Category:Superfund sites in California
Pages in category "Superfund sites in California"
The following 68 pages are in this category, out of 68 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 68 pages are in this category, out of 68 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. List of Superfund sites in California – This is a list of Superfund sites in California designated under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act environmental law. These locations are known as Superfund sites and are placed on the National Priorities List, the NPL guides the EPA in determining which sites warrant further investigation for environmental remediation. As of March 10,2011, there were 94 Superfund sites on the National Priorities List in California, three additional sites have been proposed for entry on the list. Twelve sites have been cleaned up and removed from the list, one site was proposed for entry and then removedList of Superfund sites in California – Map of Superfund sites in California
2. Advanced Micro Devices – While initially it manufactured its own processors, the company became fabless after GlobalFoundries was spun off in 2009. AMDs main products include microprocessors, motherboard chipsets, embedded processors and graphics processors for servers, workstations and personal computers, AMD is the second-largest supplier and only significant rival to Intel in the market for x86-based microprocessors. Since acquiring ATI in 2006, AMD and its competitor Nvidia have dominated the discrete Graphics Processing Unit market, Advanced Micro Devices was formally incorporated on May 1,1969, by Jerry Sanders, along with seven of his colleagues from Fairchild Semiconductor. In September 1969, AMD moved from its location in Santa Clara to Sunnyvale. To immediately secure a base, AMD initially became a second source supplier of microchips designed by Fairchild. AMD first focused on producing logic chips, in November 1969, the company manufactured its first product, the Am9300, a 4-bit MSI shift register, which began selling in 1970. Also in 1970, AMD produced its first proprietary product, the Am2501 logic counter and its best-selling product in 1971 was the Am2505, the fastest multiplier available. In 1971, AMD entered the RAM chip market, beginning with the Am3101 and that year AMD also greatly increased the sales volume of its linear integrated circuits, and by year end the companys total annual sales reached $4.6 million. AMD went public in September 1972, the company was a second source for Intel MOS/LSI circuits by 1973, with products such as Am14/1506 and Am14/1507, dual 100-bit dynamic shift registers. By 1975, AMD was producing 212 products – of which 49 were proprietary, including the Am9102, Intel had created the first microprocessor, its 4-bit 4004, in 1971. By 1975, AMD entered the market with the Am9080, a reverse-engineered clone of the Intel 8080. In 1977, AMD entered into a joint venture with Siemens, Siemens purchased 20% of AMDs stock, giving AMD an infusion of cash to increase its product lines. When the two companies vision for Advanced Micro Computers diverged, AMD bought out Siemens stake in the U. S. division in 1979, AMD closed its Advanced Micro Computers subsidiary in late 1981, after switching focus to manufacturing second-source Intel x86 microprocessors. Total sales in fiscal year 1978 topped $100 million, and in 1979, in 1980, AMD began supplying semiconductor products for telecommunications, an industry undergoing rapid expansion and innovation. Intel had introduced the first x86 microprocessors in 1978, in 1981, IBM created its PC, and wanted Intels x86 processors, but only under the condition that Intel also provide a second-source manufacturer for its patented x86 microprocessors. Intel and AMD entered into a 10-year technology exchange agreement, first signed in October 1981, the technical information and licenses needed to make and sell a part would be exchanged for a royalty to the developing company. The 1982 agreement also extended the 1976 AMD–Intel cross-licensing agreement through 1995, the agreement included the right to invoke arbitration of disagreements, and after five years the right of either party to end the agreement with one years notice. It also continued its successful concentration on proprietary bipolar chips, in 1983, it introduced INT. STD.1000, the highest manufacturing quality standard in the industryAdvanced Micro Devices – Headquarters in Sunnyvale, California
3. Aerojet – In 2013, Aerojet was merged by GenCorp with the former Pratt & Whitney Rocketdyne to form Aerojet Rocketdyne. Aerojet developed from a 1936 meeting hosted by Theodore von Kármán at his home, the group continued to meet from time to time, but its activities were limited to discussions as opposed to experimentation. Their first design was tested on August 16,1941, consisting of a small cylindrical solid-fuel motor attached to the bottom of a plane, takeoff distance was shortened by half, and the USAAF placed an order for experimental production versions. I was President, Malina was Treasurer, and Haley was Secretary and we had three vice-presidents, Parsons, Summerfield, and Forman. We issued stock to ourselves, and for a brief time Haley seemed to own the entire corporation because, being the man in the group with cash. We opened offices on East Colorado Street in Pasadena, the world’s largest manufacturer of rockets and propellants. Kármán soon relinquished the presidency, Haley became Aerojet’s second president on August 26,1942 and he proved to be an incredible administrator. The company expanded and required new facilities, In October, fifteen employees were drawing paychecks, by December we had expanded to about one hundred and fifty employees and in January 1943 we moved to Azusa, California. In 1943 the Army Air Forces finally placed a full order, in the spring of 1944 the officers instructed Haley to seek out new sources of assistance. General Tire was one of his clients and that showed an interest in Aerojet. In January 1945 General Tire acquired half the stock for $75,000, Parsons and Forman also sold their shares, so that, by October, General Tire had control of the majority of Aerojet. Kármán resisted the offers presented to him, until in 1953 when a sizable scholarship fund was offered to be set up as a memorial to his sister Josephine de Karman. The company also invested in pure research, developing both a liquid-fueled design and a new solid-fueled design based on a rubber binding agent in partnership with General Tire. In the immediate post-war era, Aerojet downsized dramatically, but their JATO units continued to sell for commercial aircraft operating in hot-and-high conditions, by 1950, their research into the rubber binder had led to much larger engines and then to the development of the Aerobee sounding rocket. Aerobee was the first US-designed rocket to space and completed over 1,000 flights before it was retired in 1985. The newly formed US Air Force used Aerojet as the primary supplier on a number of their ICBM projects and they also delivered propulsion systems for the US Navys submarine-launched Polaris missile. A new plant was set up in Sacramento that took over most rocket construction, one of Azusas major projects was the development of the infra-red detectors for the Defense Support Program satellites, used to detect ICBM launches from space. The new research arm was formed as Aerojet Electro-Systems Corp. and after purchasing a number of ordnance companies, a new umbrella organization oversaw the three major divisions, Aerojet GeneralAerojet – Aerojet
4. Applied Materials – The company also supplies equipment to produce coatings for flexible electronics, packaging and other applications. The company is headquartered in Santa Clara, California, in the Silicon Valley, founded in 1967 by Michael A. McNeilly and others, Applied Materials went public in 1972. In subsequent years, the company diversified, until James C. Morgan became CEO in 1976, by 1978, sales increased by 17%. In 1987, Applied introduced a CVD machine called the Precision 5000, in 1992, the corporation settled a lawsuit with three former employees for an estimated $600,000. The suit complained that the employees were out of the company after complaining about the courses Applied Scholastics had been hired to teach there. In 1993, the Applied Materials Precision 5000 was inducted into the Smithsonian Institutions permanent collection of Information Age technology, in November 1996, Applied Materials acquired two Israeli companies for an aggregate amount of $285 million. Opal Technologies and Orbot Instruments for $175 million and $110 million in cash, opal develops and manufactures high-speed metrology systems used by semiconductor manufacturers to verify critical dimensions during the production of integrated circuits. In 2000, Etec Systems, Inc. was purchased, in January 2008, Applied Materials purchased an Italian company Baccini, a designer of tools used in manufacturing solar cells. In 2009, Applied Materials opened its Solar Technology Center—the world’s largest commercial solar energy research and development facility in Xi’an, Applied Materials acquisition of Semitool Inc. was completed in December 2009. Applied Materials announced its acquisition of Varian Semiconductor in May 2011, Applied Materials announced its merger with Tokyo Electron on September 24,2013. But on April 27,2015, Applied Materials announced that its merger with Tokyo Electron has been scrapped due to fears of dominating the semiconductor equipment industry. Applied is organized into four business sectors, Silicon Systems, Applied Global Services, Display. The company acquired Semitool for this group in late 2009, the Applied Global Services group offers equipment installation support and warranty extended support, as well as maintenance support. AGS also offers new and refurbished equipment, as well as upgrades, Applied Materials offers software packages for automating the operation of complex manufacturing environments. These include tool automation, manufacturing systems, materials control, simulation and scheduling software. AGS combined an existing business unit with the business of Applied Films Corporation. The manufacturing process for TFT LCDs, commonly employed in computer monitors, in cleanroom environments both TFT-LCD and integrated circuit production use photolithography, chemical and physical vapor deposition, and testing. In 2006 the company acquired Applied Films, a glass coating, also in 2006, Applied announced it was entering the solar manufacturing equipment businessApplied Materials – Applied Materials, Inc.
