Category:States and territories established in 1256
1. Sovereign state – A sovereign state is, in international law, a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area. International law defines sovereign states as having a permanent population, defined territory, one government, and it is also normally understood that a sovereign state is neither dependent on nor subjected to any other power or state. The existence or disappearance of a state is a question of fact, States came into existence as people gradually transferred their allegiance from an individual sovereign to an intangible but territorial political entity, of the state. States are but one of political orders that emerged from feudal Europe, others being city states, leagues. Westphalian sovereignty is the concept of sovereignty based on territoriality. It is a system of states, multinational corporations. Sovereignty is a term that is frequently misused and that position was reflected and constituted in the notion that their sovereignty was either completely lacking, or at least of an inferior character when compared to that of civilised people. Lassa Oppenheim said There exists perhaps no conception the meaning of which is more controversial than that of sovereignty. It is a fact that this conception, from the moment when it was introduced into political science until the present day, has never had a meaning which was universally agreed upon. In the opinion of H. V. Evatt of the High Court of Australia, sovereignty is neither a question of fact, nor a question of law, but a question that does not arise at all. The right of nations to determine their own status and exercise permanent sovereignty within the limits of their territorial jurisdictions is widely recognized. The Westphalian model of sovereignty has increasingly come under fire from the non-west as a system imposed solely by Western Colonialism. What this model did was make religion a subordinate to politics and this system does not fit in the Islamic world because concepts such as separation of church and state and individual conscience are not recognised in the Islamic religion as social systems. Nation denotes a people who are believed to or deemed to share common customs, religion, language, origins, however, the adjectives national and international are frequently used to refer to matters pertaining to what are strictly sovereign states, as in national capital, international law. State refers to the set of governing and supportive institutions that have sovereignty over a definite territory, State recognition signifies the decision of a sovereign state to treat another entity as also being a sovereign state. Recognition can be expressed or implied and is usually retroactive in its effects. It does not necessarily signify a desire to establish or maintain diplomatic relations, There is no definition that is binding on all the members of the community of nations on the criteria for statehood. In actual practice, the criteria are mainly political, not legal, in international law, however, there are several theories of when a state should be recognised as sovereignSovereign state – Member states of the United Nations, all of which are sovereign states, though not all sovereign states are necessarily members
2. West Breifne – The Kingdom of West Breifne or Breifne ORourke was an historic kingdom of Ireland that existed from 1256 to 1605, located in the area that is now County Leitrim. It took its present boundaries in 1583 when West Breifne was shired and renamed Leitrim, after the village of Leitrim, the kingdom was ruled by the ORourke clan and lasted until the early 17th century, when their lands were confiscated by England. In 1172, Tighearnán Ua Ruairc, the longtime Lord of Breifne and Conmaice, was betrayed and killed at Tlachtgha during negotiations with Hugh de Lacy, Tighearnán was beheaded, and his head and body was conveyed to the Anglo-Normans in Dublin, where it was put on display. This time of turbulence in the kingdom caused a rift between the various branches of clan ORourke, with regular fighting between rival members. The turbulent decades that saw the OReilly switch allegiance to the Norman de Burghs. By 1250 the OReilly had been pushed out of western Breifne as Connacht advanced into their eastern homeland. In 1256 the devastating Battle of Magh Slecht was fought between Connacht and the ORourke clan against the OReilly, as a result, Breifne was left permanently divided into East Breifne and West Breifne. After successfully repelling de Burgh and the OReilly, the kings of Connacht, Tír Eoghain, at these talks, which the ORourke lords of Breifne were excluded