Category:Tajik musical instruments
This category is for Articles listed under "Tajik folk instruments".
This category is for Articles listed under "Tajik folk instruments".
1. Dayereh – Frame drums are also popular in many regions of Georgia, like Kartli, Kakheti, Tusheti, Samegrelo, Racha, and Imereti. This is a single headed percussion instrument which is not only found in Northern South Asia, Central Asia, and the Middle East, the simple drum is formed by attaching a skin cover onto a wooden ring with glue and cloth ties. This is similar to the Persian daira and the Turkish def, some daira have metal pieces attached to give them a tambourine-like quality. The history of dayereh goes back to many centuries, in the Pahlavi the name is dareh. The poet Abu Saeed Abolkheir mentioned in his works, the dayereh as a drum. The dayereh is one of the most famous frame drums in Persia and Central Asia, in Azerbaijan, it is called ghaval and sometimes daf, and is played on festive occasions. In Azerbaijani art music, the drum that usually accompanies the Ashigh is ghaval, a traditional ensemble contains a singer, who plays this drum, and two instrumentalists, one playing the tar and the other, the kamancheh. The jingles which are metal plates or rings, are attached to hooks in three or four rectangular holes in the circular wooden frame. The drumhead is made of goat skin, the width of the frame is 45–50 cm and the depth, 5–7 cm. In order to bend the frame, the wood may be softened in water before being bent around a hot metal cylinder, the frame is closed by gluing the ends together. Finally, the skin is attached to the frame by fixing it with another wooden frame or by using nails. Another variation is to have the ring-style jingles arranged around the edge of the inside of the drum the whole way around or to have several tiers half way around the inside edge. The sound is produced by hitting the membrane with either hand – the left hand, which holds the dayereh, strikes the edges. The right-hand fingers are fastened about their neighbours and suddenly released to produce loud, rapid, the dayereh is a solo instrument. Most often it is supported by Gajda, chalgija, or tarabuka, marko Cepenkov mentions the dayereh as a companion of the Gajda in the 18th and 19th centuries. It is most often used for keeping the rhythm in Macedonian folk songs and dances, DVD of Tombak / Madjid Khaladj - Coproduction, Le Salon de Musique & École de Tombak | Langues, français, anglais, espagnol | Livret de 80 pages | EDV937 CV. CD Infinit Breath / Madjid Khaladj, NAFAS / Bâ Music Records, ghaval, the Azerbaijani frame drum Frame drums Frame Drums Central with image of semi-ringed frame drum Pakistan traditional instruments including daira and daff
2. Dili tuiduk – The dili tuiduk, дилли туйдук is a Turkmen woodwind instrument. It is a clarinet-like, single-reed instrument used mainly in Turkmen folk music, dilli-tuyduk These come in two kinds. In one, the end of the instrument is closed. A reed is cut in the part of the pipe and 3 or 4 finger holes are cut on the upper part. Its range is a 6thor 7th, from about fa in the first octave to re or mi in the second, some sounds have to be made by overblowing or by partly exposing the finger holes. The dilli-tuyduk makes a sound and is used to play the tunes of Turkmen folk songs. Versions of song tunes in the form of ditties for the start in a long drawn-out sound going into the main melody
3. Dutar – The dutar is a traditional long-necked two-stringed lute found in Iran and Central Asia. Its name comes from the Persian word for two strings, دو تار dotār, although the Herati dutar of Afghanistan has fourteen strings, when played, the strings are usually plucked by the Uyghurs of Western China and strummed and plucked by the Tajiks, Turkmen, Uzbeks. Related instruments include the Kazakh dombra, the Dutar is also an important instrument among the Kurds of Khorasan amongst whom Haj Ghorban Soleimani of Quchan was a noted virtuoso. In Kormanji one who plays the dutar is known as a bakci, Khorasan bakhshi music is recognized on the Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity. At the time of the Dutars humble origins in the 15th century as an instrument its strings were made from gut. However, with the opening up of the Silk Road, catgut gave way to strings made from twisted silk imported from China, to this day some instruments still feature silk strings, although nylon strings are also commonly used. The dutar has a warm, dulcet tone, typical sizes for the pear-shaped instrument range from one to two meters
4. Ghaychak – Ghaychak, Gheychak or ghijak is the name of several bowed instruments of Asia. A double-chambered bowl lute with 4 or more strings and a short fretless neck. It is used by Iranians and Baloch people, and is similar to Sarinda, the soundbox is carved out of a single piece of wood. The upper orifice is partly covered in the middle by the handle, a spike lute, either with a bowl soundbox, or with a box soundbox often made from a tin can, with three or four metal strings. It is used by Afghans, Uzbeks, Uyghurs, Tajiks, Turkmens, archived from the original on 2006-12-06. Ghaychak Afghan gaychak Tajik ghijak (box lute