5. Atlas Asbestos Mine Superfund Site – The Atlas Asbestos Mine Superfund Site is located within the Clear Creek Management Area near Fresno County, eighteen miles northwest of Coalinga, California. The mine started operating in 1963, covering 435 acres of a naturally occurring asbestos deposit. Its common usage in commercial products prior to the EPA banning its use in 1989 makes it easy for people to be exposed to it in their homes and workplaces, in the United States, the number of deaths by asbestos-related diseases is around ten thousand people per year. The pollution from the Atlas asbestos mine is generated by three open pit mines, an abandoned mill building, a settling pond and debris. The contaminants are drained into Los Gatos Creek and it was not until 1980 that the metropolitan water district of southern California measured elevated levels of asbestos in the water that reached 2500 millions of fibers per liter. In 2004, the Department of Water Resources decided to take action and enlarged the detention basin to store more water, Asbestos fibers can also be found in air and soils which can endanger the lives of people in the region. They can be released into the air and soil through two ways, human activity and rock weathering processes, the soil near the city of Coalinga also found traces of chromium and nickel. The EPA began initial investigations of the site in 1984 in order to determine the best course of action in minimizing harm of human health, in 1991, The EPA finished assessing the asbestos contamination in the surface of the mine site. These two OUs are the Atlas Asbestos Mine OU and the City of Coalinga OU, which together consist of the process of the whole Atlas Asbestos Mine Superfund Site. The Atlas Asbestos Mine OU was focused on cleanup of surface asbestos, in addition, sediment trapping dams were built and slope stabilizers were implemented on waste piles. Fences were built to access to the area. The primary cleanup processes and construction involved in remediation occurred between 1994 and 1996, since the primary cleanup process, a re-vegetation pilot study has been conducted in 1999, and the Five Year Report in 2001 showed signs of erosion in the access road to the site. Thus a new route was suggested to be explored, another issue that arose from asbestos contamination was the potential danger of recreational activities occurring in the nearby Clear Creek Management Area. This is an area of the mine managed by the Bureau of Land Management where off-road driving, camping. Tests of air samples showed that long term activities caused greater risk of cancer, the area was immediately closed by the BLM for further discussion of remediation methods. The City of Coalinga OU was focused on remediation of asbestos that had transported to mills or stored. The cleanup area consisted of 107 acres of contaminated soil within the city of Coalinga, the area of the WMU was capped with an impermeable cover, and is to be continuously monitored along with the groundwater and air. Cleanup of this occurred between 1990 and 1993Atlas Asbestos Mine Superfund Site – Asbestos fibers (SEM micrograph)
6. Beckman Coulter – Beckman Coulter Inc. is an American company that makes biomedical laboratory instruments. Its current headquarters are in Brea, California, in the 1940s, Beckman changed the name to Arnold O. Beckman, Inc. to sell oxygen analyzers, the Helipot precision potentiometer, and spectrophotometers. In the 1950s, the name changed to Beckman Instruments. In 1954, Beckman Instruments acquired ultracentrifuge maker Spinco, the Spinco division went on to design and manufacture a broad range of laboratory centrifuges. Because Shockleys aging mother lived in Palo Alto, California, the Shockley Laboratory was established in nearby Mountain View, California, in 1961, Beckman acquired Offner Electronics, a company founded by inventor Franklin F. Offner. In 1995, the company acquired Hybritech, Inc. from Eli Lilly, in 1996, the company acquired the Sanofi portion of Sanofi Pasteur Diagnostics. In 1998, the company acquired Coulter Corporation, a company founded by Wallace H. Coulter, Beckman, thereafter, changed its name to Beckman Coulter. In 2005, the company acquired Diagnostic Systems Laboratories based in Webster, in 2006, the company acquired Lumigen and Agencourt Bioscience. In 2007, the acquired the Flow Cytometry Business Group of Dako North America. In 2009, the company acquired Lab-based Diagnostics business of Olympus Corporation Japan, in 2009, the company moved its world headquarters from Fullerton, California to the newly renovated facility in Brea, California. In February 2011, Danaher announced that it has entered into a merger agreement with Beckman Coulter. On June 30,2011, Danaher finalized the acquisition of Beckman Coulter, Beckman Coulter Diagnostics Beckman Coulter Life Sciences Yahoo. Company Profile Beckman Instrumentation Collection Finding Aid 2010, Othmer Library, Chemical Heritage FoundationBeckman Coulter – Beckman Coulter headquarters in Brea
7. Castle Air Force Base – Castle Air Force Base is a former United States Air Force Strategic Air Command base located northeast of Atwater, northwest of Merced and about 115 miles south of Sacramento, California. The base, located in unincorporated Merced County, was closed after the end of the Cold War in 1995 and it is now known as the Castle Airport Aviation and Development Center. The airfield was opened on 20 September 1941 as the Army Air Corps Basic Flying School and it provided basic air training for beginning pilots and crewmen. Many pilots and crews were trained here during the war including a number of Womens Air Service Pilots, the 444th operated from Merced for about six months with the 678th BS being re-designated as the 10th Recon Squadron and its aircraft being converted to the RB-29 configuration. The three B-29 squadrons inactivated at Merced on 6 May 1946 with the 10th Reconnaissance Squadron relocating to Davis-Monthan Field, the 444th was inactivated on 16 November 1947. During the summer of 1945, when most other air fields were winding down, after the war ended, Merced was home to several air tanker squadrons and remained a training center for pilots and air crews. Merced Army Air Field was renamed Castle Field on 17 January 1946, the 93rd Bombardment Group was activated at Merced on 21 June 1946, starting a nearly 50-year relationship with the airfield. The 93rd was a former Eighth Air Force B-24 Liberator group which was assigned to Merced for Boeing B-29 Superfortress training, the 93rd was one of SACs first ten bomb groups. There were three operational squadrons which absorbed the equipment and aircraft of the inactivated 444th BG. On 1 October 1946, the base was put on minimal operations on caretaker status, the 93rd Bomb Group, however remained active. It, along with the 509th Composite Group at Roswell Army Air Field, the base remained in this status until 1 May 1947 when it was reactivated. On 1 May 1947, Castle Field was reactivated under Strategic Air Command, on 28 July 1947, the 93rd Bombardment Wing, was established and took over responsibility from the group. During 1947–1948, it flew Boeing B-29 Superfortresses, but soon received the version of the B-29. In 1948, the wing deployed to Kadena AB, Okinawa. Castle Field was renamed Castle Air Force Base on 13 January 1948 with the establishment of the USAF as a military service. On 27 June 1949, the Air Force Reserve 447th Bombardment Group was activated at Castle, the 447th remained active until 16 June 1951 when the group was activated and the aircraft and personnel sent to Far East Air Forces as replacements for combat losses during the Korean War. With the units departure, the 447th was inactivated, the Convair B-36 Peacemaker entered SACs inventory in 1948. The huge plane dwarfed the earlier bombers, the 93rd, along with all other B-29 and B-50 bomb groups, was re-designated MediumCastle Air Force Base – 2006 USGS Aerial Photo
8. Concord Naval Weapons Station – Concord Naval Weapons Station was a military base established in 1942 north of the city of Concord, California at the shore of the Sacramento River where it widens into Suisun Bay. The station functioned as a World War II armament storage depot, Concord NWS continued to support war efforts during the Korean War, the Vietnam War and the Gulf War, processing and shipping thousands of tons of materiel out across the Pacific Ocean. During World War II it also had a Naval Outlying Field at the edge of the base. It ceased being an operating airfield after World War II, the station consisted of two areas, the Inland Area, which is within the Concord city limits, and the Tidal Area. In 2007 the U. S. federal government announced that the Inland Area of the Naval station would be closed, the Tidal area of the base was not scheduled for closure. City staff are assigned to manage this effort, the Reuse Plan is subject to approval by the Navy. The East Bay Regional Park District will be receiving 2,540 acres of the Inland Area that will be developed for use as Concord Hills Regional Park. Formal conveyance of the property is expected in early 2016 whereupon the property will be prepared for public access, on the evening of July 17, a massive explosion instantly killed 320 sailors, merchant seamen and civilians working at the pier. The blast was felt 30 miles away, a subsequent refusal by 258 black sailors to load any more ammunition was the beginning of the Navys largest-ever mutiny trial in which 50 men were found guilty. Future Supreme Court Justice Thurgood Marshall sat in on most of the proceedings, on September 1,1987 U. S. Air Force veteran and peace activist Brian Willson was run over by a Navy munitions train while attempting to stop the train outside the compound gates. He suffered a skull and the amputation of both his legs below the knee, among other injuries. The incident that caused Mr. Willsons injury were never prosecuted in court, but a civil suit was filed. In the days afterward, thousands participated by protesting the actions of the trains crew, during the demonstration, anti-war protesters dismantled several hundred feet of Navy railroad tracks located outside of the base, while police and U. S. Billy Nessen, a prominent Berkeley-based activist, was charged with organizing the track removal. The Concord NWS was listed as a Superfund cleanup site on December 16,1994, an area of great concern is the risk to the endangered salt marsh harvest mouse and the California clapper rail. Environmental remediation is underway at the base with some sites having soil removed, in 2008 control of the site was changed. The Inland Area became a Detachment of the Naval Weapons Station Seal Beach, the Tidal Area was transferred to the U. S. Army Surface Deployment and Distribution Command and is now known as Military Ocean Terminal Concord. This facility was used by the Diablo Squadron and Training Ship Concord of the United States Naval Sea Cadet CorpsConcord Naval Weapons Station – Aerial view taken in 2006