from, it was agreed that the king of Connacht was the rightful ruler of all of Breifne from Kells to Drumcliff. Consequently, Aedh OConor saw Breifne as an part of Connacht rather than an independent kingdom and. This put Aedh in direct confrontation with Conchobar ORuairc, king of West Breifne, according to the Annals of Connacht, the two men had been good comrades till now. To assert West Breifnes independence, Conchobar made peace with the de Burghs without the permission of the king of Connacht, in 1257, after a brief war, Conchobar submitted to OConor and signed a peace treaty offering OConor any lands of his choice in Breifne. OConor obtained the stone-castle on Cherry Island in Garadice Lough and put a garrison into it, later that year, Conchobar violated the terms of the treaty and forced OConors garrison out of the castle before razing it. This led to Domnalls arrest and imprisonment and Aedh OConor resumed raids on West Breifne, Amlaib was chosen to succeed Sitric, however the kingdom was in disarray and, like his predecessor, his authority as king was nominal. Art O’Ruairc, son of Cathal Riabach, ruled the east in opposition to Amlaib, after his fathers death, Domnall was released from prison and instated as king of West Breifne. However, shortly after his appointment as king, Domnall killed Magrath Mac Tiernan, chieftain of Tellach-Dunchada, as a result of this killing, Domnall was deposed as king by the major clans of West Breifne, including Tellach-Dunchada, who executed Domnalls brother Cathal in retaliation. After Domnall was deposed, Art ORuairc was supported by the clans as the effective ruler of the entire kingdom. Connacht continued to vie for control of Breifne and supported Art bec, Amlaib’s brother, evidently a rift emerged between the two as Aedh OConor killed Art bec, his own candidate for the kingship, that same year and met with Domnall. After peace between the two kingdoms was agreed, kingship was returned to Domnall, an attempt by Connacht to depose Art ORuairc and regain control of Breifne in 1261 failed when their army was defeated at Drumlahan by the OReilly and forced to retreatWest Breifne – Creevelea Friary was founded by King Eóghan O'Rourke in 1509 and was used as a centre for education and learning.
3. East Breifne – The Kingdom of East Breifne or Breifne OReilly was an historic kingdom of Ireland roughly corresponding to County Cavan that existed from 1256 to 1607. It took its present boundaries in 1579 when East Breifne was renamed Cavan, after Cavan town, the Kingdom was ruled by the dynasty of the Ó Raghallaigh and lasted until the early 17th century. The area of modern-day County Cavan has been inhabited for over 5,000 years, the OReilly are descendant from a kin-group known as Uí Briúin, who settled the Breifne area in the eighth century AD. At some point they splintered off from the Uí Briúin sept and became known as Muintir-Maelmordha and they did not assume a surname until the early 11th century when they became known as O Raghallaigh, from the chieftain Raghallach. They are believed to have arrived in what is now County Cavan in the 10th century, Muintir-Maelmordha first appear in the Irish annals as a clan ruling a small territory around Lough Ramor called Machaire Gailenga in 1126, at which point they are a vassal of the ORourkes. Machaire Gailenga was annexed after the OReilly were defeated by the ORourkes, Tighernán Mór consolidated the eastern territories he had conquered through his marriage to Derbforgaill, daughter of the King of Meath. There was great animosity between the subjugated OReillys and their ORourke overlords, Tighernán Mór went to war with King Diarmait Mac Murchada of Leinster in 1152 following Mac Murchadas abduction of Queen Derbforgaill, and his claim over land that was in Brefnian possession. Taking advantage of Breifnes preoccupation, chief Geofraidh OReilly launched a rebellion in 1154 and was banished from the kingdom following his defeat. In 1155 when Donnchad Ua Cerbaill king of Airgíalla was captured and imprisoned by Tighernán Mór, Geofraidh OReilly and his supporters ambushed the Brefnian guards, OReilly was later captured and executed for this act of sedition. Tighernán Mór formed a coalition with the High King, Ruaidrí Ua Conchobair, Mac Murchada fled to England and sought help from Henry II to aid him in reconquering his kingdom. This prompted the Norman invasion of Ireland in 1169 which would alter the history of the island. With Norman aid Mac Murchada reconquered all of Leinster, and set Kells, Breifnes easternmost outpost, in 1170 Breifne was invaded and in the following years the vast kingdom was carved up by the Normans. ORourke