Pages in category "Tells"
The following 122 pages are in this category, out of 122 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 122 pages are in this category, out of 122 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Archaeology – Archaeology, or archeology, is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of material culture. The archaeological record consists of artifacts, architecture, biofacts or ecofacts, Archaeology can be considered both a social science and a branch of the humanities. In North America, archaeology is considered a sub-field of anthropology, archaeologists study human prehistory and history, from the development of the first stone tools at Lomekwi in East Africa 3.3 million years ago up until recent decades. Archaeology as a field is distinct from the discipline of palaeontology, Archaeology is particularly important for learning about prehistoric societies, for whom there may be no written records to study. Prehistory includes over 99% of the human past, from the Paleolithic until the advent of literacy in societies across the world, Archaeology has various goals, which range from understanding culture history to reconstructing past lifeways to documenting and explaining changes in human societies through time. The discipline involves surveying, excavation and eventually analysis of data collected to learn more about the past, in broad scope, archaeology relies on cross-disciplinary research. Archaeology developed out of antiquarianism in Europe during the 19th century, Archaeology has been used by nation-states to create particular visions of the past. Nonetheless, today, archaeologists face many problems, such as dealing with pseudoarchaeology, the looting of artifacts, a lack of public interest, the science of archaeology grew out of the older multi-disciplinary study known as antiquarianism. Antiquarians studied history with attention to ancient artifacts and manuscripts. Tentative steps towards the systematization of archaeology as a science took place during the Enlightenment era in Europe in the 17th and 18th centuries, in Europe, philosophical interest in the remains of Greco-Roman civilization and the rediscovery of classical culture began in the late Middle Age. Antiquarians, including John Leland and William Camden, conducted surveys of the English countryside, one of the first sites to undergo archaeological excavation was Stonehenge and other megalithic monuments in England. John Aubrey was a pioneer archaeologist who recorded numerous megalithic and other monuments in southern England. He was also ahead of his time in the analysis of his findings and he attempted to chart the chronological stylistic evolution of handwriting, medieval architecture, costume, and shield-shapes. Excavations were also carried out in the ancient towns of Pompeii and Herculaneum and these excavations began in 1748 in Pompeii, while in Herculaneum they began in 1738. The discovery of entire towns, complete with utensils and even human shapes, however, prior to the development of modern techniques, excavations tended to be haphazard, the importance of concepts such as stratification and context were overlooked. The father of archaeological excavation was William Cunnington and he undertook excavations in Wiltshire from around 1798, funded by Sir Richard Colt Hoare. Cunnington made meticulous recordings of neolithic and Bronze Age barrows, one of the major achievements of 19th century archaeology was the development of stratigraphy. The idea of overlapping strata tracing back to successive periods was borrowed from the new geological and paleontological work of scholars like William Smith, James Hutton, the application of stratigraphy to archaeology first took place with the excavations of prehistorical and Bronze Age sites
2. Middle East – The Middle East is a transcontinental region centered on Western Asia and Egypt. The corresponding adjective is Middle-Eastern and the noun is Middle-Easterner. The term has come into usage as a replacement of the term Near East beginning in the early 20th century. Arabs, Turks, Persians, Kurds, and Azeris constitute the largest ethnic groups in the region by population. Indigenous minorities of the Middle East include Jews, Assyrians and other Arameans, Baloch, Berbers, Copts, Druze, Lurs, Mandaeans, Samaritans, Shabaks, Tats, in the Middle East, there is also a Romani community. European ethnic groups form a diaspora in the region include Albanians, Bosniaks, Circassians, Crimean Tatars, Franco-Levantines. Among other migrant populations are Bengalis as well as other Indians, Chinese, Filipinos, Indonesians, Pakistanis, the history of the Middle East dates back to ancient times, with the importance of the region being recognized for millennia. Most of the countries border the Persian Gulf have vast reserves of crude oil. The term Middle East may have originated in the 1850s in the British India Office, however, it became more widely known when American naval strategist Alfred Thayer Mahan used