Category:States and territories established in 1271
1. Sovereign state – A sovereign state is, in international law, a nonphysical juridical entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area. International law defines sovereign states as having a permanent population, defined territory, one government, and it is also normally understood that a sovereign state is neither dependent on nor subjected to any other power or state. The existence or disappearance of a state is a question of fact, States came into existence as people gradually transferred their allegiance from an individual sovereign to an intangible but territorial political entity, of the state. States are but one of political orders that emerged from feudal Europe, others being city states, leagues. Westphalian sovereignty is the concept of sovereignty based on territoriality. It is a system of states, multinational corporations. Sovereignty is a term that is frequently misused and that position was reflected and constituted in the notion that their sovereignty was either completely lacking, or at least of an inferior character when compared to that of civilised people. Lassa Oppenheim said There exists perhaps no conception the meaning of which is more controversial than that of sovereignty. It is a fact that this conception, from the moment when it was introduced into political science until the present day, has never had a meaning which was universally agreed upon. In the opinion of H. V. Evatt of the High Court of Australia, sovereignty is neither a question of fact, nor a question of law, but a question that does not arise at all. The right of nations to determine their own status and exercise permanent sovereignty within the limits of their territorial jurisdictions is widely recognized. The Westphalian model of sovereignty has increasingly come under fire from the non-west as a system imposed solely by Western Colonialism. What this model did was make religion a subordinate to politics and this system does not fit in the Islamic world because concepts such as separation of church and state and individual conscience are not recognised in the Islamic religion as social systems. Nation denotes a people who are believed to or deemed to share common customs, religion, language, origins, however, the adjectives national and international are frequently used to refer to matters pertaining to what are strictly sovereign states, as in national capital, international law. State refers to the set of governing and supportive institutions that have sovereignty over a definite territory, State recognition signifies the decision of a sovereign state to treat another entity as also being a sovereign state. Recognition can be expressed or implied and is usually retroactive in its effects. It does not necessarily signify a desire to establish or maintain diplomatic relations, There is no definition that is binding on all the members of the community of nations on the criteria for statehood. In actual practice, the criteria are mainly political, not legal, in international law, however, there are several theories of when a state should be recognised as sovereignSovereign state – Member states of the United Nations, all of which are sovereign states, though not all sovereign states are necessarily members
2. 1271 – Year 1271 was a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar. July 2 – Kings Otakar II of Bohemia and Stephen V of Hungary sign the first Peace of Pressburg, settling territorial claims following the failed invasion of Hungary by Otakar II. September 1 – Pope Gregory X succeeds Pope Clement IV as the 184th pope, the County of Toulouse is returned to the crown of France. Marco Polo departs from Venice with his father and uncle on his famous journey to Kublai Khans China, the construction of Caerphilly Castle, the largest in Wales, is completed. Construction of the Belaya Vezha in Belarus is begun, april 8 – Mamluk sultan Baibars continues his territorial expansion, capturing the strategically important castle Krak des Chevaliers from the Knights Hospitaller in present-day Syria. Mamluk sultan Baibars conducts an unsuccessful siege of the city of Tripoli, edward I of England and Charles of Anjou arrive in Acre, starting the Ninth Crusade against Baibars, however, they are unable to capture any territory and a peace is quickly negotiated. September 12 – Nichiren was nearly beheaded, december 18 – Kublai Khan renames his empire Yuan, officially marking the start of the Yuan Dynasty of China. The Nakhi kingdom of the northern Himalayan foothills is annexed by the Yuan Dynasty1271 – Baibars capture the Krak des Chevaliers in Syria from the Knights Hospitaller.
