Category:Symbolist dramatists and playwrights
Pages in category "Symbolist dramatists and playwrights"
The following 18 pages are in this category, out of 18 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 18 pages are in this category, out of 18 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Symbolism (arts) – Symbolism was a late nineteenth-century art movement of French, Russian and Belgian origin in poetry and other arts. In literature, the style originates with the 1857 publication of Charles Baudelaires Les Fleurs du mal, the works of Edgar Allan Poe, which Baudelaire admired greatly and translated into French, were a significant influence and the source of many stock tropes and images. The aesthetic was developed by Stéphane Mallarmé and Paul Verlaine during the 1860s and 1870s, in the 1880s, the aesthetic was articulated by a series of manifestos and attracted a generation of writers. The name symbolist itself was first applied by the critic Jean Moréas, distinct from, but related to, the style of literature, symbolism in art is related to the gothic component of Romanticism and Impressionism. In ancient Greece, the symbolon was a shard of pottery which was inscribed, Symbolism was a reaction in favour of spirituality, the imagination, and dreams. Some writers, such as Joris-Karl Huysmans, began as naturalists before becoming symbolists, for Huysmans, the Symbolist poets have a more complex relationship with Parnassianism, a French literary style that immediately preceded it. The Symbolists continued to admire Théophile Gautiers motto of art for arts sake, many Symbolist poets, including Stéphane Mallarmé and Paul Verlaine, published early works in Le Parnasse contemporain, the poetry anthologies that gave Parnassianism its name. One of Symbolisms most colourful promoters in Paris was art and literary critic Joséphin Péladan, a number of Symbolists were associated with the Salon. Symbolists believed that art should represent absolute truths that could only be described indirectly, thus, they wrote in a very metaphorical and suggestive manner, endowing particular images or objects with symbolic meaning. Jean Moréas published the Symbolist Manifesto in Le Figaro on 18 September 1886, the Symbolist Manifesto names Charles Baudelaire, Stéphane Mallarmé, and Paul Verlaine as the three leading poets of the movement. In a nutshell, as Mallarmé writes in a letter to his friend Cazalis, to not the thing. Symbolist poems were attempts to evoke, rather than primarily to describe, – both poets seek to identify one sense experience with another. The earlier Romanticism of poetry used symbols, but these symbols were unique, the symbolists were more extreme, investing all things, even vowels and perfumes, with potential symbolic value. The physical universe, then, is a kind of language that invites a privileged spectator to decipher it, Symbolist symbols are not allegories, intended to represent, they are instead intended to evoke particular states of mind. The nominal subject of Mallarmés Le cygne is of a trapped in a frozen lake. Significantly, in French, cygne is a homophone of signe, un cygne d’autrefois se souvient que c’est lui Magnifique mais qui sans espoir se délivre. They were also portrayed as at odds with society, having tragic lives and these traits were not hindrances but consequences of their literary gifts. Schopenhauers aesthetics represented shared concerns with the symbolist programme, they tended to consider Art as a contemplative refuge from the world of strife and will
2. Leonid Andreyev – Leonid Nikolaievich Andreyev was a Russian playwright, novelist and short-story writer, who is considered to be a father of Expressionism in Russian literature. He is one of the most talented and prolific representatives of the Silver Age period, Andreyevs style combines elements of realist, naturalist, and symbolist schools in literature. Born in Oryol, Russia within a family, Andreyev originally studied law in Moscow. He became police-court reporter for a Moscow daily, performing the routine of his humble calling without attracting any particular attention, at this time he wrote poetry and made a few efforts to publish it but was refused by most publishers. In 1898 his first short story, Bargamot and Garaska, was published in the Kurier newspaper in Moscow and this story came to the attention of Maxim Gorky who recommended that Andreyev concentrate on his literary work. Andreyev eventually gave up his law practice, fast becoming a celebrity. Through Gorky, Andreyev became a member of the Moscow Sreda literary group, Andreyevs first collection of short stories and short novels appeared in 1901, quickly selling a quarter-million copies and making him a literary star in Russia. In 1901 he published Стена,1902, he published В тумане and these last two stories caused great commotion because of their candid and audacious treatment of sex. In the years between 1898 and 1905 Andreyev published numerous stories on many subjects, including life in Russian provincial settings, court and