Category:Third Intermediate Period of Egypt
This category has the following 6 subcategories, out of 6 total.
This category has the following 6 subcategories, out of 6 total.
1. Taharqa – Taharqa, also spelled Taharka or Taharqo, was a pharaoh of ancient Egypt of the Twenty-fifth Dynasty and qore of the Kingdom of Kush. Taharqa was the son of Piye, the Nubian king of Napata who had first conquered Egypt, Taharqa was also the cousin and successor of Shebitku. The successful campaigns of Piye and Shabaka paved the way for a prosperous reign by Taharqa, Taharqas reign can be dated from 690 BC to 664 BC. Evidence for the dates of his reign is derived from the Serapeum stela and this stela records that an Apis bull born and installed in Year 26 of Taharqa died in Year 20 of Psammetichus I, having lived 21 years. This would give Taharqa a reign of 26 years and a fraction, Taharqa explicitly states in Kawa Stela V, line 15, that he succeeded his predecessor after the latters death with this statement, I received the Crown in Memphis after the Falcon flew to heaven. Although Taharqas reign was filled with conflict with the Assyrians, it was also a prosperous period in Egypt. When Taharqa was about 20 years old, he participated in a battle with the Assyrian emperor Sennacherib at Eltekeh. The might of Taharqas military forces was established at Eltekeh, leading to a period of peace in Egypt, during this period of peace and prosperity, the empire flourished. In the sixth year of Taharqas reign, prosperity was also aided by abundant rainfall, Taharqa took full advantage of the lull in fighting and abundant harvest. He restored existing temples, built new ones, and built the largest pyramid in the Napatan region, particularly impressive were his additions to the Temple at Karnak, new temple at Kawa, and temple at Jebel Barkal. Scholars have identified Taharqa with Tirhakah, king of Ethiopia, who waged war against Sennacherib during the reign of King Hezekiah of Judah, the events in the Biblical account are believed to have taken place in 701 BC, whereas Taharqa came to the throne some ten years later. Herodotus, the Greek historian who wrote his Histories ca.450 BC, speaks of a divinely-appointed disaster destroying an army of Sennacherib, which was defeated by Sethos after praying to the gods. The gods sent a multitude of field-mice, which devoured all the quivers and bowstrings of the enemy, and ate the thongs by which they managed their shields. This is commemorated in a statue of Sethos, with a mouse in his hand, and an inscription to this effect Look on me. While Taharqa was still in the neighbourhood of Pelusium, some unexpected disaster may have befallen the Assyrian host on the borders of Palestine, the two snakes in the crown of pharaoh Taharqa show that he was the king of both the lands of Egypt and Nubia. It was during his reign that Egypts enemy Assyria at last invaded Egypt, Esarhaddon led several campaigns against Taharqa, which he recorded on several monuments. His first attack in 677 BC, aimed at pacifying Arab tribes around the Dead Sea, Esarhaddon then proceeded to invade Egypt proper in Taharqas 17th regnal year, after Esarhaddon had settled a revolt at Ashkelon. Taharqa defeated the Assyrians on that occasion, three years later in 671 BC the Assyrian king captured and sacked Memphis, where he captured numerous members of the royal family
2. Late Period of ancient Egypt – It ran from 664 BC until 332 BC. Libyans and Persians alternated rule with native Egyptians, but traditional conventions continued in the arts and it is often regarded as the last gasp of a once great culture, during which the power of Egypt steadily diminished. The Twenty-Sixth Dynasty, also known as the Saite Dynasty after Sais, reigned from 672 BC to 525 BC, canal construction from the Nile to the Red Sea began. One major contribution from the Late Period of ancient Egypt was the Brooklyn Papyrus and this was a medical papyrus with a collection of medical and magical remedies for victims of snakebites based on snake type or symptoms. Artwork during this time was representative of animal cults and animal mummies and this image shows the god Pataikos wearing a scarab beetle on his head, supporting two human-headed birds on his shoulders, holding a snake in each hand, and standing atop crocodiles. The First Achaemenid Period period saw Egypt conquered by an expansive Achaemenid Empire under Cambyses, a total of eight pharaohs from this dynasty ruled over Egypt. The initial period of Achaemenid Persian occupation when Egypt became a satrapy, the Twenty-Eighth Dynasty consisted of a single king, Amyrtaeus, prince of Sais, who rebelled against the Persians. He left no monuments with his name and this dynasty reigned for six years, from 404 BC to 398 BC. The Twenty-Ninth Dynasty ruled from Mendes, for the period from 398 BC to 380 BC, the Thirtieth Dynasty took their art style from the Twenty-Sixth Dynasty. A series of three pharaohs ruled from 380 BC until their defeat in 343 BC led to the re-occupation by the Persians. The final ruler of dynasty, and the final native ruler of Egypt until nearly 2,300 years later, was Nectanebo II. There was a Second Achaemenid Period of the Thirty-First Dynasty, and consisted of four pharaohs, Artaxerxes III, Artaxerxes IV, Khababash, gozzoli, The Writing of History in Ancient Egypt During the First Millennium BCE. Trend and Perspectives, London 2006, ISBN 0-9550256-3-X Lloyd, Alan B.2000, the Oxford History of Ancient Egypt, edited by Ian Shaw. Oxford and New York, Oxford University Press, 71-74 Primary sources Herodotus Fragments of Ctesias Thucydides Diodorus Siculus Fragments of Manetho Flavius Josephus