power was in ruin as they lost not only territory, the OReilly submitted to Mac Murchada and his Norman allies during the conquest. Shortly after Mac Murchadas death in May 1171, most of the native Irish kingdoms waged war on his successor, however, the OReilly allied themselves with the Normans as a way of breaking free of the ORourke. During parley in 1172 at Trim, Tighernán Mór was betrayed and killed by Hugh de Lacy, Lord of Meath, the instability and wars of succession between the various branches of the ORourke sept weakened their hold over the territory of Breifne even further. With the help of de Lacy, the ORourkes were driven back, good relations between the OReilly and the Normans persisted until the early 13th century when they were soured by Hughs two sons, Walter and William Gorm. The influence of the Normans in eastern Breifne was considerable and by 1211 they had established castles in Belturbet and Kilmore. King John of England took possession of the Lordship of Meath from the de Lacy family following Hughs death, Walter, William Gorm, and their Anglo-Norman forces began expanding into Breifne in an attempt to increase their influence to western UlsterEast Breifne – A map of 1450 Ireland shows Breifne O'Reilly
4. Ilkhanate – The Ilkhanate, also spelled Il-khanate, was established as a khanate that formed the southwestern sector of the Mongol Empire, ruled by the Mongol House of Hulagu. It was founded in the 13th century and was based primarily in Iran as well as neighboring territories, such as present-day Azerbaijan and the central and eastern parts of present-day Turkey. The Ilkhanate was originally based on the campaigns of Genghis Khan in the Khwarazmian Empire in 1219–24 and was founded by Hulagu Khan, with the fragmentation of the Mongol Empire after 1259 it became a functionally separate khanate. At its greatest extent, the state expanded into territories that comprise most of Iran, Iraq, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Turkmenistan, Turkey, western Afghanistan. Later Ilkhanate rulers, beginning with Ghazan in 1295, would convert to Islam, according to the historian Rashid-al-Din Hamadani, Kublai Khan granted Hulagu the title of Ilkhan after his defeat of Ariq Böke. The term il-Khan means subordinate khan and refers to their initial deference to Möngke Khan, the title Ilkhan, borne by the descendants of Hulagu and later other Borjigin princes in Persia, does not materialize in the sources until after 1260. When Muhammad II of Khwarezm executed a contingent of merchants dispatched by the Mongols, the Mongols overran the empire, occupying the major cities and population centers between 1219 and 1221. Persian Iraq was ravaged by the Mongol detachment under Jebe and Subedei, Transoxiana also came under Mongol control after the invasion. The undivided area west of the Transoxiana was the inheritance of Genghis Khans Borjigin family, thus, the families of the latters four sons appointed their officials under the Great Khans governors, Chin-Temür, Nussal, and Korguz, in that region. Muhammads son Jalal ad-Din Mingburnu returned to Iran in c.1224 after his exile in India, the rival Turkic states, which were all that remained of his fathers empire, quickly declared their allegiance to Jalal. He repulsed the first Mongol attempt to take Central Persia, however, Jalal ad-Din was overwhelmed and crushed by Chormaqans army sent by the Great Khan Ögedei in 1231. During the Mongol expedition, Azerbaijan and the southern Persian dynasties in Fars and Kerman voluntarily submitted to the Mongols, to the west, Hamadan and the rest of Persia was secured by Chormaqan. The Mongols invaded Armenia and Georgia in 1234 or 1236, completing the conquest of the Kingdom of Georgia in 1238 and they began to attack the western parts of Greater Armenia, which was under the Seljuks, the following year. In 1236 Ögedei was commanded to raise up Khorassan and proceeded to populate Herat, the Mongol military governors mostly made camp in the Mughan plain in what is now Azerbaijan. Realizing the danger posed by the Mongols, the rulers of Mosul, Chormaqan divided the Transcaucasia region into three districts based on the Mongol military hierarchy. In Georgia, the population was divided into eight tumens. By 1237 the Mongol Empire had subjugated most of Persia, Armenia, Georgia, as well as all of Afghanistan and Kashmir. After the battle of Köse Dağ in 1243, the Mongols under Baiju occupied Anatolia, while the Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm and the Empire of Trebizond became vassals of the MongolsIlkhanate – Ilkhanate flag (roughly featuring its official square stamp at the center)