prison incidents. During the time of the first Russian revolution Andreyev actively participated in the social and political debate as a defender of democratic ideals, several of his stories, including The Red Laugh, Governor and The Seven Who Were Hanged captured the spirit of this period. Starting from 1905 he also produced many theater dramas including The Life of Man, Tsar Hunger, Black Masks, Anathema, the Life of Man was staged by both Konstantin Stanislavsky and Vsevolod Meyerhold, the two main highlights of Russian theatre of the twentieth century, in 1907. Andreyevs works of the period after the 1905 revolution often represent the evocation of absolute pessimism, by the beginning of the second decade of the century he began losing fame as new literary powers such as the Futurists were fast arising. Aside from his writings, Andreyev published little after 1914. In 1916, he became the editor of the section of the newspaper Russian Will. He later supported the February Revolution, but foresaw the Bolsheviks coming to power as catastrophic, in 1917, he moved to Finland. From his house in Finland he addressed manifestos to the world at large against the excesses of the Bolsheviks. Idealist and rebel, Andreyev spent his last years in bitter poverty and his last novel, Satans Diary, was left unfinished at the time of his death. A play, The Sorrows of Belgium, was written at the beginning of the War to celebrate the heroism of the Belgians against the invading German army
3. Innokenty Annensky – Innokentiy Fyodorovich Annensky was a poet, critic and translator, representative of the first wave of Russian Symbolism. His influence on the first post-Symbolist generation of poets was paramount, Annensky was born into the family of a public official in Omsk on September 1 N. S. In 1860, while still a child, he was taken to Saint Petersburg, Innokenty lost his parents early on, and was raised in the family of his older brother, Nikolai Annensky, a prominent Narodnik and political activist. In 1879, Innokenty graduated from the department of St. Petersburg University. He became a teacher, and taught languages and ancient literature studies in a gymnasium in Tsarskoe Selo. He served as the Director of this school from 1886 until his death in 1909, anna Akhmatova graduated from this school, and called Annensky my only teacher, as did Nikolai Gumilev, who called him the last of Tsarskoe Selos swans. Like Vasily Zhukovsky before him, Annensky was somewhat reluctant to publish his poems and first gained renown with his masterful translations of Euripides. From 1890 until his death in 1909, he translated from Ancient Greek all the works of Euripides, at the beginning of the 1900s, Annensky wrote a series of tragedies modelled after those of ancient Greece, Melanippa-filosof, Tsar Iksion, Laodamia. Some of these works were dedicated to his colleague, Faddei Zielinski, as a literary critic, Annensky published The Book of Reflections, two volumes of essays on Nikolai Gogol, Mikhail Lermontov, Ivan Goncharov, and, his favourite, Fyodor Dostoyevsky. His essays were sometimes termed critical prose because of the value of these texts. During his last months, Annensky worked as an editor of Sergei Makovskys journal Apollon, Nikolai Gumilev valued these theoretical works very highly and considered Annensky to be the first true acmeist. In literary history, Annensky is remembered primarily as a poet and he started writing poetry in the 1870s but did not publish it. He followed the advice of his brother, Nikolay, not to publish anything until he is 35. His first collection of poems, entitled Quiet Songs, was published in 1904 under the pseudonym Nik and it gained moderate praise from leading Symbolists, many of whom didnt suspect that Annensky was the author. His second book, Cypress Box, was more important. The poet died just days before its projected publication, many of his unpublished pieces were edited in the 1920s by his stepson, Valentin Krivich, who was a minor poet. 1909, Innokenty Annensky died from an attack at the Tsarskoe Selo railway station in Saint Petersburg. His death was linked to family difficulties, many of his finest pieces were actually inspired by Annenskys unrequited love for his daughter-in-law
4. Alexander Blok – Alexander Alexandrovich Blok was a Russian lyrical poet. Blok was born in Saint Petersburg, into a sophisticated and intellectual family, some of his relatives were literary men, his father being a law professor in Warsaw, and his maternal grandfather the rector of Saint Petersburg State University. These influences would affect his early publications, later collected in the book Ante Lucem, in 1903 he married the actress Lyubov Dmitrievna Mendeleeva, daughter of the renowned chemist Dmitri Mendeleev. Later, she would involve him in a complicated relationship with his fellow Symbolist Andrei Bely. To Lyuba he dedicated a cycle of poetry made him famous. During the last period of his life, Blok emphasised political themes, influenced by Solovyovs doctrines, he had vague apocalyptic