives. From 1805-1812, the mission was run by Father Andrés Quintana who was one of only two Spanish missionaries martyred in Alta California, after the Mexican War of Independence in 1821, the newly independent Mexico assumed control of this area until the transfer to the United States in 1846. During Mexican ownership, it was common for land grants to be sold to those who were in favor with the government, large portions of this virgin-forested area were given out as Rancho Carbonera, Rancho Zayante and Rancho Cañada del Rincon en el Rio San Lorenzo.
These gifted land grants were the start of European settlement in the area that is now known as Henry Cowell Redwoods State Park. In 1843, the Mexican Government granted a parcel of 8,800 acres under the name of Rancho Cañada del Rincon en el Rio San Lorenzo de Santa Cruz to a French immigrant named Pedro Sansevain. This grant essentially encompassed what is known as the Henry Cowell Redwoods State Park. After a few transfers of land over about twenty years, the granted Rancho Cañada del Rincon ended up in the hands of Henry Cowell, Coastal Zone Environment The Coastal Redwoods grow exceptionally well in this temperate, foggy environment. This is the environment for the trees, since it is moist, dim