Pages in category "Time balls"
The following 16 pages are in this category, out of 16 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 16 pages are in this category, out of 16 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Time ball – Time ball or timeball or ball time is an obsolete time-signalling device. Accurate timekeeping is essential to the determination of longitude at sea, although the use of time balls has been replaced by electronic time signals, some time balls have remained operational as historical tourist attractions. The fall of a ball was in antiquity a way to show to people the time. Ancient Greek clocks had this system in the square of a city, as in the city of Gaza inpost Alexander era. Time ball stations set their clocks according to observations of the positions of the sun. Originally they either had to be stationed at the observatory, or had to keep an accurate clock at the station which was set manually to observatory time. Following the introduction of the electric telegraph around 1850, time balls could be located at a distance from their source of mean time, the first time ball was erected at Portsmouth, England, in 1829 by its inventor Robert Wauchope, a captain in the Royal Navy. Others followed in the ports of the United Kingdom and around the maritime world. One was installed in 1833 at the Greenwich Observatory in London by the Astronomer Royal, John Pond, Wauchope submitted his scheme to American and French ambassadors when they visited England. The United States Naval Observatory was established in Washington, D. C. Time balls were usually dropped at 1 p. m. They were raised half way about 5 minutes earlier to alert the ships, the time was recorded when the ball began descending, not when it reached the bottom. With the commencement of radio signals, time balls gradually became obsolete. Rather than the ball being dropped rapidly with its used as the time signal. The Lyttelton Timeball Station in Lyttelton, New Zealand, was operational until it was damaged in the 2010 Canterbury earthquake, in November 2012, a large financial donation was made available to contribute towards rebuilding the tower, a project the community considered. On 25 May 2013, it was announced that the tower and ball would be restored, today there are over sixty time balls standing, though many of these are no longer operational. Index to the House Documents, Otherwise Publ. as Executive Documents, list of time balls worldwide in 1876. Time ball/cannon hobbyist Time ball and cannon Association
2. Blackhead Point – Blackhead Point, also known as Tai Pau Mai indigenously, or by the names Tsim Sha Tsui Point and Signal Hill, was a cape before any land reclamation took place in Tsim Sha Tsui, Kowloon, Hong Kong. It remains a small hill near the coast, Blackhead Point was named after a German businessman in Hong Kong named Friedrich Johan Berthold Schwarzkopf, who naturalised as a British citizen and anglicised his name as Blackhead. The Signal Hill Tower was built in the Edwardian style in 1907 at the top of the hill, originally three-storey building, the tower stood at 12.8 metres tall, with a red brick facade. Another storey was added to the structure in 1927 for clearer view of the tower from incoming vessels, the windows of the added storey features round windows whereas the original floors have square windows. Prior to the addition, the roof of the building was flat, a dome-shaped roof painted light green was built in replacement. There was a 5.5 m long mast which used to contain the ball atop the building. The purpose of the tower was to house a time ball apparatus of the Hong Kong Observatory previously located in the nearby Marine Police Headquarters Compound. The apparatus operated in the building from January 1908 to June 1933, dropping once daily from 1908 to 1920, the Urban Council restored the tower in the 1970s. The building was designated a Grade II historic building in 1981 and was upgraded to a Grade I historic building on December 18,2009, on 23 October 2015 the tower was also declared a monument. The site was allocated to the Urban Council in 1973 and made a park, called the Signal Hill Garden, Signal Hill Tower is still standing and was listed as a Grade II historic building in 1981, and as a Grade I historic building since 2009. A small building in the park, now repurposed as a toilet, was where typhoon signals were hoisted in Hong Kong as it was located on the highest hill near the middle of Victoria Harbour, the entrance of the park is at Minden Row. The Signal Hill Garden is adjacent to the Middle Road Childrens Playground, however, the two parks are not contiguous and one cannot walk to the other without first exiting to the street. Signal Hill Garden Carl T. Smith, The German Speaking Community in Hong Kong 1846-1918, in Journal of the RASHKB, Vol.34,1994
3. Citadelle of Quebec – The Citadelle of Quebec, also known as La Citadelle, is an active military installation and official residence of both the Canadian monarch and the Governor General of Canada. It is located atop Cap Diamant, adjoining the Plains of Abraham in Quebec City, the Citadelle is a National Historic Site of Canada and forms part of the Fortifications of Québec National Historic Site of Canada. The fortress is located within the Historic District of Old Québec, the site receives some 200,000 visitors annually. Cap Diamants strategic value was identified by Samuel de Champlain in 1608, the promontory was practically insurmountable and thus the only side of the settlement ever to be heavily fortified was the west, the only one not naturally protected by the hill. The proposal to build a fort was deemed by the government in France to be too costly. After the fall of Louisbourg in 1745, considerable work on the battlements took place under the direction of military engineer Gaspard-Joseph Chaussegros de Léry, the first British Lieutenant Governor of Quebec, General James Murray, saw the weakness of Quebec Citys defences. He urged the construction of