1.
Leonhard Euler
–
He also introduced much of the modern mathematical terminology and notation, particularly for mathematical analysis, such as the notion of a mathematical function. He is also known for his work in mechanics, fluid dynamics, optics, astronomy, Euler was one of the most eminent mathematicians of the 18th century, and is held to be one of the greatest in history. He is also considered to be the most prolific mathematician of all time. His collected works fill 60 to 80 quarto volumes, more than anybody in the field and he spent most of his adult life in Saint Petersburg, Russia, and in Berlin, then the capital of Prussia. A statement attributed to Pierre-Simon Laplace expresses Eulers influence on mathematics, Read Euler, read Euler, Leonhard Euler was born on 15 April 1707, in Basel, Switzerland to Paul III Euler, a pastor of the Reformed Church, and Marguerite née Brucker, a pastors daughter. He had two sisters, Anna Maria and Maria Magdalena, and a younger brother Johann Heinrich. Soon after the birth of Leonhard, the Eulers moved from Basel to the town of Riehen, Paul Euler was a friend of the Bernoulli family, Johann Bernoulli was then regarded as Europes foremost mathematician, and would eventually be the most important influence on young Leonhard. Eulers formal education started in Basel, where he was sent to live with his maternal grandmother. In 1720, aged thirteen, he enrolled at the University of Basel, during that time, he was receiving Saturday afternoon lessons from Johann Bernoulli, who quickly discovered his new pupils incredible talent for mathematics. In 1726, Euler completed a dissertation on the propagation of sound with the title De Sono, at that time, he was unsuccessfully attempting to obtain a position at the University of Basel. In 1727, he first entered the Paris Academy Prize Problem competition, Pierre Bouguer, who became known as the father of naval architecture, won and Euler took second place. Euler later won this annual prize twelve times, around this time Johann Bernoullis two sons, Daniel and Nicolaus, were working at the Imperial Russian Academy of Sciences in Saint Petersburg. In November 1726 Euler eagerly accepted the offer, but delayed making the trip to Saint Petersburg while he applied for a physics professorship at the University of Basel. Euler arrived in Saint Petersburg on 17 May 1727 and he was promoted from his junior post in the medical department of the academy to a position in the mathematics department. He lodged with Daniel Bernoulli with whom he worked in close collaboration. Euler mastered Russian and settled life in Saint Petersburg. He also took on a job as a medic in the Russian Navy. The Academy at Saint Petersburg, established by Peter the Great, was intended to improve education in Russia, as a result, it was made especially attractive to foreign scholars like Euler

2.
Fritz Zwicky
–
Fritz Zwicky was a Swiss astronomer. He worked most of his life at the California Institute of Technology in the United States of America, in 1933, Zwicky was the first to use the virial theorem to infer the existence of unseen dark matter, describing it as dunkle Materie. Fritz Zwicky was born in Varna, in the Principality of Bulgaria and his father, Fridolin, was a prominent industrialist in the Bulgarian city and also served as ambassador of Norway in Varna. The Zwicky House in Varna was designed and built by Fridolin Zwicky, fritzs mother, Franziska Vrček, was an ethnic Czech of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Fritz was the oldest of the Zwicky familys three children, he had a brother named Rudolf and a sister, Leonie. Fritzs mother died in Varna in 1927, and his father Fridolin remained in Bulgaria until 1945 and his sister Leonie married a Bulgarian from Varna and spent her entire life in the city. In 1904, at the age of six, Fritz was sent to his grandparents in the familys ancestral canton in Glarus, Switzerland, to study commerce. His interests shifted to math and physics and he received an education in mathematics and experimental physics at the Swiss Federal Polytechnic, located in Zurich. He was responsible for positing numerous cosmological theories that have a impact on the understanding of our universe today. He was the first to coin the term supernova during his fostering the concept of neutron stars, Zwicky was a lone wolf and did all of his own mathematical work. He intended to write an autobiography titled, Operation Lone Wolf and it would be five years later when Oppenheimer would publish his landmark paper announcing neutron stars. He developed some of the earliest jet engines and holds over 50 patents, many in jet propulsion, and is the inventor of the Underwater Jet, the Two Piece Jet Thrust Motor and Inverted Hydro Pulse. In April 1932, Fritz Zwicky married Dorothy Vernon Gates, a member of a prominent local family and her money was instrumental in the funding of the Palomar Observatory during the Great Depression. Nicholas Roosevelt, cousin of President Theodore Roosevelt, was his brother-in-law by marriage to Tirzah Gates, Zwicky and Dorothy divorced amicably in 1941. In 1947 Zwicky was married in Switzerland to Anna Margaritha Zurcher, Zwicky died in Pasadena on February 8,1974, and was buried in Mollis, Switzerland. He is remembered as both a genius and a curmudgeon, one of his favorite insults was to refer to people he did not approve of as spherical bastards, because, he explained, they were bastards no matter which way you looked at them. A recent biography in English was published by the Fritz Zwicky Foundation, Alfred Stöckli & Roland Müller, a review of the book is available from Acta Morphologica Generalis. Fritz Zwicky was a prolific scientist and made important contributions in areas of astronomy