3. Manchuria under Yuan rule – Manchuria under Yuan rule refers to the Yuan dynastys rule over Manchuria, including modern Northeast China and Outer Manchuria from the beginning to the end of the dynasty. Mongol rule over Manchuria was established during the Mongol Empires conquest of the Jurchen Jin dynasty in the early 13th century and it became a part of the Yuan dynasty, division of the Mongol Empire, when the dynasty was founded by the Mongol leader Kublai Khan. In 1211, after the conquest of Western Xia, Genghis Khan, the founder of the Mongol Empire mobilized an army to conquer the Jurchen Jin dynasty and they successfully destroyed the Jin forts there. The Khitans under Yelü Liuge declared their allegiance to Genghis Khan, however, the Jin forces dispatched a punitive expedition against them. The Mongol general Jebe went there again and pushed out the Jin force, the Jin general, Puxian Wannu, rebelled against the Jin dynasty and founded the kingdom of Eastern Xia in Dongjing in 1215. Ögedei Khans son Güyük crushed the Eastern Xia dynasty in 1233, some time after 1234 Ögedei also subdued the Water Tatars in northern part of the region and began to receive falcons, harems and furs as taxation. Having destroyed existing governmental structures and displaced political elites, the Mongols did not immediately establish firm control, rather, the Mongols developed a fluid system of governance in Manchuria designed to extract economic and military resources while maintaining local stability. With the establishment of the Yuan dynasty in China by Mongol leader Kublai Khan, Kublai Khan set up the Liaoyang province or Liaoyang Branch Secretariat in 1269, and the province had extended to northeastern Korean Peninsula. It became a Xuanweisi in 1286, Manchuria was home to an unusual concentration of Mongol princes. The influence of these princes in Manchuria extended into North China, in 1287 the Mongol commander Nayan led a rebellion against Kublai Khan in Manchuria, a region theoretically under the direct jurisdiction of Kublai Khan. Nayan also allied himself with Kaidu, Kublais enemy in Central Asia, Kublai Khan decided to personally lead the campaign against Nayan, since he must have believed that the threat posed by the dissident leader was critical. Kublai recruited a force, and despite his age and ailments. In the autumn of 1287, the two faced each other, and later in the day the tide turned against the Nestorian Christian Nayan. Kublai captured him and had him executed, after Nayans defeat the Liaoyang province was re-established to govern Manchuria, and it oversaw seven circuits such as the Kaiyuan Circuit. During most of the 14th century, the capital of the Liaoyang province was located in Yizhou and it would be misleading to portray the Liaoyang province or Liaoyang Branch Secretariat as a purely civilian administration staffed by career bureaucrats. As members of the Northeast Asian elite, the Korean Hong family dominated the Liaoyang Branch Secretariat during the late 13th, Hong Dagu headed the province in 1287 after the defeat of the Mongol princes Nayan and Qadan. Hong Dagus younger brother and son would later hold his post during the 1390s and 1400s, furthermore, Mongolian nobles such as Dorji also served in senior positions in the general administration in Manchuria. Kublai Khans efforts to restore order in the region after the revolts by Nayan and Qadan reflect the nature of Manchuria under the MongolsManchuria under Yuan rule – Manchuria within the Yuan dynasty under the Liaoyang province
4. Mongolia under Yuan rule – The Yuan dynasty ruled over the Mongolian steppe, including both Inner and Outer Mongolia as well as part of southern Siberia, for roughly a century between 1271 and 1368. The Mongols came from the Mongolian steppe, and Karakorum was the capital of the Mongol Empire until 1260, during the Toluid Civil War, Mongolia was controlled by Ariq Böke, a younger brother of Kublai Khan. There were many Mongolian princes concentrated in the Mongolian steppe, whose influence extended into the Yuan capital, in fact, in order to maintain his claim as the Great Khan, Kublai Khan made significant efforts to control and restore peace in Mongolia after the Toluid Civil War. In 1266, Nomukhan, one of Kublais favorite sons, was dispatched to Mongolia to guard the north, during the Kaidu–Kublai war which lasted a few decades, Kaidu, the de facto ruler of the Chagatai Khanate, tried to take control of Mongolia from Kublai Khan. In fact he shortly occupied large parts of Mongolia, although it was recovered by the Yuan commander Bayan of the Baarin. Temür was later appointed a governor in Karakorum and Bayan