Cornhill is a ward and street in the City of London, the historic nucleus and financial centre of modern London. The street runs between Bank junction and Leadenhall Street, the hill from which it takes its name is one of the three ancient hills of London, the others are Tower Hill, site of the Tower of London, and Ludgate Hill, crowned by St Pauls Cathedral. The highest point of Cornhill is at 17.7 metres above sea level, Cornhill is one of the traditional divisions of the City. At its other end it meets Threadneedle Street, Lombard Street, the mechanism, a force pump driven by a water wheel under the northernmost arch of London Bridge, transferred water from the Thames through lead pipes to four outlets. The service was discontinued in 1603 and this became the mark from which many distances to and from London were measured and the name still appears on older mileposts. In 1652, Pasqua Rosée, possibly a native of Ragusa, opened Londons first coffeehouse, the publishers Smith, Elder and Co, based at No.
65, published the literary journal Cornhill Magazine from 1860 to 1975. The magazine was first edited by William Makepeace Thackeray, in Charles Dickens A Christmas Carol, Bob Cratchit slides down Cornhill 20 times in honour of it being Christmas Eve. Today, the street is associated with opticians and makers of optical apparatus such as microscopes and telescopes. A statue of the engineer James Henry Greathead was erected in 1994 in the road beside the Royal Exchange, underneath the modern pavement is the worlds first underground public toilet, which opened in 1855. Users were charged a fee of 1d, reputedly giving rise to the saying to spend a penny. Cornhill formed part of the course of the 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games. The womens Olympic marathon took place on 5 August and the mens Olympic marathon on 12 August, the four Paralympic marathons were held on 9 September. The postcode for the street is EC3V, Cornhill is one of 25 wards in the City of London, and each elects an Alderman to the Court of Aldermen, and Commoners to the Court of Common Council of the City of London Corporation.
Only electors who are Freeman of the City of London are eligible to stand, the current Alderman is Robert Howard and the current Members of Common Council are Reverend Stephen Haines, Peter Dunphy and Ian Seaton. Cornhill Ward The Official Ward Website City of London Corporation Map of Cornhill ward The English coffee houses Cornhill, after a London map of 1750
Fleet Street is a major street in the City of London. It runs west to east from Temple Bar at the boundary with the City of Westminster to Ludgate Circus at the site of the London Wall, having been an important through route since Roman times, businesses were established along the road during the Middle Ages. Senior clergy lived in Fleet Street during this period there are several churches including Temple Church. Much of the industry moved out in the 1980s after News International set up cheaper manufacturing premises in Wapping, the term Fleet Street remains a metonym for the British national press, and pubs on the street once frequented by journalists remain popular. The street is mentioned in works by Charles Dickens and is where the legendary fictitious murderous barber Sweeney Todd lived. Fleet Street is named after the River Fleet, which runs from Hampstead to the River Thames at the edge of the City of London. It is one of the oldest roads outside the city and was established by the Middle Ages.
In the 13th century, it was known as Fleet Bridge Street, the street runs east from Temple Bar, the boundary between the Cities of London and Westminster, as a continuation of the Strand from Trafalgar Square. It crosses Chancery Lane and Fetter Lane to reach Ludgate Circus by the London Wall, the road ahead is Ludgate Hill. The street numbering runs consecutively from west to east south-side and east to west north-side and it links the Roman and medieval boundaries of the City after the latter was extended. The nearest London Underground stations are Temple, Chancery Lane, and Blackfriars tube/mainline station, London Bus routes 4,11,15,23,26,76 and 172 run along the full length of Fleet Street, while route 341 runs between Temple Bar and Fetter Lane. Fleet Street was established as a thoroughfare in Roman London and there is evidence that a route led west from Ludgate by 200 AD. Local excavations revealed remains of a Roman amphitheatre near Ludgate on what was Fleet Prison, the Saxons did not occupy the Roman city but established Lundenwic further west around what is now Aldwych and the Strand.