apprehensions and often vacillated between hope and despair. I feel that an event was coming, but what it was exactly was not revealed to me. Quite unexpectedly for most of his admirers, he accepted the October Revolution as the resolution of these apocalyptic yearnings. According to Orlando Figes he was present at the interrogation. By 1921 Blok had become disillusioned with the Russian Revolution and he did not write any poetry for three years. He complained to Maksim Gorky that his faith in the wisdom of humanity had ended, cant you hear that there are no longer any sounds. Within a few days Blok became sick and his doctors requested that he be sent abroad for medical treatment, but he was not allowed to leave the country. On 29 May 1921, he wrote to Anatoly Lunacharsky, Blok is Russias finest poet, if you forbid him to go abroad, and he dies, you and your comrades will be guilty of his death. A resolution on departure for Block was signed by members of the Political Bureau of the Central Committee on 23 July 1921, but on 29 July Gorky asked permission for Bloks wife to accompany him, since Bloks health status had deteriorated sharply. Blok to leave Russia was signed by Molotov on 1 August 1921, the permission was delivered on 10 August, after Blok had already died. Several months earlier, Blok had delivered a lecture on Alexander Pushkin. The idealized mystical images presented in his first book helped establish Blok as a poet of the Russian Symbolism style. Bloks early verse is musical, but he sought to introduce daring rhythmic patterns
5. Hugo von Hofmannsthal – Hugo Laurenz August Hofmann von Hofmannsthal was an Austrian prodigy, a novelist, librettist, poet, dramatist, narrator, and essayist. His great-grandfather, Isaak Löw Hofmann, Edler von Hofmannsthal, from whom his family inherited the noble title Edler von Hofmannsthal, was a Jewish merchant ennobled by the Austrian emperor and he began to write poems and plays from an early age. Some of his works were written under pseudonyms, such as Loris Melikow and Theophil Morren. He met the German poet Stefan George at the age of seventeen and had poems published in Georges journal. He studied law and later philology in Vienna but decided to devote himself to writing upon graduating in 1901, along with Peter Altenberg and Arthur Schnitzler, he was a member of the avant garde group Young Vienna. In 1900 Hofmannsthal met the composer Richard Strauss for the first time and he later wrote libretti for several of his operas, including Elektra, Der Rosenkavalier with Harry von Kessler, Ariadne auf Naxos, Die Frau ohne Schatten, Die ägyptische Helena, and Arabella. In 1911 he adapted the 15th century English morality play Everyman as Jedermann, the play later became a staple at the Salzburg Festival. During the First World War Hofmannsthal held a government post and he wrote speeches and articles supporting the war effort, and emphasizing the cultural tradition of Austria-Hungary. The end of the war spelled the end of the old monarchy in Austria, nevertheless, the years after the war were very productive ones for Hofmannsthal, he continued with his earlier literary projects, almost without a break. In 1920, Hofmannsthal, along with Max Reinhardt, founded the Salzburg Festival and his later plays revealed a growing interest in religious, particularly Roman Catholic, themes. Among his writings was a screenplay for a version of Der Rosenkavalier directed by Robert Wiene. In 1901 he married Gertrud Gerty Schlesinger, the daughter of a Viennese banker, Gerty, who was Jewish, converted to Christianity before their marriage. They settled in Rodaun, not far from Vienna, and had three children, Christiane, Franz, and Raimund, on 13 July 1929 his son Franz committed suicide. Two days later, shortly after attending Franzs funeral, Hugo himself died of a stroke at Rodaun and he was buried wearing the habit of a Franciscan tertiary, as he had requested. In early 1929 his daughter Christiane married German indologist, Heinrich Zimmer, who taught at University of Greifswald, Heidelberg University, after they moved to New Rochelle, New York, her husband became a Visiting Lecturer in Philosophy at Columbia University. On 21 January 1933 his son Raimund married Ava Alice Muriel Astor, daughter of John Jacob Astor IV, after divorcing Ava in 1939, Raimund later married Lady Elizabeth Paget. On 18 October 1902 Hofmannsthal published a letter in the Berlin Daily. It was purportedly written in 1603 by Philip, Lord Chandos to Francis Bacon and this letter reflects the growing distrust of and dissatisfaction with language that so characterizes the Modern era, and Chandoss dissolving personality is not only individual but societal