3.
Johann III Bernoulli
–
Johann III Bernoulli, grandson of Johann Bernoulli, and son of Johann II Bernoulli. He was known around the world as a child prodigy and he studied at Basel and at Neuchâtel, and when thirteen years of age took the degree of doctor in philosophy. When he was fourteen, he got the degree of master of jurisprudence, at nineteen he was appointed astronomer royal of Berlin. A year later, he reorganized the observatory at the Berlin Academy. Some years after, he visited Germany, France and England and his travel accounts were of great cultural and historical importance. On his return to Berlin he was appointed director of the department of the academy. His writings consist of travels and astronomical, geographical and mathematical works, in 1774 he published a French translation of Leonhard Euler’s Elements of Algebra. He contributed several papers to the Academy of Berlin, and in 1774 he was elected a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. He was entrusted with the Bernoulli familys mathematical estate, also, his correspondence,2,800 items, were sold to the Steckholm Academy until they were found by Gylden at the Stockholm Observatory in 1877. He is one of the last notable members of the Bernoulli family and this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain, Chisholm, Hugh, ed. Bernoulli

4.
Johann Baptist Cysat
–
Johann Baptist Cysat was a Swiss Jesuit mathematician and astronomer, after whom the lunar crater Cysatus is named. In 1604, Cysat joined the Jesuits and became a student in March 1611 in Ingolstadt. There he met Christoph Scheiner, whom he assisted in the observation of sunspots. In 1618, Cysat was named professor of mathematics at the University of Ingolstadt, succeeding Scheiner in this position, Cysat became one of the first to make use of the newly developed telescope. Cysats most important work was on comets, and he observed the comet of 1618 and he published a monograph on the comet called Mathemata astronomica de loco, motu, magnitudine et causis cometae qui sub finem anni 1618 et initium anni 1619 in coelo fulsit. According to Cysat’s opinion, comets circled around the sun, and he demonstrated at the time that the orbit of the comet was parabolic. Cysat’s observations on the comet are characterized by their great detail, Cysat saw enough detail to be the first to describe cometary nuclei, and was able to track the progression of the nucleus from a solid shape to one filled with starry particles. Cysat’s drawings of cometary nuclei were included on the maps of others and his observations of the comet were so detailed that in 1804, he was still considered one of its excellent observers. This work also includes Cysat’s observations on the Orion Nebula, which he compared to the nature of the comet, Cysat’s book is also remarkable due to the fact that it had been printed by a woman, Elizabeth Angermar. During the seventeenth century, regulations laid down by printing guilds sometimes allowed widows, Cysat observed the full lunar eclipse of 1620. He served as rector at the Jesuit College in Lucerne from 1624 to 1627. After a stay in Spain in 1627, where he taught at the Jesuit Colegio Imperial de Madrid, he returned to Ingolstadt in 1630 and served as rector in Innsbruck in 1637 and Eichstatt in 1646. Johannes Kepler visited Cysat in Ingolstadt, but only one letter of their correspondence, dated February 23,1621, on November 7,1631, Cysat observed the partial coverage of the sun by the planet Mercury predicted by Kepler. Cysat subsequently returned to his hometown of Lucerne, where he died on March 17,1657