the term in 1902 to designate the area between Arabia and India. During this time the British and Russian Empires were vying for influence in Central Asia, Mahan realized not only the strategic importance of the region, but also of its center, the Persian Gulf. Mahan first used the term in his article The Persian Gulf and International Relations, published in September 1902 in the National Review, a British journal. The Middle East, if I may adopt a term which I have not seen, will some day need its Malta, as well as its Gibraltar, it does not follow that either will be in the Persian Gulf. The British Navy should have the facility to concentrate in force if occasion arise, about Aden, India, mahans article was reprinted in The Times and followed in October by a 20-article series entitled The Middle Eastern Question, written by Sir Ignatius Valentine Chirol. During this series, Sir Ignatius expanded the definition of Middle East to include regions of Asia which extend to the borders of India or command the approaches to India. After the series ended in 1903, The Times removed quotation marks from subsequent uses of the term, in the late 1930s, the British established the Middle East Command, which was based in Cairo, for its military forces in the region. After that time, the term Middle East gained broader usage in Europe, the description Middle has also led to some confusion over changing definitions. Before the First World War, Near East was used in English to refer to the Balkans and the Ottoman Empire, while Middle East referred to Iran, the Caucasus, Afghanistan, Central Asia, and Turkestan. The first official use of the term Middle East by the United States government was in the 1957 Eisenhower Doctrine, the Associated Press Stylebook says that Near East formerly referred to the farther west countries while Middle East referred to the eastern ones, but that now they are synonymous
3. Anatolia – Anatolia, in geography known as Asia Minor, Asian Turkey, Anatolian peninsula, or Anatolian plateau, is the westernmost protrusion of Asia, which makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey. The region is bounded by the Black Sea to the north, the Mediterranean Sea to the south, the Sea of Marmara forms a connection between the Black and Aegean Seas through the Bosphorus and Dardanelles straits and separates Anatolia from Thrace on the European mainland. Traditionally, Anatolia is considered to extend in the east to a line between the Gulf of Alexandretta and the Black Sea to the Armenian Highlands, thus, traditionally Anatolia is the territory that comprises approximately the western two-thirds of the Asian part of Turkey. The Turkification of Anatolia began under the Seljuk Empire in the late 11th century, however, various non-Turkic languages continue to be spoken by minorities in Anatolia today, including Kurdish, Assyrian, Armenian, Arabic, Laz, Georgian, and Greek. Traditionally, Anatolia is considered to extend in the east to a line running from the Gulf of Alexandretta to the Black Sea. This traditional geographical definition is used, for example, in the latest edition of Merriam-Websters Geographical Dictionary, under this definition, Anatolia is bounded to the east by the Armenian Highlands, and the Euphrates before that river bends to the southeast to enter Mesopotamia. To the southeast, it is bounded by the ranges that separate it from the Orontes valley in Syria, the first name the Greeks used for the Anatolian peninsula was Ἀσία, presumably after the name of the Assuwa league in western Anatolia. As the name of Asia came to be extended to areas east of the Mediterranean. The name Anatolia derives from the Greek ἀνατολή meaning “the East” or more literally “sunrise”, the precise reference of this term has varied over time, perhaps originally referring to the Aeolian, Ionian and Dorian colonies on the west coast of Asia Minor. In the Byzantine Empire, the Anatolic Theme was a theme covering the western, the modern Turkish form of Anatolia is Anadolu, which again derives from the Greek name Aνατολή. The Russian male name Anatoly and the French Anatole share the same linguistic origin, in English the name of Turkey for ancient Anatolia first appeared c. It is derived from the Medieval Latin Turchia, which was used by the Europeans to define the Seljuk controlled parts of Anatolia after the Battle of Manzikert. Human habitation in Anatolia dates back to the Paleolithic, neolithic Anatolia has been proposed as the homeland of the Indo-European language family, although linguists tend to favour a later origin in the steppes north of the Black Sea. However, it is clear that the Anatolian languages, the oldest branch of Indo-European, have spoken in Anatolia since at least the 19th century BC. The earliest historical records of Anatolia stem from the southeast of the region and are from the Mesopotamian-based Akkadian Empire during the reign of Sargon of Akkad in the 24th century BC, scholars generally believe the earliest indigenous populations of Anatolia were the Hattians and Hurrians. The region was famous for exporting raw materials, and areas of Hattian-, one of the numerous cuneiform records dated circa 20th century BC, found in Anatolia at the Assyrian colony of Kanesh, uses an advanced system of trading computations and credit lines. They were speakers of an Indo-European language, the Hittite language, originating from Nesa, they conquered Hattusa in the 18th century BC, imposing themselves over Hattian- and Hurrian-speaking populations. According to the most widely accepted Kurgan theory on the Proto-Indo-European homeland, however, the Hittites adopted the cuneiform script, invented in Mesopotamia