9. Edwards Air Force Base – Edwards Air Force Base is a United States Air Force installation in southern California, located approximately 22 miles northeast of Lancaster and 15 miles east of Rosamond. It operates the U. S. Air Force Test Pilot School and is home to NASAs Armstrong Flight Research Center, previously known as Muroc Air Force Base, Edwards AFB is named in honor of Captain Glen Edwards. Edwards became a test pilot in 1943 and spent much of his time at Muroc Army Air Field, on Californias high desert and he died in the crash of a Northrop YB-49 flying wing near Muroc AFB on 5 June 1948. The base is next to Rogers Dry Lake, an endorheic salt pan whose hard dry lake surface provides a natural extension to Edwards runways. This large landing area, combined with excellent year-round weather, makes the good for flight testing. The lake is a National Historic Landmark, the base has played a significant role in the development of virtually every aircraft to enter the Air Force inventory since World War II. Almost every United States military aircraft since the 1950s has been at least partially tested at Edwards, the Wing also oversees the base’s day-to-day operations and provides support for military, federal civilian, and contract personnel assigned to Edwards AFB. 412th Operations Group. There are eight flight test squadrons under the 412th Operations Group with as many as 20 aircraft assigned to each, the 412 OS flies an average of 90 aircraft with upwards of 30 different aircraft designs. It also performs more than 7,400 missions on an annual basis and they provide the tools, talent and equipment for the core disciplines of aircraft structures, propulsion, avionics and electronic warfare evaluation of the latest weapon system technologies. The Project and Resource Management Divisions provide the foundation for the program management of test missions. 412th Civil Engineer Division 412th Maintenance Group 412th Medical Group 412th Mission Support Group U. S, the comprehensive curriculum of Test Pilot School is fundamental to the success of flight test and evaluation. There are a vast array of organizations at Edwards that do not fall under the 412th Test Wing and these units do everything from providing an on-base grocery store to testing state-of-the-art rockets. The 31st Test and Evaluation Squadron provides Air Combat Command personnel to support combined test, established in 1917, it is one of the oldest units of the United States Air Force. The Desert Pirates are part of the 53d Test and Evaluation Group, Nellis AFB, Nevada, the 31st is staffed with a mixture of operations, maintenance and engineering experts who plan and conduct tests, evaluate effectiveness and suitability, and influence system design. The squadrons personnel are integrated into the B-1, B-2, B-52, Global Hawk, MQ-9 and their results and conclusions support Department of Defense acquisition, deployment and employment decisions. AFOTEC Detachment 5 is responsible for conducting the operational test and evaluation of USAF aircraft, certification by Detachment 5 is required in advance prior to new aircraft prior to AFMC full rate production and combat fielding decisions. During 1978 and 1979, an AFFTC test pilot and a pair of flight test engineers were engaged in testing with Lockheeds low-observable technology demonstrator. The successful conduct of tests led immediately to the development of the F-117A NighthawkEdwards Air Force Base – A 461st Flight Test Squadron F-35 Lightning II, marked AA-1, lands at Edwards Air Force Base
10. Fairchild Semiconductor – Fairchild Semiconductor International, Inc. was an American semiconductor company based in San Jose, California. Founded in 1957 as a division of Fairchild Camera and Instrument, it became a pioneer in the manufacturing of transistors, Schlumberger bought the firm in 1979 and sold it to National Semiconductor in 1987, Fairchild was spun off as an independent company again in 1997. The company has locations in the United States at San Jose, California, South Portland, Maine, West Jordan, Utah, Mountaintop, Pennsylvania. Outside the U. S. it operates locations in Singapore, Bucheon, South Korea, Penang, Malaysia, Suzhou, China, in September 2016, Fairchild was acquired by ON Semiconductor. At first he attempted to hire some of his colleagues from Bell Labs. Shockley then founded the core of the new company with what he considered the best and brightest graduates coming out of American engineering schools, while Shockley was effective as a recruiter, he was less effective as a manager. A core group of Shockley employees, later known as the traitorous eight, the eight men were Julius Blank, Victor Grinich, Jean Hoerni, Eugene Kleiner, Jay Last, Gordon Moore, Robert Noyce, and Sheldon Roberts. Looking for funding on their own project, they turned to Sherman Fairchilds Fairchild Camera and Instrument, in 1957 the Fairchild Semiconductor division was started with plans to make silicon transistors at a time when germanium was still the most common material for semiconductor use. According to Sherman Fairchild, Noyces impassioned presentation of his vision was the reason Sherman Fairchild had agreed to create the division for the traitorous eight. Noyce advocated the use of silicon as substrate – since the costs would consist of sand and a few fine wires. Their first transistors were of the silicon mesa variety, innovative for their time, later Fairchild pioneered the planar process developed by Jean Hoerni in 1958, which was a huge improvement – transistors could be made more easily, at a lower cost and with higher performance. Fairchilds planar process made most other transistor processes obsolete, one casualty of this was Philcos transistor division, which had just built a $40 million plant to make their now-totally obsolete germanium PADT process transistors. Within a few years every other transistor company copied or licensed the Fairchild planar process and their first marketed transistor was the 2N697, and was a huge success. The first batch of 100 was sold to IBM for $150 a piece, the first planar silicon transistor was the 2N1613 developed by Jean Hoerni. Its introduction was an event in semiconductor history. Only two years later they had managed to build a circuit with four transistors on a wafer of silicon. The company grew from twelve to twelve thousand employees, and was soon making $130 million a year, Fairchilds Noyce and Texas Instruments Kilby had independently invented the integrated circuit based on bipolar technology. In 1960, Noyce invented the integrated circuitFairchild Semiconductor – Fairchild Semiconductor International, Inc.
11. Fort Ord – Fort Ord is a former United States Army post on Monterey Bay of the Pacific Ocean coast in California, which closed in 1994. Most of the land now makes up the Fort Ord National Monument. Before construction and official designation as a fort in 1940, the land was used as a maneuver area, Fort Ord was considered one of the most attractive locations of any U. S. Army post, because of its proximity to the beach and California weather. The 7th Infantry Division was its main garrison for many years, when Fort Ord was converted to civilian use, space was set aside for the first nature reserve in the United States created for conservation of an insect, the endangered Smiths blue butterfly. Additional endangered species are found on Fort Ord including Contra Costa goldfields, while much of the old military buildings and infrastructure remain abandoned, many structures have been torn down for anticipated development. On April 20,2012, President Barack Obama signed a proclamation designating a 14, the area was known as the Gigling Reservation, U. S. Field Artillery Area, Presidio of Monterey and Gigling Field Artillery Range. Although military development and construction was just beginning, the War only lasted for another year, despite a great demobilization of the U. S. Armed Forces during the years of the 1920s and 1930s, by 1933. Primarily, horse cavalry units trained on the camp until the military began to mechanize and train mobile combat units such as tanks, armored personnel carrier and movable artillery. By 1940, the 23-year-old Camp Ord was expanded to 2,000 acres, in August 1940, it was re-designated Fort Ord and the 7th Infantry Division was reactivated, becoming the first major unit to occupy the post. In 1941, Camp Ord became Fort Ord, in 1947, Fort Ord became the home of the 4th Replacement Training Center. During the 1950s and 1960s, Fort Ord was an area for units departing for war in the Korean War and later peace-time/occupation/ duty in Japan, South Korea. Then, when Southeast Asia became a war zone with Vietnam, the 194th Armored Brigade was activated there under Combat Development Command in 1957, but departed for Fort Knox in Kentucky in 1960. In 1988, the Base Realignment and Closure legislation considering the post-Cold War era was passed by the Congress, on July 14,1989, the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency proposed placement of Fort Ord on the National Priorities List. NPL status was finalized on February 21,1990, the final basic training classes were held in 1990. In 1991, the decision to close Fort Ord was made, in 1994, Fort Ord was officially closed. The Fort was the largest U. S. military base to be closed at the time, the BRAC Commission of 1991 recommended closing the post and moving the units stationed at Fort Ord to Fort Lewis, Washington. On May 2,1992, Army elements from Fort Ord along with Marines from Camp Pendleton participated in quelling the 1992 Los Angeles Riots, in 1994, Fort Ord was finally closedFort Ord – This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (December 2014)