Many prelates lived around the street during the Middle Ages, including the Bishops of Salisbury and St Davids, tanning of animal hides became established on Fleet Street owing to the nearby river, though this increased pollution leading to a ban on dumping rubbish by the mid-14th century. Many taverns and brothels were established along Fleet Street and have been documented as early as the 14th century, records show that Geoffrey Chaucer was fined two shillings for attacking a friar in Fleet Street, though modern historians believe this is apocryphal. An important landmark in Fleet Street during the late Middle Ages was a conduit that was the water supply for the area. When Anne Boleyn was crowned Queen following her marriage to Henry VIII in 1533, by the 16th century, Fleet Street, along with much of the City, was chronically overcrowded, and a Royal proclamation in 1580 banned any further building on the street. This had little effect, and construction continued, particularly timber, Prince Henrys Room over the Inner Temple gate dates from 1610 and is named after Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales, eldest son of James I, who did not survive to succeed his father
City of London
The City of London is a city and county within London. It constituted most of London from its settlement by the Romans in the 1st century AD to the Middle Ages, the City is now only a tiny part of the metropolis of London, though it remains a notable part of central London. Administratively, it one of the 33 local authority districts of Greater London, the City of London is not a London borough. The City of London is widely referred to simply as the City and is colloquially known as the Square Mile. Both of these terms are often used as metonyms for the United Kingdoms trading and financial services industries. The name London is now used for a far wider area than just the City. London most often denotes the sprawling London metropolis, or the 32 London boroughs and this wider usage of London is documented as far back as 1888, when the County of London was created. The local authority for the City, namely the City of London Corporation, is unique in the UK and has some unusual responsibilities for a local council and it is unusual in having responsibilities and ownerships beyond its boundaries.
The Corporation is headed by the Lord Mayor of the City of London, the current Lord Mayor, as of November 2016, is Andrew Parmley. The City is a business and financial centre. Throughout the 19th century, the City was the primary business centre. London came top in the Worldwide Centres of Commerce Index, published in 2008, the insurance industry is focused around the eastern side of the City, around Lloyds building. A secondary financial district exists outside of the City, at Canary Wharf,2.5 miles to the east, the City has a resident population of about 7,000 but over 300,000 people commute to and work there, mainly in the financial services sector. It used to be held that Londinium was first established by merchants as a trading port on the tidal Thames in around 47 AD. However, this date is only supposition, many historians now believe London was founded some time before the Roman conquest of Britain in 43 AD. They base this notion on evidence provided by both archaeology and Welsh literary legend, archaeologists have claimed that as much as half of the best British Iron Age art and metalwork discovered in Britain has been found in the London area.
One of the most prominent examples is the famously horned Waterloo Helmet dredged from the Thames in the early 1860s and now exhibited at the British Museum. Also, according to an ancient Welsh legend, a king named Lud son of Heli substantially enlarged and improved a pre-existing settlement at London which afterwards came to be renamed after him, the same tradition relates how this Lud son of Heli was buried at Ludgate
Gropecunt, the earliest known use of which is in about 1230, appears to have been derived as a compound of the words grope and cunt. Streets with that name were often in the busiest parts of towns and cities. Although the name was common throughout England, changes in attitude resulted in its replacement by more innocuous versions such as Grape Lane. A variation of Gropecunt was last recorded as a name in 1561. Variations include Gropecunte, Gropecontelane and Gropekuntelane, there were once many such street names in England, but all have now been bowdlerised. In the city of York, for instance, Grapcunt Lane—grāp is the Old English word for grope—was renamed as the more acceptable Grape Lane. Under its entry for the word cunt, the Oxford English Dictionary reports that a street was listed as Gropecuntlane in about 1230, the first appearance of that name. Prostitution may well have been an aspect of medieval urban life. The more graphic Gropecunt Lane, however, is possibly the most obvious allusion to sexual activity.