3. Third Intermediate Period of Egypt – The Third Intermediate Period of Ancient Egypt began with the death of Pharaoh Ramesses XI in 1070 BC, ending the New Kingdom, and was eventually followed by the Late Period. The period was one of decline and political instability, coinciding with the Late Bronze Age collapse of civilizations in the Near East and it marked by division of the state for much of the period and conquest and rule by foreigners. But many aspects of life for ordinary Egyptians changed relatively little, the period of the Twenty-First Dynasty is characterized by the countrys fracturing kingship. Even in Ramesses XIs day, the Twentieth dynasty of Egypt was losing its grip on power in the city of Thebes, after his death, his successor Smendes I ruled from the city of Tanis, but was mostly active only in Lower Egypt which they controlled. Meanwhile, the High Priests of Amun at Thebes effectively ruled Middle and Upper Egypt in all, however, this division was less significant than it seems, since both priests and pharaohs came from the same family. The country was reunited by the Twenty-Second Dynasty founded by Shoshenq I in 945 BC. In Thebes, a civil war engulfed the city between the forces of Pedubast I, who had proclaimed himself Pharaoh versus the existing line of Takelot II/Osorkon B. These two factions squabbled consistently and the conflict was resolved in Year 39 of Shoshenq III when Osorkon B comprehensively defeated his enemies. The Nubian kingdom to the south took full advantage of this division, piye established the Twenty-Fifth Dynasty and appointed the defeated rulers as his provincial governors. He was succeeded first by his brother, Shabaka, and then by his two sons Shebitku and Taharqa respectively, the reunited Nile valley empire of the 25th dynasty was as large as it had been since the New Kingdom. Pharaohs, such as Taharqa, built or restored temples and monuments throughout the Nile valley, including at Memphis, Karnak, Kawa, Jebel Barkal, the 25th dynasty ended with its rulers retreating to their spiritual homeland at Napata. It was there that all 25th dynasty pharaohs are buried under the first pyramids to be constructed in the Nile valley in millennia, the Napatan dynasty led to the Kingdom of Kush, which flourished in Napata and Meroe until at least the 2nd century AD. The international prestige of Egypt had declined considerably by this time, the countrys international allies had fallen firmly into the sphere of influence of Assyria and from about 700 BC the question became when, not if, there would be war between the two states. This disparity became critical during the Assyrian invasion of Egypt in 670 BC, consequently, Pharaoh Taharqas reign, and that of his successor and cousin Tantamani, were filled with constant conflict with the Assyrians. In 664 BC the Assyrians delivered a blow, sacking Thebes. In 656 BC Psamtik I occupied Thebes and became Pharaoh, the King of Upper and Lower Egypt, four successive Saite kings continued guiding Egypt into another period of peace and prosperity from 610 to 525 BC. Unfortunately for this dynasty, a new power was growing in the Near East – Persia, Pharaoh Psamtik III had succeeded his father Ahmose II for only 6 months before he had to face the Persian Empire at Pelusium. The Persians had already taken Babylon and Egypt was no match, the historiography of this period is disputed for a variety of reasons
4. Smendes – Hedjkheperre Setepenre Smendes was the founder of the Twenty-first dynasty of Egypt and succeeded to the throne after burying Ramesses XI in Lower Egypt – territory which he controlled. While Smendes precise origins remain a mystery, he is thought to have been a governor in Lower Egypt during the Renaissance era of Ramesses XI. Nesibanebdjedet may have been a son of a lady named Hrere, Hrere was a Chief of the Harem of Amun-Re and likely the wife of a high priest of Amun. If Hrere was the mother of Nesibanebdjedet, then he was a brother of Nodjmet and through her brother-in-law of the High Priests Herihor, Nesibanebdjedet was married to Tentamun B, likely a daughter of Ramesses IX. They may have been the parents of his successor Amenemnisu, Smendes features prominently in the Report of Wenamun. This story is set in an anonymous Year 5, generally taken to be year 5 of the so-called Renaissance of Pharaoh Ramesses XI, however, since Karl Jansen-Winkeln has proposed to reverse the order of the High Priests of Amun Herihor and Piankh, this ascription has become disputed. Following Jansen-Winkeln, Arno Egberts therefore argues that the story is set in the regnal year of Smendes. Wenamun first visits Smendes at Tanis and personally presented his letters of accreditation to Smendes in order to receive the permission to travel north to modern Lebanon. Smendes responds by dispatching a ship for Wenamuns travels to Syria, Smendes appears as a person of the highest importance in Tanis. The quarry stela describes how Smendes while residing in Memphis, heard of danger to the temple of Luxor from flooding, gave orders for repairs, Smendes is assigned a reign of 26 Years by Manetho in his Epitome and was the husband of Tentamun. Menkheperre then exiled the leaders of the rebellion to the Western Desert Oases and these individuals were pardoned several years later during the reign of Smendes successor, Amenemnisu. His prenomen or throne name Hedjkheperre Setepenre/Setepenamun—which means Bright is the Manifestation of Rê, Chosen of Rê/Amun—became very popular in the following 22nd Dynasty and 23rd Dynasty. In all, five kings, Shoshenq I, Shoshenq IV, Takelot I, Takelot II, on the death of Smendes in 1052 BC, he was succeeded by Neferkare Amenemnisu, who may have been this kings son. Nicolas Grimal, A History of Ancient Egypt, Blackwell Books