4. Achziv – Achziv is an ancient site on the Mediterranean coast of northern Israel, between the border with Lebanon and the city of Acre -15 kilometers north of Acre, within the municipal area of Nahariya. Today it is an Israeli national park, the legally disputed micronation of Akhzivland is located in the immediate vicinity. Excavations have unearthed a fortified Canaanite city of the second millennium BCE, the Phoenician town of the first millennium BCE is known both from the Hebrew Bible and Assyrian sources. Phoenician Achzib went through ups and downs during the Persian and Hellenistic periods, in Roman times Acdippa was a road station. The Bordeaux Pilgrim mentions it in 333-334 CE still as a road station, there is no information about settlement at the site for the Early Muslim period. The Crusaders built a new village with a castle, during the Mamluk and Ottoman periods a modest village occupied the old tell. This village was depopulated during the 1948 Arab-Israeli war, the only permanent resident of Achziv is an Israeli who has been welcoming visitors to a small stretch of beach where he has lived since 1975. The first fortified settlement found by archaeologists is a large Canaanite port city from the Middle Bronze Age IIB, the massive ramparts, some 4.5 m high, protected the city proper and a large area of port facilities. To the north and south the city extended to the two rivers, which the Canaanite engineers connected by a fosse, thus transforming Achzib into an island. A substantial destruction level from the beginning of the Late Bronze Age proves that even these fortifications were not sufficient. And the outgoings thereof are at the sea from the coast to Achzib, asher did not drive out the inhabitants of Acco. or of Achzib. King David added the city into his Kingdom, but King Solomon returned it to Hiram I as part of the famous pact, during the invasions of Sennacherib the Assyrians conquered the city. During the reign of the Seleucids the border was established at Rosh HaNikra, just north to Achziv, making it a city which they called Ekdippa. A maritime city named Cziv, nine miles north of Acre, is mentioned by Josephus Flavius, Achziv is mentioned in Jewish rabbinic writings, for example Midrash Vayikra Rabba 37,4. Additionally, Achziv is mentioned in the Babylonian Talmud, and by the relating Middle Age commentators, during the Crusader period, the site was known as Casale Umberti, or Casal Humberti, after Hubert of Pacy which held the casale and is documented in 1108. European farmers settled there in 1153 under Baldwin III, in 1232 it was the site of the Battle of Casal Imbert between German and French Crusaders as part of the War of the Lombards. The Arab village of Az-Zeeb was established during the Mamluk period, the town existed during Ottoman rule in the region. In 1946, The Jewish Resistance Movement attempted to blow up the bridge over the creek at Achziv in an operation known as Night of the Bridges
5. Adullam – Adullam is an ancient ruin, built upon a hilltop overlooking the Elah Valley, south of Bet Shemesh in Israel. In the late 19th century, the town was still in ruins, the hilltop is mostly flat, with cisterns carved into the rock. The remains of structures which once stood there can still be seen. Sedimentary layers of ruins from the old Canaanite and Israelite eras, mostly potsherds, are everywhere, although olive groves now grow atop of this hill. The villages of Aderet, Neve Michael/Roglit, and Aviezer are located nearby, access to the site may be obtained by passing through the cooperative small holders agricultural villages of Aderet or Neve Michael. The ruin lies about 2 kilometers south of Moshav Neve Michael, the Adullam mentioned in the Hebrew Bible is usually thought to be identical with Tell Sheikh Madkhur, that is, the archaeological ruin referred to in this article as Adullam. Adullam was one of the cities of the Canaanites referred to in the Hebrew Bible. Although listed in Joshua as being a city in the plain, it is partly in the hill country. It stood near the highway later became the Roman road in the Valley of Elah. It was one of the towns which Rehoboam fortified against Egypt, micah calls it the glory of Israel. King David sought refuge in Adullam after being expelled from the city of Gath by King Achish, I Samuel refers to the Cave of Adullam