a citadel, but the government at Westminster, like the French before, deemed a large fort to be of little value. During the American Revolutionary War, after seizing Montreal in the autumn of 1775, American rebels, led by General Richard Montgomery and Benedict Arnold, there, Montgomery was killed and Arnold wounded and forced to retreat. The Americans attempted to keep Quebec under siege, but withdrew after the arrival of British reinforcements in the spring of 1776, the ramparts around the Upper Town cliff and four martello towers on the Plains of Abraham were completed before 1812. A citadel was a key part of Manns design, but no fort was built because the cost was deemed prohibitive and that, though, was somewhat of an anachronism by the time of the forts completion, in comparison to other contemporary European military architecture. Additional buildings were completed in 1850, after Canadian Confederation in 1867, Canada became responsible for its own defence, the British departed the Citadelle in 1871. Two batteries of the Royal Canadian Artillery were established at the Citadelle, since 1920, the Citadelle has been the home station of the Royal 22e Régiment of the Canadian Forces. From the late 19th century, living conditions for soldiers at the fort gradually improved, canteens were opened, roosevelt discussed strategy for World War II, were held at the Citadelle of Quebec. The Historic Sites and Monuments Board of Canada designated the Citadel as a historic site in 1946. The Citadelle is a military installation for the Canadian Forces. The latter, by tradition, resides there for weeks during the summer as well as other shorter periods throughout the year. The residence is open to the public, running a visitors program. The Citadelle attracts approximately 200,000 visitors each year, additionally, daily at noon, a cannon is fired from the fort, the sound of which can be heard throughout Quebec City
4. Clock Tower, Brighton – The Clock Tower is a free-standing clock tower in the centre of Brighton, part of the English city of Brighton and Hove. The citys residents retain a nostalgic affection for it, even though opinion is divided as to the towers architectural merit. English Heritage has listed the clock tower at Grade II for its architectural and historical importance, by the 1780s, North Street had become established as an important shopping street, and its status as the commercial heart of Brighton grew over the next century. The site was ideal for redevelopment, and in 1881 a competition was held for a replacement building, architects Henry Branch and Thomas Simpson were recorded as the winners, but their plans were never executed and the site stood vacant until 1888. Queen Victoria celebrated her Golden Jubilee in 1887, and many towns built Jubilee clock towers to commemorate the occasion, a local advertising contractor, James Willing, decided to commission one for Brighton. The town organised a competition which was won by a London-based architect. The tower was completed at the start of 1888 and was unveiled on 20 January 1888 on Willings 70th birthday, the hydraulically operated copper sphere moved up and down a 16-foot metal mast every hour, based on electrical signals transmitted from the Royal Observatory, Greenwich. The feature was disabled after a few years because of complaints about the noise it caused, the tower is acknowledged as one of Brightons main landmarks, and it has been described as the hub of modern Brighton. Criticism by architectural historians has sometimes been intense, although others have praised the tower, the Clock Tower was listed at Grade II by English Heritage on 26 August 1999. This status is given to nationally important buildings of special interest, as of February 2001, it was one of 1,124 Grade II-listed buildings and structures, and 1,218 listed buildings of all grades, in the city of Brighton and Hove. The Clock Tower is a Classical-style structure with Baroque touches and it rises to 75 feet, and the mast for Volks time ball adds a further 16 feet. The four clock faces have a diameter of 5 feet, James Willing and 1887 are inscribed on the clock faces. The square base is of granite, as are the Corinthian columns on each shaft. Incised lettering on each ship indicates where they are pointing, clockwise from north, they show to the station, to town, to the sea. Below these, each side has a recess containing a medallion-style mosaic portrait of a member of the Royal Family. At the corners of the base, there are carved stone statues of female figures, above the pediments, the rusticated stone walls are decorated with pilasters, narrow round-headed recesses and a frieze formed by enclosed balusters. Pevsner saw Gothic elements in the design of this section, above the frieze, an ornate cornice with turrets at each corner is topped by a dome with a copper fish-scale roof, the time ball and a weather-vane topped with James Willings initials. There had once been public toilets under the structure
5. Deal Timeball – Deal Timeball is a Victorian maritime Greenwich Mean Time signal located on the roof of a waterfront four-storey tower in the coastal town of Deal, in Kent, England. It was established in 1855 by the Astronomer Royal George Biddell Airy in collaboration with Charles V. Walker and it was built by the Lambeth firm of engineers Maudslay and Field. The time ball, which, like the Greenwich time ball, fell at 1 pm precisely, was triggered by a signal directly from the Royal Observatory. Before it became a time ball tower, the tower was a tower used to signal to ships at anchor in the Downs or passing in the English Channel. From 1821 to 1831, the Tower carried a semaphore mast, the Blockade was under the auspices of the Navy, and was manned by their personnel. The Timeball Tower stands on the site of an earlier Shutter Telegraph and this was one of a chain of telegraph stations between the Admiralty in London and the Naval Yard at Deal. The telegraph line opened in 1796 and closed in 1814 and its purpose was to allow rapid communication between London and Deal, the latter being an important Naval anchorage during the Napoleonic Wars. In 1805 news of the victory at Trafalgar and the death of Nelson was brought to Deal by the schooler H. M. S. Pickle and transmitted by the telegraph to the Admiralty in London, the Deal Timeball Tower Museum features exhibits about the history of the tower and its use for navigation aid, fight against smuggling, signaling, and the mechanics of the time ball. Shepherd Gate Clock Time signal Timeball Tower Museum Information & location of the Deal Timeball Tower