6. Vyacheslav Ivanov (poet) – Vyacheslav Ivanovich Ivanov was a Russian poet and playwright associated with the Russian Symbolist movement. He was also a philosopher, translator, and literary critic, born in Moscow, Ivanov graduated from the First Moscow Gymnasium with a gold medal and entered the Moscow University where he studied history and philosophy under Sir Paul Vinogradoff. In 1886 he moved to the Berlin University to study Roman law, during his stay in Germany, he absorbed the thoughts of Friedrich Nietzsche and German Romantics, notably Novalis and Friedrich Hölderlin. From 1892, Ivanov studied archaeology in Rome, completing his dissertation there. In Rome, he met Lydia Zinovieva-Annibal, a poet and translator, having both received an Orthodox ecclesiastical divorce, they married in 1899, first settling in Athens, then moving to Geneva, and making pilgrimages to Egypt and Palestine. During that period, Ivanov frequently visited Italy, where he studied the Renaissance art, the rugged nature of Lombardy and the Alps became the subject of his first sonnets, which were heavily influenced by the medieval poetry of Catholic mystics. At the turn of the 20th century, Ivanov elaborated his views on the mission of Rome. Ivanovs first collection, Lodestars, was published in 1903 and it contained many of his pieces written a decade earlier and was praised by the leading critics as a new chapter in the Russian Symbolism. The poems were compared to Miltons and Trediakovskys on account of their detached, calculated archaism, in 1905, Ivanov made his triumphant return to St Petersburg, where he was much lionized as a foreign curiosity. A turreted house where he and Zinovieva-Annibal settled became the most fashionable literary salon of the era, and was frequented by poets, philosophers, artists, the latter staged Calderons Adoration of the Cross in Ivanovs house. The poet exerted an influence on the Russian Symbolist movement. Future Russian Orthodox nun Maria Skobtsova was then an acclaimed poet, decades later, while living in Paris as a White emigre, she recalled the atmosphere at the Tower, We lived in the middle of a vast country as if on an unhabited island. This was Rome in the time of its decline and we played out the last act of the tragedy concerned with the rift between the intelligentsia and the people. Beyond us stretched out the Russian Empires snowy desert, a country in fetters, it was as ignorant of our delights as of our anguish, while its own delights and it was at this time that Ivanov wrote the first of his two plays, Tantalus. Like his second, Prometheus, it imitated the dramatic structure and mythological subject-matter of Aeschylean tragedy and was written in obscure and it was his unrealised, utopian ideas about theatre, however, that proved far more influential. The ideas of Aleksei Remizov, Fyodor Sologub, and the Mystical Anarchism of Georgy Chulkov were all part of second phase of the movement. Ivanov proposed the creation of a new type of theatre, which he called a collective action, that would be modelled on ancient religious rituals, Athenian tragedy. Writing in an essay on the mask that was published in the magazine Vesy in 1904, Ivanov, however, understood Dionysus as an avatar for Christ
7. Mikhail Kuzmin – Mikhail Alekseevich Kuzmin was a Russian poet, musician and novelist, a prominent contributor to the Silver Age of Russian Poetry. Born into a family in Yaroslavl, Kuzmin grew up in St. Petersburg. He did not graduate, however, later explaining his move towards poetry thus, Poetry falls ready-made from the sky, like manna into the mouths of the Israelites in the desert. Kuzmin liked to say of his work that its only little music, one of his closest friends and major influences as a young man was the polyglot Germanophile aristocrat Georgy Chicherin, a passionate supporter of Wagner and Nietzsche. Another strong influence was his travels, first to Egypt and Italy and then to northern Russia, settling down in St. Petersburg, he became close to the circle around Mir iskusstva. In 1908 appeared his first collection of poetry, Seti, which was widely acclaimed. In the words of Roberta Reeder, His poetry is erudite, Kuzmin was also one of the favorite poets of Sudeikins second wife, Vera, and her published album contains several of his manuscript poems. Love the word, like Flaubert, be economical in means and niggardly in words, precise and genuine --, the last volume of poetry Kuzmin published during his lifetime was The Trout Breaks the Ice, a cycle of narrative poetry. In the 1920s and 1930s Kuzmin made his living primarily as a literary translator, all succeeding Russian lyric poetry is unimaginable without it. Mandelstam, in his 1916 review On Contemporary Poetry, wrote, Kuzmins poems not only lend themselves easily to memorization, but also to recall, as it were, and they float up to the surface as if out of oblivion. Who’s Who in Gay and Lesbian History from Antiquity to World War II, Александрийские песни|Canções alexandrinas, Oleg Almeida, Revista Literária em Tradução, nº2, Fpolis/Brasil, ISSN 2177-5141. Canções alexandrinas, Tradução, apresentação e notas explicativas de Oleg Almeida, arte Brasil, São Paulo,2011,50 p. ISBN 978-85-64377-01-1. M. Kuzmin, Wings, tr. H. Aplin M. Kuzmin, The Venetian Madcaps, tr. M. Green, in Russian Literature Triquarterly,7, p. 119-51. M. Kuzmin, Wings, prose and poetry, tr. N. Granoien, M. Green M. Kuzmin, Alexandrinische Gesange, Collection of Poems by Mikhail Kuzmin The Kuzmin collection compiled by John Barnstead Mikhail Kuzmin Selected Writings. Translated by Michael A. Green and Stanislav A. Shvabrin, lewisburg, Bucknell UP,2005 Collection of Kuzmins texts Essay on homosexual love in Russian literature, including in Kuzmins writings, by Professor Simon Karlinsky