12. Fresno Municipal Sanitary Landfill – It became a model for other landfills around the country, and one of the longest-lived. The landfill was operated by the City of Fresno until it closed in 1989, at that time, the landfill had reached the size of 145 acres. It was declared a National Historic Landmark in 2001, in 1983, the California Department of Health Services conducted tests which found that the site contained methane and vinyl chloride gases that were penetrating into the areas around the landfill. These tests also concluded that contaminants were being found in private ground-water wells around the landfill, on June 24,1988, the site was proposed as a superfund site and was finalized on the NPL list on October 10,1989. List of Superfund sites in the United States National Register of Historic Places listings in Fresno County, California Superfund sites in CaliforniaFresno Municipal Sanitary Landfill – Fresno Sanitary Landfill
13. George Air Force Base – George Air Force Base is a former United States Air Force base located within city limits,8 miles northwest of central Victorville, California, about 75 miles northeast of Los Angeles, California. The facility was closed by the Base Realignment and Closure 1992 commission at the end of the Cold War and it is now the site of Southern California Logistics Airport. Established by the United States Army Air Corps as an Advanced Flying School in June 1941 and it was again activated as a training base by the United States Air Force with the outbreak of the Korean War in November 1950. It remained a training base throughout the Cold War, primarily for Tactical Air Command training pilots in front-line USAF fighters until being closed in 1993. Since 2009, the California Air National Guards 196th Reconnaissance Squadron has operated an MQ-1 Predator Remotely Piloted Aircraft training facility at the Southern California Logistics Airport, George Air Force Base was named in honor of Brigadier General Harold Huston George. He was a World War I fighter ace, serving with the 185th and 139th Aero Squadrons, at the beginning of World War II he was assigned to the V Interceptor Command, Far East Air Force in the Philippines. There, he directed air operations in defense of the islands in Manila Bay. Withdrawn to Australia, he died on 29 April 1942 in an accident near Darwin. A Curtiss P-40 of the 49th Fighter Group, piloted by Lt. George, Time-Life war correspondent Melvin Jacoby, and base personnel 2nd Lt. Robert D. Jasper, a number of others received injuries, but the P-40 pilot survived. George Air Force Base was named for the general in June 1950. In April 1940, civic leaders from Victorville, California approached the United States Army with a proposal to develop an airfield in the High Mojave Desert. They promoted the areas 360-days per year of sunny weather, abundance of wide-open spaces, runway construction consisted of a four runway configuration along with seven hangars. To conserve critical materials, most facilities were constructed of wood, concrete, brick, gypsum board, the station was designed to be nearly self-sufficient, with not only hangars, but barracks, warehouses, hospitals, dental clinics, dining halls, and maintenance shops were needed. There were libraries, social clubs for officers, and enlisted men, over 250 buildings, together with complete water, sewer, electric and gas utilities, the airfield served over 4,000 military personnel. Training began in February 1942 on Curtiss AT-9s, T-6 Texans, and AT-17s for pilots, the Army operated an advanced twin-engine pilot training school at the field, its graduated generally flying C-47 Skytrain transports, B-25 Michell or B-26 Marauder medium bombers. The school also trained replacement crew members in the B-25 and B-26, the first class of flying cadets graduated on April 24,1942. In addition to the training, a USAAF Bombardier training school was operated. The 516th, 517th and 518th Twin-Engine Flying Training Squadrons being the flying squadrons, Bombardier training was conducted by the 519th, 520th, 521st and 522d Bombardier Training SquadronsGeorge Air Force Base – 2006 USGS airphoto
14. Goodrich Corporation – The Goodrich Corporation, formerly the B. F. Goodrich Company, was an American aerospace manufacturing company based in Charlotte, North Carolina. Founded in Akron, Ohio in 1870 as Goodrich, Tew & Co. by Dr. Benjamin Franklin Goodrich, the company name was changed to the B. F. Goodrich Company in 1880, to BFGoodrich in the 1980s, and to Goodrich Corporation in 2001. In 1869 Benjamin Franklin Goodrich purchased the Hudson River Rubber Company, the following year Goodrich accepted an offer of $13,600 from the citizens of Akron, Ohio, to relocate his business there. Goodrich ranked 67th among United States corporations in the value of World War II military production contracts, the company grew to be one of the largest tire and rubber manufacturers in the world, helped in part by the 1986 merger with Uniroyal. This product line was sold to Michelin in 1988, and the merged with Rohr, Coltec Industries. The sale of the specialty chemicals division and subsequent change to the current name completed the transformation. In 2006, company sales were $5.8 billion, of which 18%, 16% and 12% of total revenues were accounted for by the U. S. government, Airbus and Boeing, respectively. Though BFGoodrich is a brand name of tires, the Goodrich Corporation exited the tire business in 1988. The tire business and use of the name was sold to Michelin, before the sale to Michelin, Goodrich ran television and print ads showing an empty blue sky, to distinguish themselves from the similar-sounding Goodyear tire company. The tag line was, See that blimp up in the sky, the company was also sometimes confused with Mr. Goodwrench as the two last names were similar, especially when B. F. Goodrich tires were featured on many General Motors cars and trucks. B. F. Goodrich sold radios from the 1930s to the 1950s and these radios were actually made by a variety of manufacturers for B. F. Goodrich. In 1936 the company entered the Mexican market in a joint venture with Euzkadi, the Troy, Ohio plant was purchased in 1946 from Waco. Since then, Goodrich has manufactured wheels and brakes for a variety of aircraft, among these are commercial, military, regional, and business programs. This successful operation lies at the core of Goodrichs business, competitors include the aerostructures divisions of companies such as Honeywell, Messier-Bugatti, Aircraft Braking Systems, and SNECMA. The Hood Rubber Company was sold before the Great Depression as a division of the B. F. Goodrich Company, by 1986 B. F. Goodrich had become an S&P 500-listed company in diverse business, including tire and rubber fabrication. B. F. Goodrich made high-performance replacement tires, B. F. Goodrich Company held a 50% stake in the new tire company. In 1987, its first full year of operation, the new Uniroyal Goodrich Tire Company generated almost $2 billion in sales revenue, the merger soon proved to be difficult. In June 1988 B. F. Goodrich sold its 50% stake for $225 million, the buyers were a group of investors led by Clayton & Dubilier, Inc. a private New York investment firmGoodrich Corporation – Goodrich dealer's decorated car in Salt Lake City c. 1913
15. Hewlett-Packard – The Hewlett-Packard Company or shortened to Hewlett-Packard was an American multinational information technology company headquartered in Palo Alto, California. The company was founded in a garage in Palo Alto by William Bill Redington Hewlett and David Dave Packard. HP was the worlds leading PC manufacturer from 2007 to Q22013 and it specialized in developing and manufacturing computing, data storage, and networking hardware, designing software and delivering services. HP also had services and consulting business around its products and partner products.4 billion in 2008, in November 2009, HP announced the acquisition of 3Com, with the deal closing on April 12,2010. On April 28,2010, HP announced the buyout of Palm, on September 2,2010, HP won its bidding war for 3PAR with a $33 a share offer, which Dell declined to match. On October 6,2014, Hewlett-Packard announced plans to split the PC and printers business from its enterprise products, the split closed on November 1,2015, and resulted in two publicly traded companies, HP Inc. and Hewlett Packard Enterprise. William Redington Hewlett and David Packard graduated with degrees in engineering from Stanford University in 1935. The company originated in a garage in nearby Palo Alto during a fellowship they had with a past professor, Terman was considered a mentor to them in forming Hewlett-Packard. In 1939, Packard and Hewlett established Hewlett-Packard in Packards garage with a capital investment of US$538. Hewlett and Packard tossed a coin to decide whether the company they founded would be called Hewlett-Packard or Packard-Hewlett, HP incorporated on August 18,1947, and went public on November 6,1957. Of the many projects they worked on, their very first financially successful product was an audio oscillator. This allowed them to sell the Model 200A for $54.40 when competitors were selling less stable oscillators for over $200, the Model 200 series of generators continued until at least 1972 as the 200AB, still tube-based but improved in design through the years. They worked on technology and artillery shell fuses during World War II. Hewlett-Packards HP Associates division, established around 1960, developed semiconductor devices primarily for internal use, instruments and calculators were some of the products using these devices. HP partnered in the 1960s with Sony and the Yokogawa Electric companies in Japan to develop several high-quality products, the products were not a huge success, as there were high costs in building HP-looking products in Japan. HP and Yokogawa formed a joint venture in 1963 to market HP products in Japan, HP bought Yokogawa Electrics share of Hewlett-Packard Japan in 1999. HP spun off a company, Dynac, to specialize in digital equipment. The name was picked so that the HP logo hp could be turned upside down to be a reverse image of the logo dy of the new companyHewlett-Packard – HP headquarters in Palo Alto, California