where he found protection while living as a renegade from King Saul. It was there every one that was in distress gathered together, and every one that was in debt. Certain caves, grottos and sepulchres are still to be seen on the hilltop and it was in Adullam that Judas Maccabaeus retired with his fighting men, after returning from war against the Idumaeans. In the late 19th century, the ruin and its adjacent ruins were explored by French explorer, Victor Guérin. At 11,25, I examine other ruins, called Khirbet Aid el-Miah, sixty toppled houses in the wadi formed a village that still existed in the Muslim period, as the remains of a mosque there observed. In the 1950s there were plans to set up Adullam as a formal political/economic region, on the model of Lachish, the Adullam Grove Nature Reserve is a nature reserve managed by the Israel Nature and National Parks Protection Authority. The Adullam Caves park is a JNF park of 50,000 dunams of mostly pine forests, the park was prepared for public use by the Israel Antiquities Authority and the Jewish National Fund. Archaeological sites, Hurvat Adullam - thought to be the site of biblical Adullam, Hurvat Itri - remains of a Jewish village from the 1st-2nd centuries CE, containing Mikvehs, a synagogue, a columbarium, and burial caves
6. Alexandria on the Caucasus – Alexandria in the Caucasus was a colony of Alexander the Great. He founded the colony at an important junction of communications in the foothills of the Hindu Kush mountains. Note, In Classical times, the Hindu Kush were also designated as the Caucasus in parallel to their Western equivalent, the Caucasus Mountains between Europe and Asia. He had also built forts in what is nowadays Bagram in Afghanistan, at the foot of the Hindu Kush, the divinity of the city seems to have been Zeus, as suggested by coins of the Greco-Bactrian king Eucratides. Alexandria of the Caucasus was one of the capitals of the Indo-Greek kings, during the reign of Menander I the city was recorded as having a thriving Buddhist community, headed by Greek monks. Some archaeological evidence concerning Alexandria of the Caucasus was gathered by Charles Masson and his findings include coins, rings, seals and other small objects. In the 1930s Roman Ghirshman, while conducting excavations near Bagram, found Egyptian and Syrian glassware, bronze statuettes, bowls and this is an indication that Alexanders conquests have opened India to imports from the west. Today the cities remains feature a rectangular tell 500 by 200 metres in area and a nearby circular citadel about 3km northeast of Bagram Airforce base
7. Amarna – The name for the city employed by the ancient Egyptians is written as Akhetaten in English transliteration. Akhetaten means Horizon of the Aten, the city of Deir Mawas lies directly west across from the site of Amarna. Amarna, on the east side, includes several villages, chief of which are el-Till in the north. The area was occupied during later Roman and early Christian times. The name Amarna comes from the Beni Amran tribe that lived in the region, the ancient Egyptian name was Akhetaten. It may be that the Royal Wadis resemblance to the hieroglyph for horizon showed that this was the place to found the city, the city was built as the new capital of the Pharaoh Akhenaten, dedicated to his new religion of worship to the Aten. Construction started in or around Year 5 of his reign and was completed by Year 9. To speed up construction of the city most of the buildings were constructed out of mud-brick, the most important buildings were faced with local stone. Once it was abandoned it remained uninhabited until Roman settlement began along the edge of the Nile, however, due to the unique circumstances of its creation and abandonment, it is questionable how representative of ancient Egyptian cities it actually is. The entire city was encircled with a total of 14 boundary stelae detailing Akhenatens conditions for the establishment of new capital city of Egypt. The earliest dated stele from Akhenatens new city is known to be Boundary stele K which is dated to Year 5, IV Peret and it preserves an account of Akhenatens foundation of this city. Located on the east bank of the Nile, the ruins of the city are laid out north to south along a Royal Road. The Royal residences are generally to the north, in what is known as the North City, with an administration and religious area. If one approached the city of Amarna from the north by river the first buildings past the boundary stele would be the North Riverside Palace. This building ran all the way up to the waterfront and was likely the residence of the Royal Family. Located within the North City area is the Northern Palace, the residence of the Royal Family. Between this and the city, the Northern Suburb was initially a prosperous area with large houses. Most of the important ceremonial and administrative buildings were located in the central city, located behind the Royal Residence was the Bureau of Correspondence of Pharaoh, where the Amarna Letters were found