8. Maurice Maeterlinck – Maurice Polydore Marie Bernard Maeterlinck was a Belgian playwright, poet, and essayist who was Flemish but wrote in French. The main themes in his work are death and the meaning of life and his plays form an important part of the Symbolist movement. In later life, Maeterlinck committed plagiarism, Maeterlinck was born in Ghent, Belgium, to a wealthy, French-speaking family. His mother, Mathilde Colette Françoise, came from a wealthy family and his father, Polydore, was a notary who enjoyed tending the greenhouses on their property. In September 1874 he was sent to the Jesuit College of Sainte-Barbe and his experiences at this school influenced his distaste for the Catholic Church and organized religion. He had written poems and short novels during his studies, after finishing his law studies at the University of Ghent in 1885, he spent a few months in Paris, France. He met some members of the new Symbolism movement, Villiers de lIsle Adam in particular, Maeterlinck instantly became a public figure when his first play, Princess Maleine, received enthusiastic praise from Octave Mirbeau, the literary critic of Le Figaro in August 1890. In the following years, he wrote a series of symbolist plays characterized by fatalism and mysticism, most importantly Intruder, The Blind and Pelléas and he had a relationship with the singer and actress Georgette Leblanc from 1895 until 1918. Leblanc influenced his work for the two decades. With the play Aglavaine and Sélysette Maeterlinck began to create characters, especially female characters, Leblanc performed these female characters on stage. Even though mysticism and metaphysics influenced his work throughout his career, in 1895, with his parents frowning upon his open relationship with an actress, Maeterlinck and Leblanc moved to the district of Passy in Paris. The Catholic Church was unwilling to grant her a divorce from her Spanish husband and they frequently entertained guests, including Mirbeau, Jean Lorrain, and Paul Fort. They spent their summers in Normandy, during this period, Maeterlinck published his Twelve Songs, The Treasure of the Humble, The Life of the Bee, and Ariadne and Bluebeard. In 1903, Maeterlinck received the Triennial Prize for Dramatic Literature from the Belgian government. During this period, and down to the Great War, he was looked up to, throughout Europe, as a great sage. In 1906, Maeterlinck and Leblanc moved to a villa in Grasse and he spent his hours meditating and walking. As he emotionally pulled away from Leblanc, he entered a state of depression, diagnosed with neurasthenia, he rented the Benedictine Abbey of St. Wandrille in Normandy to help him relax. By renting the abbey he rescued it from the desecration of being sold and used as a chemical factory, Leblanc would often walk around in the garb of an abbess, he would wear roller skates as he moved about the house
9. Nikolai Minsky – Nikolai Minsky and Nikolai Maksimovich Minsky are pseudonyms of Nikolai Maksimovich Vilenkin, a mystical writer and poet of the Silver Age of Russian Poetry. Born in Glubokoe to poor Jewish parents, he was orphaned early and he was brought up, and finished his schooling, in Minsk. He took his pseudonym from the city he grew up in and he studied law at the University of Saint Petersburg. His first poems were written on civil topics, in 1889, he began work on the book With the Light of Conscience, employing a deliberately pompous tone to present its theory of meonism. The objective of the work is to show that the purpose of humanity is nonexistence itself. In 1900, Dmitri Merezhkovsky, Minsky, Zinaida Gippius, Vasily Rozanov, Minsky, like the majority of intellectuals, sympathized with the revolution and social democracy. He was the editor of the legal Bolshevik newspaper New Life. After the revolution was defeated in 1905, Minsky became one of the leaders of Russian decadence and these ideas represented the cult of beauty and enjoyment and declared war on the public tendencies that threatened to damage the cleanliness of artistic creation. A religious-philosophical concept is presented in the treatises With the Light of Conscience, other publications include the collection of verses From the Gloom to the Light and various dramas and translations. Minsky died in Paris, and is buried at the Père Lachaise Cemetery, meontology An Anthology of Jewish-Russian Literature, 1801-1953