became a minister, after all, the Yuan court needed the allegiance of the Mongol aristocracy as a whole even when it was forced to strike against individual members. After the death of the Crown Prince Zhenjin in 1286, Kublai Khan decided to make Zhenjins son Temur his successor, after Kublai Khans death in 1294, Temür, who previously garrisoned in Mongolia, returned to the Yuan capital to become the next ruler of the empire. In 1307, when Temür Khan died, he returned eastward to Karakorum and he eventually succeeded to the throne with the support of his mother and younger brother, Ayurbarwada. It was renamed to the Lingbei Branch Secretariat or simply the Lingbei province by his successor Ayurbarwada in 1312, after the civil war Tugh Temür abdicated in favor of his older brother Kusala, who enthroned himself on February 27,1329 north of Karakorum. However, he died only four days after a banquet with Tugh Temür on his way to Khanbaliq. Then Tugh Temür was restored to the throne on September 8, after the capture of the Yuan capital by the Ming dynasty founded by Han Chinese in 1368, the last Yuan emperor Toghon Temür fled north to Shangdu, then to Yingchang and died there in 1370. The Mongols under his son and successor Biligtü Khan Ayushiridara retreated to the Mongolian steppe, the Mongolian homeland became the ruling center of the Northern Yuan dynasty, which would last until the 17th century. Toluid Civil War Mongolia under Qing rule Manchuria under Yuan rule Korea under Yuan rule Tibet under Yuan rule Yuan dynasty in Inner Asia History of MongoliaMongolia under Yuan rule – Mongolia within the Yuan dynasty under the Lingbei province
5. Yuan dynasty – The Yuan dynasty, officially the Great Yuan, was the empire or ruling dynasty of China established by Kublai Khan, leader of the Mongolian Borjigin clan. His realm was, by point, isolated from the other khanates and controlled most of present-day China and its surrounding areas. Some of the Mongolian Emperors of the Yuan mastered the Chinese language, while others used their native language. The Yuan dynasty is considered both a successor to the Mongol Empire and an imperial Chinese dynasty and it was the khanate ruled by the successors of Möngke Khan after the division of the Mongol Empire. In official Chinese histories, the Yuan dynasty bore the Mandate of Heaven, following the Song dynasty, the dynasty was established by Kublai Khan, yet he placed his grandfather Genghis Khan on the imperial records as the official founder of the dynasty as Taizu. In addition to Emperor of China, Kublai Khan also claimed the title of Great Khan, supreme over the other khanates, the Chagatai, the Golden Horde. As such, the Yuan was also referred to as the Empire of the Great Khan. However, while the claim of supremacy by the Yuan emperors was at times recognized by the khans, their subservience was nominal. In 1271, Kublai Khan imposed the name Great Yuan, establishing the Yuan dynasty, dà Yuán is from the clause 大哉乾元 in the Commentaries on the Classic of Changes section regarding Qián. The counterpart in Mongolian language was Dai Ön Ulus, also rendered as Ikh Yuan Üls or Yekhe Yuan Ulus, in Mongolian, Dai Ön is often used in conjunction with the Yeke Mongghul Ulus, resulting in Dai Ön Yeke Mongghul Ulus, meaning Great Mongol State. Nevertheless, both terms can refer to the khanate within the Mongol Empire directly ruled by Great Khans before the actual establishment of the Yuan dynasty by Kublai Khan in 1271. Genghis Khan united the Mongol and Turkic tribes of the steppes and he and his successors expanded the Mongol empire across Asia. Under the reign of Genghis third son, Ögedei Khan, the Mongols destroyed the weakened Jin dynasty in 1234, Ögedei offered his nephew Kublai a position in Xingzhou, Hebei. Kublai was unable to read Chinese but had several Han Chinese teachers attached to him since his early years by his mother Sorghaghtani and he sought the counsel of Chinese Buddhist and Confucian advisers. Möngke Khan succeeded Ögedeis son, Güyük, as Great Khan in 1251 and he granted his brother Kublai control over Mongol held territories in China. Kublai built schools for Confucian scholars, issued paper money, revived Chinese rituals and he adopted as his capital city Kaiping in Inner Mongolia, later renamed Shangdu. Many Han Chinese and Khitan defected to the Mongols to fight against the Jin, two Han Chinese leaders, Shi Tianze, Liu Heima, and the Khitan Xiao Zhala defected and commanded the 3 Tumens in the Mongol army. Liu Heima and Shi Tianze served Ogödei Khan, Liu Heima and Shi Tianxiang led armies against Western Xia for the MongolsYuan dynasty – History of China