8. Amman Citadel – The Amman Citadel is a historical site at the center of downtown Amman, Jordan. Known in Arabic as Jabal al-Qala, the L-shaped hill is one of the seven jabals that originally made up Amman, evidence of occupation since the pottery Neolithic period has been found. Despite this gap, the Citadel of Amman is considered to be among the worlds oldest continuously inhabited places, the Citadel is considered an important site because it has had a long history of occupation by many great civilizations. Most of the still visible at the site are from the Roman, Byzantine. The major buildings at the site are the Temple of Hercules, a Byzantine church, though the fortification walls enclose the heart of the site, the ancient periods of occupation covered large areas. Archaeologists have been working at the site since the 1920s, including Italian, British, French, Spanish, and Jordanian projects, but a great part of the Citadel remains unexcavated. Excavations have uncovered signs of occupation from as far back as the Middle Bronze Age in the form of a tomb that held pottery. During the Iron Age, the Citadel was called Rabbath-Ammon, the Amman Citadel Inscription comes from this period, an example of early Phoenician writing. It came to be occupied by the Assyrians, Babylonians, when it was conquered by the Greeks in 331 BC, the city was renamed Philadelphia. From the Hellenistic Period, there were not many architectural changes, the site became Roman around 30 BC, and finally came under Muslim rule in AD661. The Citadel declined in importance under Ayyubid rule in the 13th century, during the Umayyad period, a palace structure, known in Arabic as al-Qasr, was built at the Citadel. The Umayyad Palace was probably used as a building or the residence of an Umayyad official. The palace draws on Byzantine style, for example, the entrance hall is shaped in a Greek cross plan. The palace may have built on top of an existing Byzantine structure in this shape. There is a water reservoir dug into the ground adjacent to the palace. Starting in 1995-6, the Ministry of Tourism and Antiquities of Jordan in partnership with USAID began a project to conserve and restore this site to benefit tourists and the local community. The Amman Citadel is also the site of Jordan Archaeological Museum, media related to Amman Citadel at Wikimedia Commons
9. Antipatris – Antipatris was a city built during the first century BC by Herod the Great, who named it in honour of his father, Antipater. The site, now a park in central Israel, was inhabited from the Chalcolithic Period to the late Roman Period. The remains of Antipatris are known today as Tel Afek and it has been identified as biblical Aphek, best known from the story of the Battle of Aphek. During the Crusader Period the site was known as Surdi fontes, the Ottoman fortress known as Binar Bashi was built there in the 16th century. This gave the location of Antipatris/Tel Afek its strategic importance, Antipatris was situated on the Roman road from Caesarea Maritima to Jerusalem, north of the town of Lydda where the road turned eastwards towards Jerusalem. During the British Mandate, a pumping station was built there to channel water from the Yarkon to Jerusalem. Today the remains of Antipatris are located east of Petah Tikva, near the old Arab village Kafr Saba, the Bronze Age saw the construction of defensive walls,2.5 metres to 3.5 metres wide, and a series of palaces. One of these is described as an Egyptian governor residence of the 15th century BC, and within, philistine ware is found in the site in 12th century BC layers. Most scholars agree that there were more than one Aphek, Antipatris was a city built by Herod the Great, and named in honor of his father, Antipater II of Judea. It lay between Caesarea Maritima and Lydda, on the great Roman road from Caesarea to Jerusalem, during the outbreak of the Jewish war with Rome in 64 CE, the Roman army under Cestius was routed as far as Antipatris. According to Josephus, Antipatris was built on the site of a town that was formerly called Chabarzaba. Paul the Apostle was brought by night from Jerusalem to Antipatris and next day from there to Caesarea Maritima, no longer a residential bishopric, Antipatris is today listed by the Catholic Church as a titular see. In 363, the city was damaged by an earthquake. Ottoman records indicate that a Mamluk fortress may have stood on the site, the Turkish name of the place and fortress, pınar başı, means fountain-head or simply head of the springs, much like the Arabic and Hebrew names. Pronounced by Arabic-speakers, it became Binar Bashi, the fortress was built to protect a vulnerable stretch of the Cairo-Damascus highway, and was provided with 100 horsemen and 30 foot soldiers. The fortress was supposed to supply soldiers to protect the hajj route. The fortress is a rectangular enclosure with four corner towers. The south-west tower is octagonal, while the three towers have a square ground plan