10. Ion Minulescu – Ion Minulescu was a Romanian avant-garde poet, novelist, short story writer, journalist, literary critic, and playwright. Often publishing his works under the pseudonyms I. M. Nirvan and Koh-i-Noor, he journeyed to Paris, a herald of Romanias own Symbolist movement, he had a major influence on local modernist literature, and was among the first local poets to use free verse. Born in Bucharest to the widow Alexandrina Ciucă, he was the child of Tudor Minulescu. Originally, Minulescu was meant to be born in Slatina, and he was a colleague of Al. Gherghel, who would become known as a Symbolist writer. He published his first verses in 1897, while still in high school and he left for Bucharest later in the same year, being signed up for a private school and completing two grades in one year. Between 1900 and 1904, Minulescu studied Law at the University of Paris, during which period he was a reader of Romantic. At the time, Minulescu began exploring his talents as a causeur, among the key moments of his life in Paris was meeting, through the intervention of Demetrios Galanis, the poet Jean Moréas — according to Minulescu, Moréas urged him to write his poetry in French. At the time, he drew attention to himself by wearing colorful Bohemian outfits, N. Beldiceanu, Ştefan Octavian Iosif, and Ilarie Chendi among them. Minulescu and Cazaban were to engage in a polemic. This was notably disputed by George Călinescu, who attributed the position to Ştefan Petică, Tudor Vianu argued that Minulescu, together with Al. T. Stamatiad and N. Davidescu, represented a Wallachian Symbolism, as opposed to Moldavians such as George Bacovia, Minulescu and Anghel became close friends, and together translated pieces by various French Symbolists, which were published in Sămănătorul. In 1906, Minulescu began publishing the poems that would form his highly popular Romanţe pentru mai târziu collection, first published in 1908 and illustrated by his lifelong friend Iser. These came to the attention of Ion Luca Caragiale, who wrote back from his home in Berlin a praise of Minulescus În oraşul cu trei sute de biserici, which he called a priceless thing. According to Şerban Cioculescu, one of Caragiales own satirical poems of the time and he edited the short-lived magazines Revista Celor Lalţi and Insula, and, in 1911, began publishing theater reviews in magazines such as Rampa. Many of his other of his press contributions were printed under the Koh-i-Noor signature, during the period, he began drawing inspiration from his numerous trips to Dobruja, dedicating several of his most celebrated verses to the Black Sea. This trend was to inspire his former colleague Al, gherghel, most of whose poetry was dedicated to marine themes. At the time, he began cultivating an original style, where the lyrical format was hidden by arbitrary sectioning
11. Pierre Quillard – Pierre Quillard was a French symbolist poet, playwright, translator, and journalist. An anarchist and supporter of Dreyfus, he became one of the first people to defend the Armenians persecuted under the Ottoman Empire. In his youth, Quillard was a pupil of the Lycée Fontanes, where he counted Éphraïm Mickaël, Stuart Merrill, René Ghil, André Fontainas, Rodolphe Darzens, jean Maitron, Dictionnaire biographique du mouvement ouvrier français. Troisième partie, 1871-1914, de la Commune à la Grande Guerre, XIV, Éditions ouvrières, Paris,1976 Edmond Khayadjian, Archag Tchobanian et le mouvement arménophile en France, CNDP, Marseille,1986. Works by Pierre Quillard at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Pierre Quillard at Internet Archive
12. Fyodor Sologub – Fyodor Sologub was a Russian Symbolist poet, novelist, playwright and essayist. He was the first writer to introduce the morbid, pessimistic elements characteristic of European fin de siècle literature and philosophy into Russian prose. Sologub was born in St. Petersburg into the family of a tailor, Kuzma Afanasyevich Teternikov, who had been a serf in Poltava guberniya. His father died of tuberculosis in 1867, and his mother was forced to become a servant in the home of the aristocratic Agapov family. Seeing how difficult his mothers life was, Sologub was determined to rescue her from it, in 1894 his first short story, Ninochkina oshibka, was published in Illustrirovanny Mir, and in the autumn of that year his mother died. In April 1897 he ended his association with Severny Vestnik and, along with Merezhkovsky and Gippius, the next year his first series of fairy tales was published. In 1899 he was appointed principal of the Andreevskoe municipal school and relocated to their premises on Vasilievsky Island and he continued to publish books of poetry, and in 1902 he finished The Petty Demon, which was published partially in serial form in 1905. Teffi wrote of him at this period, His face was pale, long, without eyebrows, by his nose was a large wart and his face was always tired, always bored. Sometimes when he was a guest at someones table he would close his eyes and remain like that for several minutes, Sologub lived on Vasilievsky Island in the small official apartment of a municipal school where he was a teacher and inspector. He lived with his sister, a flat-chested, consumptive old maid and she was quiet