5.
Nicolas Fatio de Duillier
–
He also developed and patented a method of perforating jewels for use in clocks. Fatio was born in Basel, Switzerland, in 1664, the seventh of fourteen children of Jean-Baptiste, the family moved in 1672 to Duillier. Encouraged by Cassinis reply, he went to Paris in the spring of 1682, Fatio began astronomical studies under Cassini at the Parisian observatory. In 1683, Cassini presented his theory of the zodiacal light, Fatio followed his observations, repeated them at Geneva in 1684, and gave in 1685 new and important developments of this theory. They were published in his Lettre à M. Cassini … touchant une lumière extraordinaire qui paroît dans le ciel depuis quelques années, Fatio returned to Geneva in October 1683. Fenil confided to Fatio a plan for kidnapping William of Orange at Scheveling, and produced a letter from Louvois offering the kings pardon, approving of the plan, and enclosing an order for money. Fatio revealed the plot to his friend Gilbert Burnet, whom he accompanied to Holland in 1686 in order to explain it to the prince. It was decided to reward Fatio, whose abilities were certified by Huygens, with a professorship, with a house. The prince also promised him a private pension, while these plans were delayed, Fatio received permission to visit England in the spring of 1687. In London in 1687, he made the acquaintance of John Wallis and Edward Bernard and he also was on friendly terms with Gilbert Burnet, John Locke, Richard Hampden and his son John Hampden. He became a Fellow of the Royal Society on 2 May 1688 on the recommendation of John Hoskyns. That year, he gave an account on the explanation of gravitation of Huygens before the Royal Society. He met Newton, probably for the first time, on 12 June 1689 at a Royal Society meeting, in 1690, he wrote a letter to Huygens, in which he outlined his own gravitational theory, which later became known as Le Sages theory of gravitation. Soon after that, he read its content before the Royal Society and this theory, on which he worked until his death, is based on minute particles which push gross matter to each other. Fatio alleged that he had convinced Newton of certain mistakes in the monumental work Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica. He put himself on a par with Newton, and in a letter to Huygens, dated 1691, however, he adds, I may possibly undertake it myself, as I know no one who so well and thoroughly understands a good part of this book as I do. Huygens wrote on the margin of this letter ‘appy Newton and he planned, but never completed, a new edition of the Principia. Having obtained posts for some of his countrymen in the English and Dutch service and he became travelling tutor to the eldest son of Sir William Ellis and a Mr. Thornton, and resided in Utrecht during part of 1690

6.
Jean-Alfred Gautier
–
Jean-Alfred Gautier or Alfred Gautier was a Swiss astronomer. He was the son of François Gautier, merchant, and of Marie de Tournes and he studied astronomy at the University of Geneva, then at the University of Paris. He was awarded a doctorate in mechanics in Paris in 1817. His academic advisors were Laplace, Lagrange and Legendre, in 1818 he worked in England with Herschel. Back in Geneva in 1819, he was appointed astronomy professor then, in 1821, professor of advanced mathematics at the University of Geneva and director of the Observatory of Geneva. He had a new building constructed on the site in 1830 which was equipped with new instruments, an equatorial of Gambey, in 1839, visual disturbances prevented him to continue his career and he gave up the chairs to one of his pupils, Emile Plantamour. He married in 1826 Angélique Frossard de Saugy, then in 1849 Louise Cartier, jean-Alfred Gautier died in Geneva on 30 November 1881

7.
Paul Guldin
–
Paul Guldin was a Swiss Jesuit mathematician and astronomer. He discovered the Guldinus theorem to determine the surface and the volume of a solid of revolution, Guldin was noted for his association with the German mathematician and astronomer Johannes Kepler. Guldin composed a critique of Cavalieris method of Indivisibles and he was born in Mels, Switzerland, and was a professor of mathematics in Graz and Vienna

8.
Johann Heinrich Lambert
–
Johann Heinrich Lambert was a Swiss polymath who made important contributions to the subjects of mathematics, physics, philosophy, astronomy and map projections. Lambert was born in 1728 into a Huguenot family in the city of Mulhouse, leaving school at 12, he continued to study in his free time whilst undertaking a series of jobs. Travelling Europe with his charges allowed him to meet established mathematicians in the German states, The Netherlands, France, on his return to Chur he published his first books and began to seek an academic post. In this stimulating and financially stable environment, he worked prodigiously until his death in 1777, Lambert was the first to introduce hyperbolic functions into trigonometry. Also, he made conjectures regarding non-Euclidean space, Lambert is credited with the first proof that π is irrational. He used a generalized continued fraction for the function tan x, euler believed but could not prove that π was irrational, and it is speculated that Aryabhata also believed this, in 500 CE. Lambert also devised theorems regarding conic sections that made the calculation of the orbits of comets simpler, Lambert devised a formula for the relationship between the angles and the area of hyperbolic triangles. These are triangles drawn on a surface, as on a saddle. Lambert showed that the angles added up to less than π, the amount of shortfall, called the defect, increases with the area. The larger the area, the smaller the sum of the angles. That is, the area of a triangle is equal to π, or 180°, minus the sum of the angles α, β. Here C denotes, in the present sense, the negative of the curvature of the surface. As the triangle gets larger or smaller, the change in a way that forbids the existence of similar hyperbolic triangles. Hence, instead of expressing the area of the triangle in terms of the lengths of its sides, as in Euclids geometry, Lambert was the first mathematician to address the general properties of map projections. In particular he was the first to discuss the properties of conformality and equal area preservation, in 1772, Lambert published seven new map projections under the title Anmerkungen und Zusätze zur Entwerfung der Land- und Himmelscharten. Further details may be found at map projections and in several texts, Lambert invented the first practical hygrometer. In 1760, he published a book on photometry, the Photometria and these results were supported by experiments involving the visual comparison of illuminations and used for the calculation of illumination. In Photometria Lambert also formulated the law of light absorption—the Beer–Lambert law) and he wrote a classic work on perspective and contributed to geometrical optics