10. Ashdod – Ashdod is the sixth-largest city and the largest port in Israel accounting for 60% of the countrys imported goods. Ashdod is located in the Southern District of the country, on the Mediterranean coast where it is situated between Tel Aviv to the north and Ashkelon to the south, Jerusalem is 53 km to the east. The city is also an important regional industrial center and this article is dealing with both these historic towns and other ancient sites now located within the territory of modern Ashdod. The first documented settlement at Ashdod dates to the Canaanite culture of the 17th century BCE. Ashdod is mentioned 13 times in the Bible, during its pre-1956 history the city was settled by Philistines, Israelites, Greek colonists coming in the wake of Alexanders conquests, Romans and Byzantines, Arabs, Crusaders, and Ottoman Turks. Modern Ashdod was established in 1956 on the hills near the site of the ancient town. Being a planned city, expansion followed a main development plan, according to the Israel Central Bureau of Statistics, Ashdod had a population of 220,174 in 2015, with an area of 47,242 dunams. Three stone tools dating from the Neolithic era were discovered, but no evidence of a Stone Age settlement in Ashdod was found. The site of Ashdod in the Bronze Age and Iron Ages was at a tell just south of the modern city and it was excavated by archaeologists in nine seasons between 1962 and 1972. The effort was led during the first few years by David Noel Freedman of the Pittsburgh Theological Seminary, the remaining seasons were headed by Dothan for the Israel Antiquities Authority. The earliest major habitation in Ashdod dates to the 17th century BCE, Ashdod is first mentioned in written documents from Late Bronze Age Ugarit, which indicate that the city was a center of export for dyed woolen purple fabric and garments. At the end of the 13th century BCE the Sea Peoples conquered and destroyed Ashdod, by the beginning of the 12th century BCE, the Philistines, generally thought to have been one of the Sea Peoples, ruled the city. During their reign, the city prospered and was a member of the Philistine Pentapolis, in 950 BCE Ashdod was destroyed during Pharaoh Siamuns conquest of the region. The city was not rebuilt until at least 815 BCE, asdûdu led the revolt of Philistines, Judeans, Edomites, and Moabites against Assyria after expulsion of king Ahimiti, whom Sargon had installed instead of his brother Azuri. Gath belonged to the kingdom of Ashdod at that time, assyrian king Sargon IIs commander-in-chief, whom the King James Bible calls simply Tartan, Isaiah 20,1 regained control of Ashdod in 712/711 BCE and forced the usurper Yamani to flee. Sargons general destroyed the city and exiled its residents, including some Israelites who were settled in Media. Mitinti was king at the time of Sargons son Sennacherib, psamtik I of Egypt is reported to have besieged the great city Azotus for twenty-nine years, the biblical references to the remnant of Ashdod are interpreted as allusions to this event. The city absorbed another blow in 605 BCE, when Nebuchadnezzar conquered it, in 539 BCE the city was rebuilt by the Persians
11. Beit She'an – It has also played an important role in modern times, acting as the regional center of the villages in the Beit Shean Valley. The ancient city ruins are now protected within a national park, a large cemetery on the northern Mound was in use from the Bronze Age to Byzantine times. Canaanite graves dating from 2000 to 1600 BCE were discovered there in 1926, after the Egyptian conquest of Beit Shean by pharaoh Thutmose III in the 15th century BCE, the small town on the summit of the Mound became the center of the Egyptian administration of the region. The Egyptian newcomers changed the organization of the town and left a great deal of material culture behind, artifacts of potential cultic significance were found around the temple. Based on a found in the temple, inscribed with Egyptian hieroglyphs. University Museums most important finds near the temple is the Lion and Dog stela, the Hebrew University excavations determined that this temple was built on the site of an earlier one. During the three hundred years of Egyptian rule, the population of Beit She’an appears to have been primarily Egyptian administrative officials, the town was completely rebuilt, following a new layout, during the 19th dynasty. The University Museum excavations uncovered two important stelae from the period of Seti I and a monument of Rameses II, Pottery was produced locally, but some was made to mimic Egyptian forms. Other Canaanite goods existed alongside Egyptian imports, or locally made Egyptian-style objects, the 20th dynasty saw the construction of large administrative buildings in Beit Shean, including Building 1500, a small palace for the Egyptian governor. During the 20th dynasty, invasions of the Sea Peoples upset Egypts control over the Eastern Mediterranean, though the exact circumstances are unclear, the entire site of Beit Shean was destroyed by fire around 1150 BCE. The Egyptians did not attempt to rebuild their administrative center and finally lost control of the region, an Iron Age I Canaanite city was constructed on the site of the Egyptian center shortly after its destruction. Around 1100 BC, Canaanite Beit Shean was conquered by the Philistines, during a subsequent battle against the Jewish King Saul at nearby Mount Gilboa in 1004 BC, the Philistines prevailed. 