and shy, she adored her brother and was a little afraid of him, and spoke of him only in a whisper. He said in a poem, We were holiday children, My sister and I, they were very poor, sadly and dully they dragged out the difficult days of their youth. The consumptive sister, not having received her share of motley shells, was already burning out and he himself was exhausted by his boring teaching job, he wrote in snatches by night, always tired from the boyish noise of his students. She told us privately, Id love to ride on the outside of the horsecar sometime and he says its unseemly for a lady. Those evenings in the apartment, when his close literary friends gathered, were very interesting. At the time of the 1905 Revolution his politically critical skazochki were very popular and were collected into a book, the Petty Demon was published in a standalone edition in 1907 and quickly became popular, having ten printings during the authors lifetime. Sologubs next major work, A Created Legend, had many of the same characteristics but presented a considerably more positive. It begins with the declaration that although life is vulgar. Stagnant in darkness, dull and ordinary, the poet creates from it a sweet legend and my legend of the enchanting and beautiful
13. Auguste Villiers de l'Isle-Adam – Jean-Marie-Mathias-Philippe-Auguste, comte de Villiers de lIsle-Adam was a French symbolist writer. Villiers de lIsle-Adam was born in Saint-Brieuc, Brittany, to an aristocratic family. His parents, Marquis Joseph-Toussaint and Marie-Francoise were not rich, however, consequently, he spent large sums of money buying land, excavating it and then selling it at a loss when he failed to find anything of value. The young Villiers education was troubled but from an early age his family were convinced he was a genius, as a child he composed poetry. The most important occurrence in these Breton years was probably the death of a girl with whom Villiers was in love. Villiers had made trips to Paris in the late 1850s. In 1860, his aunt gave him money to allow him to live in the capital permanently. He had already acquired a reputation in literary circles for his inspired, alcohol-fuelled monologues, Villiers began living a Bohemian life, frequenting the Brasserie des Martyrs, where he met his idol Baudelaire, who encouraged him to read the works of Edgar Allan Poe. Poe and Baudelaire would become the biggest influences on Villiers mature style and it made little impression outside Villiers own small band of admirers. Around this time, Villiers began living with Louise Dyonnet, a woman whose reputation scandalised his family so much they made Villiers undergo a retreat at Solesmes Abbey, Villiers would remain a devout, if highly unorthodox, Catholic for the rest of his life. Villiers finally broke with Dyonnet in 1864 and his attempts at securing a suitable bride for himself would all end in failure. Villiers own family also strongly disapproved of the match and his plans for marriage to an English heiress, Anna Eyre Powell, were equally unsuccessful. Villiers finally took to living with Marie Dantine, the widow of a Belgian coachman. In 1881, she gave birth to Villiers son, Victor, a high point of Villiers life was his trip to see his hero Richard Wagner at Triebschen in 1869. Villiers read from the manuscript of his play La Révolte and the composer declared that the Frenchman was a true poet, another trip to see Wagner the next year was cut short by the outbreak of the Franco-Prussian War, during which Villiers became a commander in the Garde Nationale. Disaster came in 1871 with the death of Villiers aunt, Mlle de Kerinou, though Villiers had many admirers in literary circles, mainstream newspapers found his fiction too eccentric to be saleable and few theatres risked putting on his plays. Villiers was forced to take odd jobs to support his family, he gave boxing lessons and apparently worked in a funeral parlour and as a mountebanks assistant for a time. Another money-making scheme Villiers considered was reciting his poetry to a public in a cage full of tigers
14. Oscar Wilde – Oscar Fingal OFlahertie Wills Wilde was an Irish playwright, novelist, essayist, and poet. After writing in different forms throughout the 1880s, he one of Londons most popular playwrights in the early 1890s. He is remembered for his epigrams, his novel The Picture of Dorian Gray, his plays, as well as the circumstances of his imprisonment, Wildes parents were successful Anglo-Irish, Dublin intellectuals. Their son became fluent in French and German early in life, at university, Wilde read Greats, he proved himself to be an outstanding classicist, first at Dublin, then at Oxford. He became known for his involvement in the philosophy of aestheticism. After university, Wilde moved to London into fashionable cultural and social circles, known for his biting wit, flamboyant dress and glittering conversation, Wilde became one of the best-known personalities of his day. The opportunity to construct aesthetic details precisely, and combine them