5. Karnay – The karnay is a long trumpet with a mouthpiece. It is used in the music of Iran, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan, the kernei is a Kyrgyz wind musical instrument, which as well as the surnai was not modernised for ensembles or orchestras and exists in traditional form. It is used particularly for signaling or as an instrument with a powerful sound. There are two kinds of kernei, the muiuz kernei, and the jez kernei, both of them are very different instruments, but they are combined by lack of playing apertures. The muiuz kernei is an ancient instrument made from a mountain goat horn. The instrument does not have a mouthpiece and gives only a few sounds of thick, the jez kernei is 1–2 m long longitudinal trumpet with/without a mouthpiece. The similarity between the jez kernei and the Uzbek and Uigur karnai is accounted by the nearness of South Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan. The sound of Kernei is very strong, loud and intended for outdoor areas, some time in the past the kerneis applied function was restricted by notification of important events, but today it is typically used for national holidays. The separate group of Kyrgyz aerophones represent the instruments, which yield the main kinds of folk wind instruments by quality of timbre. They can be called as noise instruments and they were not produced by people, they exist in the nature and produce neither musical nor artistic sounds. They include the chymyldak - produce squeak, yshkyryk - whistle, baryldak - under tongue aerophone, chynyrtky - hunters quail call, rhythms of Uzbekistan, Featuring Shod & Lyazgi. Archived from the original on March 8,2008, tashkent Musicians Capture Attention In UK, Gain Appraisal. The magic sound of karnay Persian script, hashkamelash kamelash lokimash habash
6. Tambourine – The tambourine is a musical instrument in the percussion family consisting of a frame, often of wood or plastic, with pairs of small metal jingles, called zils. Classically the term denotes an instrument with a drumhead, though some variants may not have a head at all. Tambourines are often used with regular percussion sets and they can be mounted, for example on a stand as part of a drum kit, or they can be held in the hands and played by tapping or hitting the instrument. Tambourines come in shapes with the most common being circular. It is found in forms of music, Turkish folk music, Greek folk music, Italian folk music, classical music, Persian music, samba, gospel music, pop music. Tambourines originated in Egypt, where they were known as the kof to the Hebrews, from the Middle Persian word tambūr lute, drum. There are several ways to achieve a tambourine roll, the easiest method is to rapidly rotate the hand holding the tambourine back and forth, pivoting at the wrist. An advanced playing technique is known as the thumb roll, the finger or thumb is moved over the skin or rim of the tambourine, producing a fast roll from the jingles on the instrument. This takes more skill and experience to master, the thumb or middle finger of the hand not holding the tambourine is run around the head of the instrument approximately one centimeter from the rim with some pressure applied. If performed correctly, the thumb should bounce along the head rapidly, usually, the end of the roll is articulated using the heel of the hand or another finger. In the 2000s, the roll may be performed with the use of wax or resin applied to the outside of the drum head. This resin allows the thumb or finger to bounce more rapidly and forcefully across the head producing an even sound, a continuous roll can be achieved by moving the thumb in a figure of 8 pattern around the head. By drummers – Drummers such as Larry Mullen, Jr. of U2 mount a tambourine above the cymbals of their hi-hat stand, tambourines in rock music are most often headless, a ring with jangles but no drum skin. The Rhythm Tech crescent-shaped tambourine and its derivatives are popular, the original Rhythm Tech tambourine is displayed in the Museum of Modern Art. Jack Ashfords distinctive tambourine playing was a dominant part of the section on Motown records. The tambourine was featured in Green Tambourine, a song with which The Lemon Pipers. Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was among the earliest western composers to include the tambourine in his compositions, gustav Holsts seven-movement orchestral suite The Planets also features the tambourine in several places throughout the suite, especially in the Jupiter movement. Originated in Galicia or Portugal, the pandeiro was brought to Brazil by the Portuguese settlers and it is a hand percussion instrument consisting of a single tension-headed drum with jingles in the frame
7. Zurna – The zurna, is a wind instrument played in central Eurasia, ranging from the Balkans to Central Asia. It is usually accompanied by a davul in Anatolian folk music, the zurna, like the duduk and kaval, is a woodwind instrument used to play Anatolian, Middle Eastern and Central Asian folk music. The zurna is an oboe, made from the apricot fruit tree. Thus, it has historically been played outdoors during festive events such as weddings and it has eight holes on the front, seven of which are used while playing, and one thumbhole which provides a range of one octave. It is similar to the mizmar, in the Slavic nations of the Balkans it is typically called zurla. The zurna is most likely the predecessor of the European shawm. The Japanese charumera, or charamera, traditionally associated with itinerant noodle vendors is a small zurna, few, if any, noodle vendors continue this tradition, and those who do would use a loudspeaker playing a recorded charumera. There are several different types of zurnas and they all share one and the same sound inductor—the so-called kalem—which is actually a very tight double reed, sometimes made out of wheat leaves. The longest is the Kaba zurna, used in northern Turkey, as a rule of thumb, a zurna is conical and made of wood. Turkish lore says that Adam, who was moulded from clay, had no soul and it is said only the melodious tuiduk-playing of Archangel Gabriel could breathe life into Adam. According to a Turkmen legend, the played the main role in tuiduk invention. The name is derived from Persian سرنای surnāy, composed of سور sūr “banquet, feast” and نای nāy “reed, memo G. Schachiner, MusicalConfrontations. com Zurna FAQ