1 Samuel 31,10 states that the victorious Philistines hung the body of King Saul on the walls of Beit Shean, portions of these walls were excavated on the Mound recently. The Assyrian conquest of northern Israel under Tiglath-Pileser III brought about the destruction of Beit Shean by fire, minimal reoccupation occurred until the Hellenistic period. The Hellenistic period saw the reoccupation of the site of Beit Shean under the new name Scythopolis, little is known about the Hellenistic city, but during the 3rd century BCE a large temple was constructed on the Tell. It is unknown which deity was worshipped there, but the continued to be used during Roman times. Graves dating from the Hellenistic period are simple, singular rock-cut tombs, in 198 BCE the Seleucids finally conquered the region. The town played a role after the Hasmonean-Maccabeean Revolt, Josephus records that the Jewish High Priest Jonathan was killed there by Demetrius II Nicator, the city was destroyed by fire at the end of the 2nd century BCE
12. Beit Shemesh – Beit Shemesh is a city located approximately 30 kilometres west of Jerusalem in Israels Jerusalem District, with a population of 103,922 in 2015. The history of Beit Shemesh goes back to pre-biblical times, the modern city of Beit Shemesh was founded in 1950. The ancient city of Beit Shemesh was originally named after the Canaanite sun-goddess Shemesh, the ruins of the ancient biblical city can still be seen at Tel Beth-Shemesh, a tell located near the modern city. In the Amarna letters Shamash is mentioned several times, along with Addu, as one of the greatest gods, the name Beth-Shemesh was shared by two other places in Palestine and one more in Egypt. Beit Shemesh is first mentioned in the Hebrew Bible in the Book of Joshua, in Joshua 21,16, this city was set aside as one of the 13 Kohanic cities for the priests of the tribe of Levi, the Kohanim. Another city by the name, Beit Shemesh, is later mentioned in Joshua 19,38. In the book of 2 Kings, Beit Shemesh is again mentioned as being the site of the battle between Amaziah king of Judea and Jehoash king of Israel, consequently, the small Arab towns of Dayr Raban and Dayr Rafat used rocks for building from this very ancient source. A monastery and other remains from the Byzantine period have been found on the tell, in the late 19th century, the site was used as a temporary harvest-time residence by local Arabs. The small mosque of Abu Mizar stood there, during the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, the Egyptian army invaded the area and set up a fortified post, called Mishlat in Hebrew, on a hill overlooking Beit Shemesh, within the Arab-village Dayr Aban. The post changed hands several times during fighting, the Harel Brigade occupied part of the post for several months giving rise to the name the joint post or the Mishlat HaMeshutaf with 60 meters dividing them and the enemy forces. The Mishlat was finally taken by the Harel force in the Ha-Har offensive during the night of 19–20 October 1948, Beit Shemesh is the point from which the so-called Convoy of 35 set out to bring provisions to besieged Gush Etzion. On 15 January 1948 a group of 38 Palmach volunteers left Hartuv near Beit Shemesh, after one member of the group sprained his ankle, the group, now numbering 35, continued on its way. Their presence was discovered by two Arab women who encountered two scouts of the group near Surif, on 6 December 1950, the Hartuv displaced persons camp Maabarat Har-Tuv was established on the site of the current-day Moshav Naham. The first inhabitants were Jewish Bulgarian immigrants and they were joined by more Jewish immigrants from Bulgaria, Iran, Iraq, Romania, Morocco and Kurdistan. In 1952 the first permanent houses were built in Beit Shemesh, prior to 1948 the Ramat Beit Shemesh neighborhood area was the site belonging to the Arab village Bayt Nattif. This area is currently under dispute about preservation, having been the subject of a grassroots campaign, in its early years, Beit Shemesh came to typify the Development Town with a largely North African immigrant population. In 1977, following a writeup in Haaretz newspaper, Beit Shemesh was perceived as the main outpost for Menachem Begins Likud party and he promised to rehabilitate neighborhoods and when Likud came to power that year, investment in the city increased. The Israel Police maintains a bomb disposal specialist unit and training center in Beit Shemesh, when the city was built in the 1950s, it was initially settled by new immigrants from Iran, Iraq, Romania, Bulgaria, Morocco and Iraqi Kurdistan