Category:States and territories established in 1250
This category has only the following subcategory.
- ► Karamanids (28 P)
This category has only the following subcategory.
1. Sovereign state – A sovereign state is, in international law, a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area. International law defines sovereign states as having a permanent population, defined territory, one government, and it is also normally understood that a sovereign state is neither dependent on nor subjected to any other power or state. The existence or disappearance of a state is a question of fact, States came into existence as people gradually transferred their allegiance from an individual sovereign to an intangible but territorial political entity, of the state. States are but one of political orders that emerged from feudal Europe, others being city states, leagues. Westphalian sovereignty is the concept of sovereignty based on territoriality. It is a system of states, multinational corporations. Sovereignty is a term that is frequently misused and that position was reflected and constituted in the notion that their sovereignty was either completely lacking, or at least of an inferior character when compared to that of civilised people. Lassa Oppenheim said There exists perhaps no conception the meaning of which is more controversial than that of sovereignty. It is a fact that this conception, from the moment when it was introduced into political science until the present day, has never had a meaning which was universally agreed upon. In the opinion of H. V. Evatt of the High Court of Australia, sovereignty is neither a question of fact, nor a question of law, but a question that does not arise at all. The right of nations to determine their own status and exercise permanent sovereignty within the limits of their territorial jurisdictions is widely recognized. The Westphalian model of sovereignty has increasingly come under fire from the non-west as a system imposed solely by Western Colonialism. What this model did was make religion a subordinate to politics and this system does not fit in the Islamic world because concepts such as separation of church and state and individual conscience are not recognised in the Islamic religion as social systems. Nation denotes a people who are believed to or deemed to share common customs, religion, language, origins, however, the adjectives national and international are frequently used to refer to matters pertaining to what are strictly sovereign states, as in national capital, international law. State refers to the set of governing and supportive institutions that have sovereignty over a definite territory, State recognition signifies the decision of a sovereign state to treat another entity as also being a sovereign state. Recognition can be expressed or implied and is usually retroactive in its effects. It does not necessarily signify a desire to establish or maintain diplomatic relations, There is no definition that is binding on all the members of the community of nations on the criteria for statehood. In actual practice, the criteria are mainly political, not legal, in international law, however, there are several theories of when a state should be recognised as sovereign
2. 1250 – Year 1250 was a common year starting on Saturday of the Julian calendar. The world population is estimated at between 400 and 416 million individuals, world climate transitions from the Medieval Warm Period to the Little Ice Age. Medieval music, The Notre Dame school of polyphony ends, February – After the death of Erik Eriksson on February 2, Valdemar I, who is the eldest son of Birger jarl, is elected king of Sweden, and becomes the first Swedish king of the Folkung House. April 30 – King Louis IX of France is released by his Egyptian captors, after paying a ransom of one million dinars, and turning over the city of Damietta. October 12 – A great storm shifts the mouth of the River Rother 12 miles to the west, december 13 – Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, dies, beginning a 23-year-long interregnum known as the Great Interregnum. Frederick II is the last Holy Roman Emperor of the Hohenstaufen Dynasty, after the interregnum, the Lombard League dissolves upon the death of its member states nemesis, Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor. King Afonso III of Portugal captures the Algarve from the Moors, albertus Magnus isolates the element arsenic, as the 8th discovered metal. He also first uses the word oriole, to describe a type of bird, the University of Valladolid is founded in Spain. The Rialto Bridge in Venice is converted from a bridge to a permanent. The Ponts Couverts fortified bridges of Strasbourg are completed, vincent of Beauvais