The Oxford English Dictionary defines the word cunt as The female external genital organs and notes Its currency is restricted in the manner of other taboo-words, see the small-type note s. v. During the Middle Ages the word may often have been considered merely vulgar, in The Millers Tale, Geoffrey Chaucer writes And prively he caughte hire by the queynte, and Philotus mentions put doun thy hand and graip hir cunt. Gradually though the word used more as the obscenity it is generally considered to be today. Francis Groses A Classical Dictionary of The Vulgar Tongue lists the word as C**t, the chonnos of the Greek, and the cunnus of the Latin dictionaries, a nasty name for a nasty thing, un con Miege. Although some medieval street names such as Addle Street and Fetter Lane have survived, sherborne Lane in London was in 1272–73 known as Shitteborwelane, Shite-burn lane and Shite-buruelane. Pissing Alley, one of several identically named streets whose names survived the Great Fire of London, was called Little Friday Street in 1848, more recently, Rillington Place, where John Christie murdered his victims, was renamed Ruston Close.
As the most ubiquitous and explicit example of street names, with the exception of Shrewsbury. The ruling Protestant conservative elites growing hostility to prostitution during the 16th century resulted in the closure of the Southwark stews in 1546, replacing earlier attempts at regulation. London had several streets named Gropecunt Lane including one in the parishes of St Pancras, Soper Lane and St Mary Colechurch, between Bordhawelane and Puppekirty Lane near present-day Cheapside
It is named for the nearby Bank of England. Across Threadneedle Street and nestled in the gap between Cornhill is the centre the Royal Exchange, founded in 1565 by Thomas Gresham. Outside the main entrance to the Royal Exchange is a statue of the Duke of Wellington overlooking Bank junction. Also in front of the Royal Exchange is the London Troops War Memorial, commemorating those Londoners who served and died in World War I, to the south of the junction is Mansion House. This has been the residence of the Lord Mayor of London since its completion in 1752. Bank junction is the location of one of Londons busiest Underground stations, built in 1900, the interchange station is served by the Central and Waterloo & City lines, as well as the Docklands Light Railway. The station is connected with Monument, a served by the Circle. The closest mainline railway stations are Cannon Street, Fenchurch Street and Liverpool Street
Great Tower Street
Great Tower Street, originally known just as Tower Street, is a street in the City of London, the historic nucleus and modern financial centre of London. It forms a continuation of Eastcheap starting at Idol Lane. On Byward Street, opposite Great Tower Street, is the historic church All Hallows-by-the-Tower, a public house called the Czars Head used to stand at No. 48, so named because Peter the Great used to drink there when he was learning shipbuilding at Deptford, somewhere on Tower Street in 1688, Edward Lloyd opened Lloyds Coffee House, where the insurance market Lloyds of London originated. In 1691, Lloyd relocated his shop to nearby Lombard Street, prior to boundary changes in 2003, Great Tower Street formed the centre of the City ward of Tower. Today it lies mostly in Billingsgate ward, but a portion of the easternmost end of the street is still within Tower ward. Great Tower Street is home to a number of restaurants and offices, including the entrance to the London Underwriting Centre at the corner with Mincing Lane.
It formed part of the course of the 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games. The womens Olympic marathon took place on 5 August and the mens on 12 August, the Paralympic marathons were held on 9 September. The nearest London Underground stations are Monument and Tower Hill and the closest mainline station is Fenchurch Street
Gracechurch Street is a main road in the City of London, the historic and financial centre of London, which is designated the A1213. It is home to a number of shops and offices and has an entrance to Leadenhall Market, a covered market dating from the 14th century. At its southern end, the street begins near Christopher Wrens Monument to the Great Fire of London, at a junction with King William Street and Cannon Street. Heading north, it crosses Lombard Street and Fenchurch Street, and continues forward into Bishopsgate, Leadenhall Market, a covered market dating from the 14th century and a Grade II* listed structure since 1972, is the streets most famous attraction. The closest mainline station is Fenchurch Street and the nearest London Underground station is Monument. The postcode for the street is EC3V, the word Gracechurch derives from Garscherchestrete, Gres-cherch and Gras-cherche, with Gracechurch not used until after the destruction of the street in the Great Fire of London in 1666.