with social themes. He wrote Salome in French in Paris but it was refused a licence for England due to the prohibition of Biblical subjects on the English stage. Unperturbed, Wilde produced four society comedies in the early 1890s, at the height of his fame and success, while The Importance of Being Earnest, was still being performed in London, Wilde had the Marquess of Queensberry prosecuted for criminal libel. The Marquess was the father of Wildes lover, Lord Alfred Douglas, the charge carried a penalty of up to two years in prison. The trial unearthed evidence that caused Wilde to drop his charges and led to his own arrest, after two more trials he was convicted and imprisoned for two years hard labour. Upon his release he left immediately for France, never to return to Ireland or Britain, there he wrote his last work, The Ballad of Reading Gaol, a long poem commemorating the harsh rhythms of prison life. He died destitute in Paris at the age of 46, Oscar Wilde was born at 21 Westland Row, Dublin, the second of three children born to Sir William Wilde and Jane Wilde, two years behind William. Wildes mother was of Italian descent, and under the pseudonym Speranza and she read the Young Irelanders poetry to Oscar and Willie, inculcating a love of these poets in her sons. Lady Wildes interest in the neo-classical revival showed in the paintings and busts of ancient Greece, William Wilde was Irelands leading oto-ophthalmologic surgeon and was knighted in 1864 for his services as medical adviser and assistant commissioner to the censuses of Ireland. He also wrote books about Irish archaeology and peasant folklore, a renowned philanthropist, his dispensary for the care of the citys poor at the rear of Trinity College, Dublin, was the forerunner of the Dublin Eye and Ear Hospital, now located at Adelaide Road. On his fathers side Wilde was descended from a Dutchman, Colonel de Wilde, on his mothers side Wildes ancestors included a bricklayer from County Durham who emigrated to Ireland sometime in the 1770s. Wilde was baptised as an infant in St, marks Church, Dublin, the local Church of Ireland church
15. W. B. Yeats – William Butler Yeats was an Irish poet and one of the foremost figures of 20th-century literature. A pillar of both the Irish and British literary establishments, he helped to found the Abbey Theatre, Yeats was a driving force behind the Irish Literary Revival along with Lady Gregory, Edward Martyn and others. He was born in Sandymount, Ireland and educated there and in London and he spent childhood holidays in County Sligo and studied poetry from an early age when he became fascinated by Irish legends and the occult. These topics feature in the first phase of his work, which lasted roughly until the turn of the 20th century. His earliest volume of verse was published in 1889, and its slow-paced and lyrical poems display Yeatss debts to Edmund Spenser, Percy Bysshe Shelley, from 1900, his poetry grew more physical and realistic. He largely renounced the transcendental beliefs of his youth, though he remained preoccupied with physical and spiritual masks, in 1923, he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature. Of Anglo-Irish descent, William Butler Yeats was born at Sandymount in County Dublin and his father, John Butler Yeats, was a descendant of Jervis Yeats, a Williamite soldier, linen merchant, and well-known painter who died in 1712. Benjamin Yeats, Jerviss grandson and Williams great-great-grandfather, had in 1773 married Mary Butler of a family in County Kildare. Following their marriage, they kept the name Butler in the family name, Mary was a descendant of the Butler of Ormond family from the Neigham Gowran branch of the family. They were descendants of the first Earls of Ormond, by his marriage, Williams father John Yeats was studying law but abandoned his studies to study art at Heatherleys Art School in London. His mother, Susan Mary Pollexfen, came from a merchant family in Sligo. Yeats was raised a member of the Protestant Ascendancy, which was at the time undergoing a crisis of identity. In 1997, his biographer R. F. Foster observed that Napoleons dictum that to understand the man you have to know what was happening in the world when he was twenty is manifestly true of W. B. Y. Yeatss childhood and young adulthood were shadowed by the power-shift away from the minority Protestant Ascendancy, the 1880s saw the rise of Charles Stewart Parnell and the home rule movement, the 1890s saw the momentum of nationalism, while the Catholics became prominent around the turn of the century. These developments had an effect on his poetry, and his subsequent explorations of Irish identity had a significant influence on the creation of his countrys biography. In 1867, the moved to England to aid their father, John. At first the Yeats children were educated at home and their mother entertained them with stories and Irish folktales. John provided an education in geography and chemistry, and took William on natural history explorations of the nearby Slough countryside