completes his proto-encyclopedic work, The Greater Mirror. The Parlement law courts of ancien régime France are established, the Naples Plaguebreaks out in the city of Naples. Villard de Honnecourt draws the first known image of a sawmill, the first usage is made of the English word cuckold, according to the Oxford English Dictionary. A kurultai is called by Batu Khan in Siberia, as part of maneuverings to eventually elect Möngke Khan, shougeng Pu is likely a Persian or Arabic Muslim. April 6 – Battle of Fariskur, Louis IX of France is captured by Baibars Mamluk army, while he is in Egypt conducting the Seventh Crusade, the Bahri Dynasty of Mamluks seize power in Egypt. The Welayta state is founded in present-day Ethiopia, in Tunis, a popular rebellion against newly arrived, wealthy and influential Andalusian refugees breaks out, and is violently put down. Samoa frees itself from Tongan rule, which begins the Malietoa Dynasty in Samoa, the Flemish town of Douai emits the first recorded redeemable annuities in medieval Europe, confirming a trend of consolidation of local public debt started in 1218, in Rheims. The Sienese bankers belonging to the known as the Gran Tavola, under the steering of the Bonsignori Brothers
3. Jodhpur State – Jodhpur State was a princely state in the Marwar region from 1250 to 1949. Its capital was the city of Jodhpur since 1450, covering an area of 90,554 km2, Jodhpur State was the largest state under the Rajputana Agency. Its last ruler signed the accession to join the Indian Union on 7 April 1949, the rulers of the Indian princely state of Jodhpur were of an ancient dynasty established in the 8th century. However, the fortunes were made by Rao Jodha, first of the rulers of the Rathore dynasty in Jodhpur in 1459. The state was incorporated into the Mughal Empire during the reign of the Emperor Akbar, during the late 17th century it was under the strict control of the Emperor Aurangzeb, but the ruling house of Rathore was allowed to remain semi-autonomous in their territory. Following Indian independence in 1947 Maharaja Hanwant Singh, the last ruler of Jodhpur state and he even briefly considered acceding to Pakistan, for Jodhpur shared a border with the new nation and he had been personally given assurance of access to sea ports in Pakistan by Muhammad Ali Jinnah. Finally, he agreed to the accession of his state to the new Dominion of India, silver Shaded Rows signify the Mughal Empire. Yellow Shaded Rows signify the British Indian Empire Jiliya or Abhaypura was a Princely Thikana of the State of Jodhpur, political integration of India Marwar region Naubat Khan Jodhpur, Published by,1933. Maharaja Man Singh of Jodhpur and His Times, by Padmaja Sharma, Published by Shiva Lal Agarwala,1972. The Administration of Jodhpur State, 1800–1947 A. D. by Nirmala M. Upadhyaya, Marwar under Jaswant Singh, Jodhpur hukumat ri bahi, by Satish Chandra, Raghubir Sinh, Ghanshyam Datt Sharma. Jodhpur, Bikaner, Jaisalmer, Desert Kingdoms, by Kishore Singh, the House of Marwar, The Story of Jodhpur, by Dhananajaya Singh. Modern Indian Kingship, Tradition, Legitimacy & Power in Jodhpur, Published by James Currey Limited,2003. Jodhpur and the Later Mughals, AD 1707–1752, by R. S. Sangwan, media related to Jodhpur State at Wikimedia Commons The Maharaja Gaj Singh II Of Marwar-Jodhpur, Official website Jodhpur History and Genealogy at RoyalArk
4. Karamanids – From the 13th century until its fall in 1487, the Karamanid dynasty was one of the most powerful Turkish beyliks in Anatolia. The Karamanids traced their ancestry from Hodja Sad al-Din and his son Nure Sufi Bey, the Karamanids were members of the Salur tribe of Oghuz Turks. Nûre Sûfi worked there as a woodcutter and his son, Kerîmeddin Karaman Bey, gained a tenuous control over the mountainous parts of Cilicia in the middle of the 13th century. A persistent but spurious legend, however, claims that the Seljuq Sultan of Rum, Kayqubad I, Karaman Bey expanded his territories by capturing castles in Ermenek, Mut, Ereğli, Gülnar, and Silifke. The year of the conquests is reported as 1225, during the reign of Ala al-Din Kaykubadh I, the rivalry between Kilij Arslan IV and Izz al-Din Kaykaus II allowed the tribes in the border areas to live virtually independently. Karaman Bey helped Kaykus, but Arslan had the support of both the Mongols and Pervâne Sulayman Muin al-Din. Rukn al-Din Kilidj Arslan IV got rid of almost all hostile begs and amirs except Karaman Bey, to whom he gave the town of Larende, in the meantime, Bunsuz, brother of Karaman Bey, was chosen as a Candar, or bodyguard, for Kilij Arslan IV. Their power rose as a result of the unification of Turkish clans that lived in the regions of Cilicia with the new Turkish population transferred there