The street is in the heart of Roman Londinium, it directly over the site of the basilica. In medieval times a corn market was held by St. Benet Gracechurch at the junction with Lombard Street, the existence of such markets can be seen from the derivation of their names, gaers or gers meaning a blade of grass or herb and faenum meaning hay. The Religious Society of Friends once had a house on Gracechurch Street. William Penn was arrested on 14 August 1670 for delivering a sermon in the street in front of the building after having been forbidden to preach indoors and it was burnt down in 1821 but rebuilt. Many of its members had moved to Stoke Newington, a couple of miles north along more or less the same street. The worlds first school bus was set up to run between Newington Academy for Girls, a Quaker school set up there in 1824, and Gracechurch Street Meeting House. For a time it became one of the most important Quaker Meetings, by the 18th century 20-25% of the immediate population were Quakers.
City Friends mingled piety with prosperity and earned reputations as sober, during its long history, the street was for a period named Gracious Street. Gracechurch Street formed part of the course of the 2012 Olympic and Paralympic Games. The womens Olympic marathon took place on 5 August 2012 and the mens on 12 August, the Paralympic marathons were held on 9 September. Gracechurch Street is mentioned in Jane Austens Pride and Prejudice as being the home of Mr. and Mrs. Gardiner, the former Swan-with-Two-Necks inn is the scene of Estellas meeting with Pip in Charles Dickens Great Expectations. The street has lent its name to the Gracechurch Shopping Centre in Sutton Coldfield, Gracechurch Street, A Dictionary of London
Bishopsgate is one of the 25 wards of the City of London and the name of a major road between Gracechurch Street and Norton Folgate in the northeast corner of Londons main financial district. Bishopsgate is named one of the original eight gates in the London Wall. The site of this gate is marked by a stone bishops mitre, fixed high upon a building located at Bishopsgates junction with Wormwood Street, by the gardens there. Although tens of thousands of people commute to and work in the ward, the ward is bounded by Worship Street to the north, where the edge of the City meets the boroughs of Islington and Hackney. It neighbours Portsoken ward and the borough of Tower Hamlets in the east, the western boundary is formed by Old Broad Street and Broad Street ward itself. Bishopsgate bounds the wards of Aldgate, Coleman Street, Bishopsgate ward straddles the line of the Wall and the old gate and is often divided into Within and Without parts, with a deputy appointed for each part. Since the 1994 and 2003 boundary changes, almost all of the ward is Without, no changes to Bishopsgates ward boundaries occurred in the 2013 boundary changes.
Originally Roman, the Bishops Gate was rebuilt by the Hansa merchants in 1471 in exchange for Steelyard privileges and its final form was erected in 1735 by the City authorities and demolished in 1760. This gate often displayed the heads of criminals on spikes, London Wall divided the ward and road into an intramural portion called Bishopsgate Within and an extramural portion called Bishopsgate Without. The Bishopsgate thoroughfare forms part of the A10 and the section to the north of the site of the original Gate is the start of Roman Ermine Street, the parish church for the area of Bishopsgate Without is St Botolph-without-Bishopsgate. This is located just to the north of the original Gate on the west side of the road, Bishopsgate was originally the location of many coaching inns which accommodated passengers setting out on the Old North Road. Others included the Dolphin, the Flower Pot, the Green Dragon, the Wrestlers, the Angel, the latter was a venue for the Queens Men theatrical troupe in the 16th century.
The name of an inn called the Catherine Wheel is commemorated by Catherine Wheel Alley which leads off Bishopsgate to the east, in the 18th century this grand residence became a tavern called Sir Paul Pindars Head, another notable venue was the London Tavern. Also demolished was the old Crosby Hall, at one time the residence of Richard III, Bishopsgate is the site of Dirty Dicks, the Bishopsgate Institute, and many offices and skyscrapers. Police had received a warning, but were still evacuating the area at the time of the explosion. The area had suffered damage from the Baltic Exchange bombing one year before. The street is home to the main London offices of major banks, including the Royal Bank of Scotland. Within the ward falls the Broadgate Estate, only electors who are Freemen of the City of London are eligible to stand
London /ˈlʌndən/ is the capital and most populous city of England and the United Kingdom. Standing on the River Thames in the south east of the island of Great Britain and it was founded by the Romans, who named it Londinium. Londons ancient core, the City of London, largely retains its 1. 12-square-mile medieval boundaries. London is a global city in the arts, education, fashion, healthcare, professional services and development, tourism. It is crowned as the worlds largest financial centre and has the fifth- or sixth-largest metropolitan area GDP in the world, London is a world cultural capital. It is the worlds most-visited city as measured by international arrivals and has the worlds largest city airport system measured by passenger traffic, London is the worlds leading investment destination, hosting more international retailers and ultra high-net-worth individuals than any other city. Londons universities form the largest concentration of education institutes in Europe. In 2012, London became the first city to have hosted the modern Summer Olympic Games three times, London has a diverse range of people and cultures, and more than 300 languages are spoken in the region.