16. Intel – Intel Corporation is an American multinational corporation and technology company headquartered in Santa Clara, California that was founded by Gordon Moore and Robert Noyce. It is the worlds largest and highest valued semiconductor chip makers based on revenue, and is the inventor of the x86 series of microprocessors, Intel supplies processors for computer system manufacturers such as Apple, Lenovo, HP, and Dell. Intel Corporation was founded on July 18,1968, by semiconductor pioneers Robert Noyce and Gordon Moore, the companys name was conceived as portmanteau of the words integrated and electronics. The fact that intel is the term for intelligence information made the name appropriate. Intel was a developer of SRAM and DRAM memory chips. Although Intel created the worlds first commercial microprocessor chip in 1971, during the 1990s, Intel invested heavily in new microprocessor designs fostering the rapid growth of the computer industry. The Open Source Technology Center at Intel hosts PowerTOP and LatencyTOP, and supports other projects such as Wayland, Intel Array Building Blocks, and Threading Building Blocks. Client Computing Group – 55% of 2016 revenues – produces hardware components used in desktop, data Center Group – 29% of 2016 revenues – produces hardware components used in server, network, and storage platforms. Internet of Things Group – 5% of 2016 revenues – offers platforms designed for retail, transportation, industrial, buildings, non-Volatile Memory Solutions Group – 4% of 2016 revenues – manufactures NAND flash memory products primarily used in solid-state drives. Intel Security Group – 4% of 2016 revenues – produces software, particularly security, programmable Solutions Group – 3% of 2016 revenues – manufactures programmable semiconductors. In 2016, Dell accounted for 15% of Intels total revenues, Lenovo accounted for 13% of total revenues, in the 1980s, Intel was among the top ten sellers of semiconductors in the world. In 1991, Intel became the biggest chip maker by revenue and has held the position ever since, other top semiconductor companies include TSMC, Advanced Micro Devices, Samsung, Texas Instruments, Toshiba and STMicroelectronics. Competitors in PC chip sets include Advanced Micro Devices, VIA Technologies, Silicon Integrated Systems, however, the cross-licensing agreement is canceled in the event of an AMD bankruptcy or takeover. Some smaller competitors such as VIA Technologies produce low-power x86 processors for small factor computers, however, the advent of such mobile computing devices, in particular, smartphones, has in recent years led to a decline in PC sales. Since over 95% of the worlds smartphones currently use processors designed by ARM Holdings, ARM is also planning to make inroads into the PC and server market. Intel has been involved in disputes regarding violation of antitrust laws. Intel was founded in Mountain View, California in 1968 by Gordon E. Moore, a chemist, and Robert Noyce, arthur Rock helped them find investors, while Max Palevsky was on the board from an early stage. Moore and Noyce had left Fairchild Semiconductor to found Intel, Rock was not an employee, but he was an investor and was chairman of the boardIntel – Headquarters in Santa Clara, California
17. Intersil – Intersil, a Renesas company is a subsidiary of Renesas. The original Intersil was formed in August 1999 through the acquisition of the business of Harris Corporation. The original Intersil, Inc. was founded in 1967 by Jean Hoerni to develop digital watch processors and they were originally funded by SSIH, a Swiss watch company. In 1988 Intersil was taken over by Harris Semiconductor, which had offered the IM6100 as second source, Harris combined these activities with the semiconductor divisions of Radiation Incorporated, General Electric and RCA they had taken over before. In 1999 Harris spun off its semiconductor division and Intersil Corporation was created with the largest IPO in American semiconductor industry history. The second Intersil Corporation is a different company from the original Intersil, next to digital circuits like microprocessors and memories like the 1k-bit CMOS RAM IM6508 and CMOS EPROMS IM6604/IM6654 Intersil designed famous analogue ICs like the ICM8038 waveform generator. A creation of Intersil is the PRISM line of Wi-Fi hardware, that group of products was sold to GlobespanVirata in 2003, Intersil is the manufacturer of the RCA1802 microprocessor, a CPU traditionally used in space applications. The company, under CEO Dave Bell, then began the expansion of a catalog analog business, the company also completed a series of acquisitions, two of which are still part of the portfolio, Zilker Labs digital power devices and Techwell automotive and security and surveillance products. In 2012, with revenue in decline, the board of directors removed Dave Bell. In March 2013, the board appointed Necip Sayiner, the architect of Silicon Labs turnaround, Sayiner concentrated the companys efforts on power management and select target markets. The company was able to return to profitability in 2013 and in early 2014 re-launched as a management company, with products to improve power efficiency, extend battery life. Renesas acquired Intersil on February 24th,2017, Intersil develops and markets power management and precision analog technology for applications in the industrial, infrastructure, mobile, automotive and aerospace markets. Analog Semiconductors Intersil 6100 RTX2010 Official websiteIntersil – Intersil Corporation
18. Iron Mountain Mine – Iron Mountain Mine, also known as the Richmond Mine at Iron Mountain, is a mine near Redding in Northern California, USA. Geologically classified as a massive sulfide ore deposit, the site was mined for iron, silver, gold, copper, zinc, the mine is the source of extremely acidic mine drainage which also contains large amounts of zinc, copper and cadmium. One of Americas most toxic waste sites, it has listed as a federal Superfund site since 1983. The site was mined by the Mountain Copper Company, Ltd. both underground using open stope mining techniques and at the surface in the form of open pit and sidehill mining. As a result, the fractured and mineral deposits were exposed to oxygen, water and certain bacteria. Though mining operations were discontinued in 1963, underground workings, waste rock dumps, piles of mine tailings. The mine was designated a Superfund site in 1983 and a treatment plant was built in 1994. In 2000 the government reached a settlement with Aventis CropScience for the funding of the cleanup efforts. The mine is located at 40°40′20″N 122°31′40″W in the Klamath Mountains of Shasta County and this reservoir is a major source of drinking water for Redding. Historic mining activity at the site has fractured the mountain, exposing minerals in the mountain to surface water, rain water, when pyrite is exposed to moisture and oxygen, sulfuric acid forms. This sulfuric acid runs through the mountain and leaches out copper, cadmium, zinc and this acid flows out of the seeps and portals of the mine. Much of the mine drainage ultimately is channeled into the Spring Creek Reservoir by creeks surrounding the mine. The Bureau of Reclamation periodically releases the stored acid mine drainage into Keswick Reservoir, planned releases are timed to coincide with the presence of diluting releases of water from Shasta Dam. On occasion, uncontrolled spills and excessive waste releases have occurred when Spring Creek Reservoir reached capacity, without sufficient dilution, this results in the release of harmful quantities of heavy metals into the Sacramento River. Approximately 70,000 people use surface water within 3 miles as their source of drinking water, the low pH level and the heavy metal contamination from the mine have caused the virtual elimination of aquatic life in sections of Slickrock Creek, Boulder Creek, and Spring Creek. The drainage water from the Iron Mountain Mine is the most acidic water naturally found on Earth, water temperatures as high as 47°C have been measured underground. The drainage water endangers fish, including winter-run Chinook salmon, a listed endangered species that spawns in the Sacramento River. Salmon kills have been noted since 1899, the mine opening contains huge stalactite-stalagmite structures that span from floor to ceiling and are composed of rhomboclase and other iron sulfate mineralsIron Mountain Mine – Drainage from the Iron Mountain Mine
19. Jet Propulsion Laboratory – The Jet Propulsion Laboratory is a federally funded research and development center and NASA field center in La Cañada Flintridge, California and Pasadena, California, United States. The JPL is managed by the nearby California Institute of Technology for NASA, the laboratorys primary function is the construction and operation of planetary robotic spacecraft, though it also conducts Earth-orbit and astronomy missions. It is also responsible for operating NASAs Deep Space Network and they are also responsible for managing the JPL Small-Body Database, and provides physical data and lists of publications for all known small Solar System bodies. The JPLs Space Flight Operations Facility and Twenty-Five-Foot Space Simulator are designated National Historic Landmarks, JPL traces its beginnings to 1936 in the Guggenheim Aeronautical Laboratory at the California Institute of Technology when the first set of rocket experiments were carried out in the Arroyo Seco. Malinas thesis advisor was engineer/aerodynamicist Theodore von Kármán, who arranged for U. S. Army financial support for this GALCIT Rocket Project in 1939. In 1941, Malina, Parsons, Forman, Martin Summerfield, in 1943, von Kármán, Malina, Parsons, and Forman established the Aerojet Corporation to manufacture JATO motors. The project took on the name Jet Propulsion Laboratory in November 1943, during JPLs Army years, the laboratory developed two deployed weapon systems, the MGM-5 Corporal and MGM-29 Sergeant intermediate range ballistic missiles. These missiles were the first US ballistic missiles developed at JPL and it also developed a number of other weapons system prototypes, such as the Loki anti-aircraft missile system, and the forerunner of the Aerobee sounding rocket. At various times, it carried out testing at the White Sands Proving Ground, Edwards Air Force Base. A lunar lander was developed in 1938-39 which influenced design of the Apollo Lunar Module in the 1960s. The team lost that proposal to Project Vanguard, and instead embarked on a project to demonstrate ablative re-entry technology using a Jupiter-C rocket. They carried out three successful flights in 1956 and 1957. Using a spare Juno I, the two organizations then launched the United States first satellite, Explorer 1, on February 1,1958, JPL was transferred to NASA in December 1958, becoming the agencys primary planetary spacecraft center. JPL engineers designed and operated Ranger and Surveyor missions to the Moon that prepared the way for Apollo, JPL also led the way in interplanetary exploration with the Mariner missions to Venus, Mars, and Mercury. In 1998, JPL opened the Near-Earth Object Program Office for NASA, as of 2013, it has found 95% of asteroids that are a kilometer or more in diameter that cross Earths orbit. JPL was early to employ women mathematicians, in the 1940s and 1950s, using mechanical calculators, women in an all-female computations group performed trajectory calculations. In 1961, JPL hired Dana Ulery as their first woman engineer to work alongside male engineers as part of the Ranger and Mariner mission tracking teams, when founded, JPLs site was a rocky flood-plain just outside the city limits of Pasadena. Almost all of the 177 acres of the U. S, the city of La Cañada Flintridge, California was incorporated in 1976, well after JPL attained international recognition with a Pasadena addressJet Propulsion Laboratory – Aerial view of JPL in Pasadena, California
