This category has only the following subcategory.
- ► Sudanese Arab nationalists (2 C, 3 P)
This category has only the following subcategory.
1. Ismail al-Azhari – Ismail al-Azhari was a Sudanese nationalist and political figure. He served as the first Prime Minister of Sudan between 1954 and 1956, and as President of Sudan from 1965 until he was overthrown by Gaafar Nimeiry in 1969, sayyid Ismail al-Azhari was born in Omdurman, the son of a religious notable. He studied at Gordon Memorial College in Khartoum and graduated in mathematics at the American University of Beirut in 1930 and he became a teacher of mathematics and then an administrator in the Anglo-Egyptian condominium government that ruled the Sudan during the colonial period. Al-Azhari and other educated Sudanese demanded greater participation in the administration of the country, al-Azharis election as secretary to the congress launched him into a career in politics. Although the congress at first had no political aspirations, in 1942 it asserted its claim to act as the spokesman for all Sudanese nationalists, in 1943 al-Azhari and his supporters from the congress formed the Ashiqqa party, the first true political party in the Sudan. His main support came from the Khatmiyya brotherhood, one of the two main Muslim groups in the country, when the more moderate nationalists formed the Umma Party in 1945, its principal support came from the chief rival of the Khatmiyya, the anti-Egyptian Mahdist sect. Between 1944 and 1953 al-Azhari, as the advocate for uniting the Sudan with Egypt. Thus, in 1948 he boycotted the elections to establish an assembly in the Sudan. The Egyptian Revolution of 1952, which ended the regime of King Farouk I, farouks government had exerted all its influence to unite Egypt and the Sudan and block Sudanese independence. Egypts new leaders, Muhammad Naguib, who was half-Sudanese, in 1954 al-Azhari became the Sudans first prime minister. His government faced three major problems, the first was the critical constitutional question of the Sudans relationship with Egypt. Then al-Azhari was faced with the problem, the task of organizing a permanent government. His principal opponent, the Umma Party, wanted a presidential system. Al-Azhari advocated a British parliamentary form of government, but he never resolved the issue during his tenure, the failure of the policy became apparent in 1955, when a mutiny in the Equatorial Corps precipitated disturbances throughout many of the districts in the south. Thereafter, relations between the Northern and the Southern Sudan remained the problem facing successive Sudanese governments. Their failure to meet Southern aspirations undermined their authority, just as it had drained al-Azharis political strength and these and other problems began to weaken al-Azharis coalition. His reversal on unity with Egypt undermined the strength of the NUP by depriving it of its principal ideology. The mutiny in the south damaged al-Azharis prestige, more importantly, the fragile alliance between the Khatmiyya sect and the NUP began to disintegrate, leaving the prime minister without the popular support he needed to rule effectively
2. Ali Abd al Latif – Ali Abd al-Latif was a prominent Sudanese nationalist who served as a key member of the White Flag League and played a prominent role in the 1924 Khartoum revolt. Latif was born in 1896 into a mixed family of slave origin in the northern Sudanese border town of Wadi Halfa. His father, Abd al-Latif Ahmad, was a Nuba and a former slave, Ahmad had originally been a household slave in al-Khanadaq, then a center of commerce. He was later acquired by Mahdist forces under Wad el Nujumi to serve in the Mahdists 1889 invasion of Egypt, Ahmad either deserted or was taken prisoner by Anglo-Egyptian forces following the Battle of Toski, and ended up enlisted in the Egyptian Army. His mother, al-Sabr, was of Dinka origin, and had formerly been a slave in al-Khanadaq before marrying his father, like many Sudanese of slave origins, Latif joined the military, as it offered one of the few means of social mobility. Whilst his father had served in the Egyptian Army, it was largely due to his mother than Latif was able to rise into the emerging middle class. When Latif moved from Ed Dueim to Khartoum c.1900, he was able to support from his maternal uncle, Rihan Abd Allah. Abd Allah may not have actually been Latifs biological uncle, but instead the term may have just arisen from Abd Allah sharing Latifs mothers Dinka and Bahr el Ghazal roots. Latif graduated from the Khartoum Military School in 1913, and was awarded the Sirdars Medal for best cadet of the year, during his serving as an officer in the Egyptian Army he went on to fight in the numerous punitive campaigns fought by the Egyptian Army in southern Sudan. After several years in the Egyptian Army, during which he rose to the rank of Lieutenant, in 1921 Latif founded the United Tribes Society, an organisation that called for an independent Sudan in which power would be shared by tribal and religious leaders. Latif gained prominence in 1922, after he wrote an article for the al-Hadarah newspaper supporting the cause of sedition, whilst the article was ultimately not published due to objections by the editor, Latif was arrested, tried, and sentenced to a year imprisonment. The trial however gained significant publicity and coverage in the Egyptian press, Latifs movement, reconstituted as the White Flag League, organized demonstrations in Khartoum that took advantage of the unrest that followed Stacks assassination. Latifs arrest and subsequent exile in Egypt sparked a mutiny by a Sudanese army battalion, for his part in the 1924 Khartoum revolt Latif was sentenced to 7 years imprisonment. Following the completion of his sentence he was not released, but transferred to a hospital in Cairo