Its estimated mid-2015 municipal population was 8,673,713, the largest of any city in the European Union, Londons urban area is the second most populous in the EU, after Paris, with 9,787,426 inhabitants at the 2011 census. The citys metropolitan area is the most populous in the EU with 13,879,757 inhabitants, the city-region therefore has a similar land area and population to that of the New York metropolitan area. London was the worlds most populous city from around 1831 to 1925, Other famous landmarks include Buckingham Palace, the London Eye, Piccadilly Circus, St Pauls Cathedral, Tower Bridge, Trafalgar Square, and The Shard. The London Underground is the oldest underground railway network in the world, the etymology of London is uncertain. It is an ancient name, found in sources from the 2nd century and it is recorded c.121 as Londinium, which points to Romano-British origin, and hand-written Roman tablets recovered in the city originating from AD 65/70-80 include the word Londinio. The earliest attempted explanation, now disregarded, is attributed to Geoffrey of Monmouth in Historia Regum Britanniae and this had it that the name originated from a supposed King Lud, who had allegedly taken over the city and named it Kaerlud.
From 1898, it was accepted that the name was of Celtic origin and meant place belonging to a man called *Londinos. The ultimate difficulty lies in reconciling the Latin form Londinium with the modern Welsh Llundain, which should demand a form *lōndinion, from earlier *loundiniom. The possibility cannot be ruled out that the Welsh name was borrowed back in from English at a date, and thus cannot be used as a basis from which to reconstruct the original name. Until 1889, the name London officially applied only to the City of London, two recent discoveries indicate probable very early settlements near the Thames in the London area
A1 in London
The A1 in London is the southern part of the A1 road. It starts at Aldersgate in the City of London, passing through the capital to Borehamwood on the fringe of Greater London. The A1 is the most recent in a series of routes out of London to York. The Archway Road section was built by Thomas Telford using Roman cement and gravel, a technique that was used there for the first time. The A1 is one of Londons main roads, providing a link to the M1 and the A1 motorways, despite this, its main use is to connect a number of neighbourhoods within north London, less than 5% of its vehicles are through traffic – the bulk is local. The roads along which the A1 route travels are the responsibility of the local boroughs, the Greater London Authority. The A1 is the latest in a series of north from London to York and beyond. Ermine Street became known as the Old North Road, and is used within London by the current A10. Until the 14th century the route went up what is now Hornsey Road – the A103 road, during the early 1970s plans to widen the A1 along the Archway Road section were abandoned after considerable opposition and four public inquiries during which road protesters disrupted proceedings.
The scheme was dropped in 1990. Responsibility for the roads along which the A1 route travels are shared by the local boroughs, the Greater London Authority. The first organised London-wide authority dealing with roads in London was the Metropolitan Board of Works and these different approaches resulted in the Ministry of Transport widening a stretch of the A1 until it reached the control of the GLC, when the widening abruptly stopped. The route of the A1 in London runs from the end of St. The London section of the passes through part of the City of London. The A1 is one of Londons main northern routes, providing a link to the M1 motorway and the A1 motorway, and on to the Midlands, Northern England and Scotland. It connects a number of areas within London, and sections of it serve as the High Street for many of the now-joined villages that make up north London. Even though it is one of Londons major roads, less than 5% of its approximate 60,000 vehicles a day are through traffic – the bulk is local, martins Le Grand, near St Pauls Cathedral.
At the end of Aldersgate Street stood Aldersgate Bars, which marked the limits of the City of London