20. Koppers Co., Inc. (KCI) Superfund Site – Superfund Site is one of three Superfund sites in Oroville, California, along with Louisiana Pacific Sawmill and Western Pacific Railyard. The KCI Superfund Site is a 200-acre site which served as a treatment plant for 50 years. Wood was treated with chemicals to prevent wood deterioration. The accumulation of chemicals from spills, fires, and uses has caused this site to be contaminated with hazardous waste material. The KCI Superfund site was originally a mining operation in the 1900s, the Hutchinson Lumber Mill operated from 1920 to 1948. In 1955, Koppers Co. Inc. purchased the property from National Wood Treatment Company, Koppers later sold the company to Beazer East, Inc. which then later re-sold it to Koppers Industries, Inc. The company closed down the treatment facility in 2001. Beazer East, Inc. again bought out the company and sold the land with its contaminated soils into two landfills to Gold Line Express Inc, Beazer East Inc. is known to be the responsible party for the outcome of the site. From 1948 to 2001, the Oroville Plant conducted wood treatment operations to prevent wood from deteriorating, in 1963, an on-site fire released 20,000 gallons of pentachlorophenol from tanks onto the soil. Another fire was documented in 1987 releasing high levels of dioxins, with many orders and remedial actions to clean up the site, KCI Superfund Site is under monitored recovery to clean the affected groundwater and soil contamination. The goal is to return the original source of groundwater to the 10,650 people living in the surrounding area. The process of wood treatment requires many chemicals such as pentachlorophenol, dioxins, dibenzofuran, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and heavy metals such as copper, chromium, PCP was first discovered in groundwater and in nearby residential wells in 1971. The most abundant of these chemicals present at the site is PCP. Long-term exposure to low levels of PCP, through soil exposure or water exposure, can lead to carcinogenic, renal, the Environmental Protection Agencys maximum contaminant level in water is 1 parts per billion. Some wells most recently measured at the site in 2007 still had concentrations of PCP above 15 ppb, all of these hazardous chemicals can cause liver damage, reproductive effects, neurobehavioral effects, immunotoxic effects, and developmental effects. Orders for cleanup were issued two years after PCP was first discovered and no serious effects were reported. Many preventive actions have been implemented from the state and federal districts, from 1984 to 1986, bottled water was supplied to residential areas whose drinking supply was impacted. Thirty-four private residences were connected with alternate water supply from the Oroville-Wyandotte Irrigation DistrictKoppers Co., Inc. (KCI) Superfund Site – Koppers Co., Inc. Superfund site
21. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory – Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is an American federal research facility in Livermore, California, United States, founded by the University of California in 1952. A Federally Funded Research and Development Center, it is funded by the U. S. In 2012, the laboratory had the synthetic chemical element livermorium named after it, LLNL is self-described as a premier research and development institution for science and technology applied to national security. Its principal responsibility is ensuring the safety, security and reliability of the nuclear weapons through the application of advanced science, engineering. The Laboratory is located on a site at the eastern edge of Livermore. It also operates a 7,000 acres remote experimental test site, called Site 300, LLNL has an annual budget of about $1.5 billion and a staff of roughly 5,800 employees. LLNL was established in 1952 as the University of California Radiation Laboratory at Livermore and it was intended to spur innovation and provide competition to the nuclear weapon design laboratory at Los Alamos in New Mexico, home of the Manhattan Project that developed the first atomic weapons. Edward Teller and Ernest Lawrence, director of the Radiation Laboratory at Berkeley, are regarded as the co-founders of the Livermore facility, the new laboratory was sited at a former naval air station of World War II. About half an hour southeast of Berkeley, the Livermore site provided much greater security for classified projects than a university campus. Lawrence tapped 32-year-old Herbert York, a graduate student of his. Under York, the Lab had four programs, Project Sherwood, Project Whitney, diagnostic weapon experiments. Lawrence died in August 1958 and shortly after, the board of regents named both laboratories for him, as the Lawrence Radiation Laboratory. Historically, the Berkeley and Livermore laboratories have had close relationships on research projects, business operations. The Livermore Lab was established initially as a branch of the Berkeley Laboratory, the Livermore Lab was not officially severed administratively from the Berkeley Lab until 1971. The laboratory was renamed Lawrence Livermore Laboratory in 1971, on October 1,2007 LLNS assumed management of LLNL from the University of California, which had exclusively managed and operated the Laboratory since its inception 55 years before. The laboratory was honored in 2012 by having the chemical element livermorium named after it. The LLNS takeover of the Laboratory has been controversial, in May 2013, an Alameda County jury awarded over $2.7 million to five former Laboratory employees who were among 430 employees LLNS laid off during 2008. The jury found that LLNS breached an obligation to terminate the employees only for “reasonable cause. ”The five plaintiffs also have pending age discrimination claims against LLNSLawrence Livermore National Laboratory – Aerial view of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
22. Leviathan Mine – Leviathan Mine is a United States superfund site at an abandoned open-pit sulfur mine located in Alpine County, California. The mine is located at on the slope of the Sierra Nevada at about 7. The mine site comprises approximately 250 acres of land surrounded by the Toiyabe National Forest and these water bodies are listed as 303 impaired. The site location is seismically active, pre-open pit mining began in 1863 by Comstock Lode miners. Between 1863 and 1870,500 tons of copper sulfate was removed from two adits and this copper sulfate was used for silver ore refining. A large sulfur deposit was discovered in one of the adits, between 1935 and 1941 Calpine Corporation of Los Angeles, which subleased the mine from the Texas Gulf Sulfur Company, conducted subsurface sulfur mining and recovered 5,000 tons of sulfur. Mining was suspended in 1941 due to the nature of mining sulfur underground. In 1945 the Siskon Mining Corporation, acquired the mine, open-pit mining of sulfur was initiated at the site when Anaconda Copper Mining Company purchased the Leviathan in 1951. The extracted sulfur was used for ore processing at Anaconda Copper Mine. During its excavating operations and Leviathan, Anaconda turned the mine into a 50-acre, 400-foot-deep pit. During this time period acid mine drainage began contaminating Leviathan Creek, in 1963, Anaconda sold the property to founders of the Alpine Mining Enterprises, Zella N. Mann and William Chris Mann, who was the Alpine County Clerk. The State of California acquired Leviathan from Alpine Mining Enterprises in 1984, results of the project include the discovery of unknown acidic springs and accidental AMD discharge directly into Leviathan Creek via a drain line. In 1997 the United States Environmental Protection Agency became involved in the cleanup of Leviathan Mine at the request of the Washoe Tribe of Nevada, the tribe had concerns about overflow from evaporation ponds onto downstream tribal lands and the impacts of AMD on their cultural and natural resources. The EPA Region IX tried unsuccessfully to use a lime neutralization treatment of the AMD. However, due to the use of unproven technologies implemented by ARCO Environmental Remediation, L. L. C. then in 1999, a biphasic neutralization water treatment plant was established by the LRWQCB to treat AMD in the evaporation ponds and minimize over flow into Leviathan Creek. In 1999 the EPA proposed making Leviathans open-pit sulfur mine a superfund site by adding it to the National Priorities List for hazardous waste sites. The LRWQCB was issued an Administrative Abatement Action in 2000 by the EPA in order to continue the treatment, water quality monitoring. Since 2005, the involvement of the LRWQCB is determined by the EPA Remedial Project Manager for the mineLeviathan Mine – Leviathan Mine from the air, with reclamation in progress, 2010