by Kayqubad. Good relations between the Seljuqs and the Karamanids did not last, a combined Seljuq and Mongol army, led by the Pervane, defeated the Karamanid army and captured Karaman Beys two brothers. After Karaman Bey died in 1262, his son, Mehmet I of Karaman. He immediately negotiated alliances with other Turkmen clans to raise an army against the Seljuqs, during the 1276 revolt of Hatıroğlu Şemseddin Bey against Mongol domination in Anatolia, Karamanids also defeated several Mongol-Seljuq armies. In the Battle of Göksu in 1277 in particular, the power of the Seljuq was dealt a severe blow. Taking advantage of the confusion, Mehmed Bey captured Konya on 12 May and placed on the throne a pretender called Jimri. In the end, however, Mehmed was defeated by Seljuq and Mongol forces, despite these blows, the Karamanids continued to increase their power and influence, largely aided by the Mamluks of Egypt, especially during the reign of Baybars. An expansion of Karamanoğlu power occurred after the fall of the Ilkhanids, a second expansion coincided with Karamanoğlu Alâeddin Ali Beys marriage to Nefise Sultan, the daughter of the Ottoman sultan Murat I, the first important contact between the two dynasties. As Ottoman power expanded into the Balkans, Aleaddin Ali Bey captured the city of Beyşehir, however, it did not take much time for the Ottomans to react and march on Konya, the Karamanoğlu capital city. A treaty between the two kingdoms was formed, and peace existed until the reign of Bayezid I, timur gave control of the Karamanid lands to Mehmet Bey, the oldest son of Aleaddin Ali Bey. After Bayezid I died in 1403, the Ottoman Empire went into a crisis as the Ottoman family fell prey to internecine strife
5. Mamluk Sultanate (Cairo) – The Mamluk Sultanate was a medieval realm spanning Egypt, the Levant, and Hejaz. It lasted from the overthrow of the Ayyubid Dynasty until the Ottoman conquest of Egypt in 1517, historians have traditionally broken the era of Mamlūk rule into two periods—one covering 1250–1382, the other, 1382–1517. Western historians call the former the Baḥrī period and the latter the Burjī due to the dominance of the regimes known by these names during the respective eras. Contemporary Muslim historians refer to the divisions as the Turkish. The Mamlūk state reached its height under Turkic rule with Arabic culture, the sultanates ruling caste was composed of Mamluks, soldiers of predominantly Cuman-Kipchaks, Circassian, Abkhazian, Oghuz Turks and Georgian slave origin. While Mamluks were purchased, their status was above ordinary slaves, Mamluks were considered to be true lords, with social status above citizens of Egypt. Though it declined towards the end of its existence, at its height the sultanate represented the zenith of medieval Egyptian and Levantine political, economic, the term Mamluk Sultanate is a modern historiographical term. The Arabic sources for the period of the Bahri Mamluks refer to the dynasty as the State/Realm of the Turks, other official names used were State of the Circassians. A variant thereof emphasized the fact that the Circassians were Turkish-speaking, the term Mongol State was used during Sultan al-Adil Kitbughas rule, who was of Mongol extraction. Dawlatāl Qalāwūn or Dawlat Banī Qalāwūn which means Qalāwūnī State/Dynasty which have ruled for hundred years between 1279 and 1382, al-dawla al-Ẓāhiriyya which meant Ẓāhirī state/dynasty which is the dynasty of Baibars and his two sons al-Said Barakah and Solamish. This dynasty have ruled consecutively for 19 years, Mamluk was a term defined as owned slave, distinguishing the mamluk from the garya and ghulam, which referred to household slaves. After thorough training in fields such as martial arts, court etiquette and Islamic sciences. However, they were expected to remain loyal to their master. Mamluks had formed a part of the state or military apparatus in Syria and Egypt since at least the 9th century, each Ayyubid sultan and high-ranking emir had a private mamluk corps. Most of the mamluks in the Ayyubids service were ethnic Kipchak Turks from Central Asia and they were highly committed to their masters, who they often referred to as father, and were in turn treated more as kinsmen than as slaves by their masters. These mamluks became known as the Salihiyyah, to provision his mamluks, as-Salih forcibly seized the iqtaʿat of his predecessors emirs. Despite his close relationship with his mamluks, tensions existed between as-Salih and the Salihiyyah, and a number of Salihi mamluks were imprisoned or exiled throughout as-Salihs reign. Tensions between as-Salih and his mamluks came to a later in 1249 when Louis IX of Frances forces captured Damietta in their bid to conquer Egypt during the Seventh Crusade