23. Lockheed Corporation – The Lockheed Corporation was an American aerospace company. Lockheed was founded in 1912 and later merged with Martin Marietta to form Lockheed Martin in 1995, the Alco Hydro-Aeroplane Company was established in San Francisco in 1912 by the brothers Allan and Malcolm Loughead. Following the Model F-1, the company invested heavily in the design, however, the asking price of $2500 could not compete in a market that was saturated with post World War 1 $350 Curtiss JN-4s and De Haviland trainers. The Loughead Aircraft Manufacturing Company closed its doors in 1921, in 1926, Allan Loughead, Jack Northrop, and Kenneth Jay secured funding to form the Lockheed Aircraft Company in Hollywood. This new company utilized some of the technology originally developed for the Model S-1 to design the Vega Model. In March 1928, the relocated to Burbank, California. From 1926-28 the company produced over 80 aircraft and employed more than 300 workers who by April 1929 were building five aircraft per week, in July 1929, majority shareholder Fred Keeler sold 87% of the Lockheed Aircraft Company to Detroit Aircraft Corporation. In August 1929, Allan Lockheed resigned, the Great Depression ruined the aircraft market, and Detroit Aircraft went bankrupt. A group of headed by brothers Robert and Courtland Gross. The syndicate bought the company for a mere $40,000, ironically, Allan Lockheed himself had planned to bid for his own company, but had raised only $50,000, which he felt was too small a sum for a serious bid. In 1934, Robert E. Gross was named chairman of the new company, the Lockheed Aircraft Corporation and his brother Courtlandt S. Gross was a co-founder and executive, succeeding Robert as Chairman following his death in 1961. The company was named the Lockheed Corporation in 1977, in the 1930s, Lockheed spent $139,400 to develop the Model 10 Electra, a small twin-engined transport. The company sold 40 in the first year of production, amelia Earhart and her navigator, Fred Noonan, flew it in their failed attempt to circumnavigate the world in 1937. Subsequent designs, the Lockheed Model 12 Electra Junior and the Lockheed Model 14 Super Electra expanded their market. The Lockheed Model 14 formed the basis for the Hudson bomber and its primary role was submarine hunting. The Model 14 Super Electra were sold abroad, and more than 100 were license-built in Japan for use by the Imperial Japanese Army, the P-38 was the only American fighter aircraft in production throughout American involvement in the war, from Pearl Harbor to Victory over Japan Day. It filled ground-attack, air-to-air, and even strategic bombing roles in all theaters of the war in which the United States operated, the Lockheed Vega factory was located next to Burbanks Union Airport which it had purchased in 1940. During the war, the area was camouflaged to fool enemy aerial reconnaissanceLockheed Corporation – P-38J Lightning Yippee
24. Louisiana-Pacific – Louisiana-Pacific Corporation, commonly known as LP, is a United States building materials manufacturer. It was founded in 1973 and is based in Nashville. LP pioneered the U. S. production of oriented strand board panels, today, LP is the worlds largest producer of OSB, and manufactures engineered wood building products. LP products are sold to builders and homeowners through building materials distributors and dealers, as of 2011, LP has 24 mills including 15 in the United States, six in Canada, two in Chile and one in Brazil. A leading manufacturer and marketer of building and lumber products, Louisiana-Pacific Corporation revolutionized the industry by inventing alternatives to plywood, instead of relying on larger, more expensive old-growth timber, LP found ways to make structural building products from small-diameter, fast-growing trees. LP pioneered the use of oriented strand board — a reconstituted plywood substitute made by pressing wood wafers together, OSB is the basis for many of LPs structural building products. LP also manufacturers industrial wood products, such as hardboard and medium density fiberboard, furthermore, along with wood products such as LPI joists and laminated veneer lumber, the company also produces Cocoon cellulose insulation. Plywood and pulp manufacturing round out LPs operations, the company controls over 950,000 acres of timberland, and owns plants in 29 states, as well as in Canada and Ireland. LP was incorporated on January 5,1973 as part of a court-ordered monopoly breakup of Georgia-Pacific, LP was headed by company president Harry A. Merlo for the first 22 years, who was known for his flamboyant style and generous civic contributions. For its first 33 years, Louisiana-Pacific was based in Portland, Oregon, over the years, LP has been associated with professional sports in different manners. From 1979–82, the owned the Portland Timbers soccer club in the defunct North American Soccer League. From 2006–15, it owned the rights to LP Field. Louisiana-Pacific was formed in July 1972 when the Georgia-Pacific Corporation spun off the wholly owned subsidiary, after Georgia-Pacific had acquired 16 small firms in the southern United States, the Federal Trade Commission accused the company of becoming a monopolist in the softwood plywood industry. As part of its settlement with the FTC, Georgia-Pacific agreed to divest 20 percent of its assets, william H. Hunt, a vice-chairman at Georgia-Pacific, was selected as Louisiana-Pacifics first chairman. In 1974 Harry A. Merlo, who had been executive officer of LP since its foundation, succeeded Hunt as chairman while remaining CEO. However, Georgia-Pacific had kept most of its low-cost timber reserves, thus the newly independent LP had to scramble for raw materials, particularly timber, as the July 29,1990 Portland Oregonian explained. This proved to be a difficult task as timber shortages wracked the entire industry. Overcutting, Japanese demand for logs, and pressure on the U. S. Forest Service to tighten harvesting restrictions on large trees caused prices to soarLouisiana-Pacific – Louisiana-Pacific
25. March Air Reserve Base – March Air Reserve Base, previously known as March Air Force Base is located in Riverside County, California between the cities of Riverside and Moreno Valley. It is the home to the Air Force Reserve Commands 4th Air Force Headquarters and the host 452d Air Mobility Wing, for almost 50 years, March AFB was a Strategic Air Command base during the Cold War. The host unit at March is the Air Force Reserves 452d Air Mobility Wing, March JARB is also the home to Headquarters, 4th Air Force of the Air Force Reserve Command and multiple units of the California Air National Guard. Prior to 2013, the 144 FW stationed F-16 Fighting Falcon aircraft, initially consisting of F-16C/D Block 25, then F-16C/D Block 32, on alert at March. Following the wings transition to the F-15 Eagle, the 144 FW now stations an air defense alert detachment F-15C/D Eagle aircraft at this location in support of USNORTHCOM. Dragon Flight is a formation flight demonstration team, based at March. The team uses the T-34 Mentor, making appearances throughout the southwest United States each year. The March Field Airfest, also known as Thunder Over the Empire, is an air show held at March. The air show is among the largest events in the Inland Empire, the show has featured such performers as the United States Air Force Thunderbirds, the F-22 Raptor and many other military and civilian demonstrations. 2010 saw the Patriots Jet Team as the demonstration team of the show. Attendance for the 2010 show was estimated at over 150,000, March is one of the oldest airfields operated by the United States military, being established as Alessandro Flying Training Field in February 1918. It was one of thirty-two Air Service training camps established after the United States entry into World War I in April 1917, the airfield was renamed March Field the following month for 2d Lieutenant Peyton C. March, Jr. the recently deceased son of then-Army Chief of Staff Peyton C, March, who was killed in an air crash in Texas just fifteen days after being commissioned. The establishment of March Air Force Base began in the early 20th century at a time when the United States was rushing to build up its forces in anticipation of an entry into World War I. At the same time, the War Department announced its intentions to build new military installations. The Army quickly set about establishing the new air field, sergeant Charles E. Garlick, who had landed at Alessandro Field in a Curtiss JN-4 Jenny in November 1917, was selected to lead the advance contingent of four men to the new base from Rockwell Field. On 20 March 1918, Alessandro Flying Training Field became March Field, March, Jr. son of the Army Chief of Staff, who had been killed when his Curtiss JN-4 Jenny crashed in Fort Worth, Texas the previous month. His crash occurred two weeks after he had commissioned in the regular United States Army Air ServiceMarch Air Reserve Base – March Air Reserve Base
26. Marine Corps Air Station El Toro – Marine Corps Air Station El Toro was a United States Marine Corps Air Station located near Irvine, California. Before it was decommissioned in 1999, it was the 4,682 acres home of Marine Corps aviation on the West Coast, designated as a Master Jet Station, its four runways could handle the largest aircraft in the U. S. military inventory. While it was active, all U. S. Presidents in the post-World War II era landed in Air Force One at this airfield, the El Toro Flying Bull patch was designed by Walt Disney Studios in 1944. It survived virtually unchanged until the close of the Air Station, the land area originally taken by the air station is planned to be converted into a large recreational center, the Orange County Great Park. The site is used as a filming location, including the test track for the United States version of BBCs Top Gear franchise. In May 1942, Lieutenant Colonel William Fox was directed to select the sites for all of the Marine Corps West Coast air stations, Fox sought the most expeditious and low cost option and thus chose the already existing airports of El Centro, Mojave and Santa Barbara. For the fourth station he chose land that had previously looked at by the Navy for a blimp base. The Marine Corps gave the owner of the land, a farmer named James Irvine Sr. $100,000 for 4,000 acres including 1,600 acres designated for a blimp base. Construction of MCAS El Toro began on August 3,1942 on land owned by the Irvine Company. The company greatly resisted the construction at this site, which at the time contained the largest lima bean field in North America. The name El Toro came from the small community which in 1940 only had a population of 130 people. The runways and taxiways were completed by 1 December 1942 and all squadron hangars were complete by 15 January 1943, barracks and officers quarters were also ready by 20 January. January 1943 also saw the first operational units arriving at MCAS El Toro, first aboard were Marine Base Defense Aircraft Group 41 and VMF-113. They were followed later in the month by VMSB-142, VMF-224, VMSB-231 and VMSB-232, the station was formally commissioned on 17 March 1943 with Colonel Theodore B. Millard as the first commanding officer, soon after its opening, MCAS El Toro was handling the largest tactical aerodrome traffic on the Pacific Coast. Already the largest Marine air station on the West Coast, in 1944, funds were approved to double its size, by the end of 1944, the base would be home to 1,248 officers and 6,831 enlisted personnel. In 1950, El Toro was selected as a permanent Master Jet Station for the Fleet Marine Forces, to support this new role, the aviation infrastructure at El Toro was again expanded significantly. For most of the years, El Toro served as the primary base for Marine Corps west coast fighter squadronsMarine Corps Air Station El Toro – MCAS El Toro in 2010
27. Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton – Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton is the major West Coast base of the United States Marine Corps. The base was established in 1942 to train U. S, Marines for service in World War II. By October 1944, Camp Pendleton was declared a permanent installation and by 1946 and it was named after Major General Joseph Henry Pendleton, who had long advocated setting up a training base for the Marine Corps on the west coast. Today it is the home to myriad Operating Force units including the I Marine Expeditionary Force, in 1769, a Spanish expedition led by Captain Gaspar de Portolá explored northward from Loreto, Baja California Sur, seeking to reach Monterey Bay, something never before done overland by Europeans. On July 20 of that year, the arrived in the area now known as Camp Pendleton. The expedition went on to military outposts and Franciscan missions at San Diego. During the next 30 years,21 missions were established, the most productive one being Mission San Luis Rey, at that time, San Luis Rey Mission had control over the Santa Margarita area. After 1821, following the Mexican War of Independence from Spain, the retired soldiers were joined as rancheros by prominent businessmen, officials and military leaders. They and their children, the Californios, became the landed gentry of Alta California, in 1841, two brothers, Pio Pico and Andrés Pico, became the first private owners of Rancho Santa Margarita. More land was added to the grant, giving it the name of Rancho Santa Margarita y Las Flores. The design of the cattle brand is seen in the bases logo today. In 1863, an Englishman named John Forster paid off Picos gambling debts in return for the deed to the ranch. During his tenure as owner of the ranch, he expanded the house, which was first built in 1827. It was purchased by wealthy cattleman James Clair Flood and managed by Irishman Richard ONeill, under the guidance of ONeills son, Jerome, the ranch began to net a profit of nearly half a million dollars annually, and the house was modernized and furnished to its present form. In the early 1940s, both the Army and the Marine Corps were looking for land for a training base. It was named for Major General Joseph Henry Pendleton who had advocated the establishment of a West Coast training base. Construction began in April but the base was considered a temporary facility so it was built to standards of wood frame construction. After five months of building activity, the 9th Marine RegimentMarine Corps Base Camp Pendleton – The main gate of Camp Pendleton in November 1997. This is the main road for traffic into the base. This gate has been open and staffed by Marines 24 hours a day since 1942,  until November 9, 2012 when the gate was staffed by a force of federal police officers.  [clarification needed] 33°12′53″N 117°23′15″W / 33.2147°N 117.3875°W / 33.2147; -117.3875
28. Marine Corps Logistics Base Barstow – Marine Corps Logistics Base Barstow is a United States Marine Corps supply and maintenance installation located in the Mojave Desert east of Barstow, in San Bernardino County, Southern California. Its mission is to rebuild and repair ground-combat and combat-support equipment, today, one of MCLB Barstow’s most important facilities is the Marine Corps Logistics Bases’ Maintenance Center. The only other facility of this kind is located at MCLB Barstow’s sister installation, the base is located on Interstate 40,3.5 miles east of the city of Barstow. The base lies at the junction of three major systems of I-15, I-40, and SR58. It is approximately 98 miles from the Marine Corps Air Ground Combat Center Twentynine Palms, the base is within 150 miles of the two major seaports of Los Angeles and San Diego. In 1954, the Commanding General, Marine Corps Depot of Supplies, moved his flag from San Francisco to Barstow and since then the base has grown in stature, strength and size. In March 1961, the importance of MCLB Barstow increased dramatically with the establishment of the Depot Maintenance Activity, in November 1978, the base was redesignated to its present title of Marine Corps Logistics Base to emphasize its broad logistics support mission. In the early 1980s, MCLB Albany and Headquarters Marine Corps worked aggressively to integrate support for the Fleet Marine Force. The command was redesignated again in 2003 as a result of the merging of Material Command MATCOM, the transition from a Provost Marshal Office to a Marine Corps Police Department ended in 2007. As of late 2007, the department became the first police department in the Marine Corps to consist of all civilian officers, in 2010, the department became a blended force again with military police. The base comprises three sites, Nebo Annex, Yermo Annex, and a third 2,438 acres site serving as rifle. The Nebo Annex encompasses 1,879 acres and functions as headquarters and is the main facility for administration, storage, recreational activities, shopping. The Nebo annex had a population of 1,174 as of the 2000 Census, 54% of the population is male. 65. 6% of the population is between the ages of 18 and 64, and 34. 2% are under 18, geological Survey Geographic Names Information System, Marine Corps Logistics Base BarstowMarine Corps Logistics Base Barstow – MCLB Barstow has the only horse - mounted color guard in the Marine Corps.
29. Mather Air Force Base – Mather Air Force Base was a United States Air Force Base, which was closed in 1993. It was located 12 miles east of Sacramento, on the side of U. S. Route 50 in Sacramento County. Mather Field was one of 32 Air Service training camps established after the United States entry into World War I in April 1917, the Mather AFB land has various post-military uses including Sacramento Mather Airport, established in 1995. Some of the land was included in the City of Rancho Cordova, Mather Air Force Base was named after Second Lieutenant Carl Spencer Mather, a 25-year-old army pilot killed in a mid-air collision while training at Ellington Field, Texas on January 30,1918. Mather learned to fly in 1914 at the Curtiss Flying School in Hammondsport, New York and he enlisted as an aviation cadet in August 1917 and as a licensed pilot was commissioned with part of his class as a second lieutenant on 20 January 1918. He continued training to earn a Reserve Military Aviator rating and promotion to first lieutenant but was killed ten days later, the remainder of his class requested that Mills Field be renamed in Mathers honor. In January 1918, the Department of War sent a cadre of officers to the Sacramento, the group decided on a location about 12 miles southeast of Sacramento called Mills Station. An agreement to lease the land to the Army was concluded, Mills Field, named after the local community was opened on 30 April 1918. It covered over 700 acres and could accommodate up to 1,000 personnel, dozens of wooden buildings served as headquarters, maintenance, and officers’ quarters. Enlisted men had to bivouac in tents, Mather Fields first commander was 1st Lieutenant Sam P. Burman, who assumed command on 15 March 1918. The first unit stationed there was the 283d Aero Squadron, which was transferred from Rockwell Field, North Island, California. Only a few U. S. Army Air Service aircraft arrived with the 283d Aero Squadron, Mather Field served as a base for primary flight training with an eight-week course. The maximum student capacity was 300, in 1917, flight training occurred in two phases, primary and advanced. Primary training consisted of pilots learning basic flight skills under dual, after completion of their primary training at Mather, flight cadets were then transferred to another base for advanced training. Many local officials speculated that the U. S. government would keep the open because of the outstanding combat record established by Mather-trained pilots in Europe. Locals also pointed to the weather conditions in the Sacramento area for flight training. Cadets in flight training on 11 November 1918 were allowed to complete their training, the separate training squadrons were consolidated into a single Flying School detachment, because many of the personnel at Mather were being demobilized. Flight training activities ceased on 8 November 1919Mather Air Force Base – 2006 USGS airphoto
30. McClellan Air Force Base – McClellan Air Force Base is a former United States Air Force base located in the North Highlands area of Sacramento County,7 miles northeast of Sacramento, California. For the vast majority of its lifetime, McClellan was a logistics and maintenance facility for a wide variety of military aircraft, equipment. The depot went through name changes, finishing its life in 1995 as the Sacramento Air Logistics Center. The SALC reported to the Air Force Logistics Command and later the Air Force Materiel Command, in 1986, the U. S. Air Force established the McClellan Aviation Museum on what was then McClellan Air Force Base. The museum was chartered by the National Museum of the United States Air Force. The United States Coast Guard previously operated Coast Guard Air Station Sacramento at McClellan AFB as a tenant activity, CGAS Sacramento continues to operate at McClellan following its closure as an Air Force Base and is the only remaining military aviation unit and installation on the airfield. In 2005 the McClellan Aviation Museum changed its name to the Aerospace Museum of California, various military aircraft sit on display inside one of the hangars, and many more are outside on the flightline. The museum has displays which highlight the mission of the base when it was active, as well as neighboring bases such as Beale AFB, Travis AFB, the museum hosts educational programs to schools in the local area. In 2015 the Sacramento Bee reported that McClellan Airfield had been designated as a Superfund site, water wells closest to the base in the Rio Linda-Elverta district, have had the highest levels of hexavalent chromium, which is a known carcinogen. Water from six of 11 wells tested above the maximum contaminant levels for chromium-6McClellan Air Force Base – McClellan AFB, 9 May 2002