6. Nelson Monument, Edinburgh – The Nelson Monument is a commemorative tower in honour of Vice Admiral Horatio Nelson, located in Edinburgh, Scotland. It is situated on top of Calton Hill, and provides a dramatic termination to the vista along Princes Street from the west. The monument was built between 1807 and 1815 to commemorate Nelsons victory over the French and Spanish fleets at the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805, in 1853 a time ball was added, as a time signal to shipping in Leith harbour. The monument was restored in 2009, the Royal Navys White Ensign and signal flags spelling out Nelsons famous message England expects that every man will do his duty are flown from the Monument on Trafalgar Day each year. The monument was constructed at the highest point of Calton Hill, at 171 metres above sea-level, the monument was funded by public subscription and an initial design prepared by Alexander Nasmyth. His pagoda-like design was deemed too expensive, and a design in the form of an upturned telescope—an object closely associated with Nelson—was obtained from the architect Robert Burn. Building began in 1807, and was almost complete when money ran out the following year, Burn died in 1815, and it was left to Thomas Bonnar to complete the pentagonal castellated building, which forms the base to the tower, between 1814 and 1816. The tower was intended as a signal mast, attended by sailors who would be accommodated within the ground floor rooms, public access was available from the start, for a small fee. The rooms were used to house the monuments caretaker. In 2009, as part of the Twelve Monuments Restoration Project, the monument is a category A listed building. The monument is 32 metres high, and has 143 steps leading to a viewing gallery. The castellated design reflects the castellated prison buildings which stood on the side of Calton Hill in the early 19th century. A plaque above the entrance to the monument carries the dedication, Above the plaque is a stone carving of the San Josef. On top of the tower is a ball, a large ball which was raised and lowered to mark the time. The mechanism was the work of Maudslay, Sons & Field of Lambeth, the installation was carried out by James Ritchie & Son Ltd, who are still retained by City of Edinburgh Council to maintain and operate the time ball. The ball, constructed of wood and covered in zinc, and weighing 762 kilograms, is raised just before 1pm, later, in 1861, the One OClock Gun was established at Edinburgh Castle to provide an audible signal when fog obscured the time ball. The time ball was operated for over 150 years, until it was damaged by a storm in 2007, in 2009, as part of the restoration of the monument, the time ball was removed, and the mechanism repaired. The time ball was back into service on 24 September 2009
7. Nottingham Exchange – Nottingham Exchange was built in the Market Place in Nottingham between 1724 and 1726 as the main offices of the Nottingham Corporation. The Nottingham Exchange was erected between 1724 and 1726 replacing a shambles of buildings on the same site and it cost £2,400 and comprised a four-storey, eleven bay frontage 123 feet long. The architect was the mayor, Marmaduke Pennell, the corporation offices moved here from Nottingham Guild Hall. A clock was presented for the Exchange by 1728 by the famous clock builder James Woolley of Codnor, the building was reconstructed between 1814 and 1815 at a cost of £14,000. This moved the main staircase from the front to the side, the Great Hall was used for concerts, elections, balls, meetings and exhibitions. In 1830, John Whitehurst and Son of Derby provided a new clock for the Exchange at a cost of £100, on 19 September 1836 a new dial was added to the clock by Shepperley for £46 and this was illuminated by a gas jet. On 26 November 1836 a fire out and considerable damage was caused to the building. The Midland Railway adopted London Time at all of its stations on 1 January 1846, a new clock was built in 1881 by G. & F. Cope and moved to St Helens Church, Trowell in 1927, the Exchange was demolished in 1926 to make way for the current Nottingham Council House which occupies the same site. In 1876 a Greenwich time ball apparatus was fixed to the Smithy-row corner of the parapet of the Nottingham Exchange and it started operation on 11 September 1876. and was installed by the Corporation to indicate Greenwich Mean Time to assist with the regulation of public clocks. Operated by electrical control, the ball dropped from top to bottom of a staff at 1pm each day. Its use was discontinued because the installation had lost both its novelty and usefulness through the more general availability of Greenwich time, and the greater accuracy of public clocks
8. Royal Observatory, Greenwich – The Royal Observatory, Greenwich is an observatory situated on a hill in Greenwich Park, overlooking the River Thames. It played a role in the history of astronomy and navigation. The observatory was commissioned in 1675 by King Charles II, with the stone being laid on 10 August. The site was chosen by Sir Christopher Wren and he appointed John Flamsteed as the first Astronomer Royal. The building was completed in the summer of 1676, the building was often called Flamsteed House, in reference to its first occupant. The scientific work of the observatory was relocated elsewhere in stages in the first half of the 20th century,1675 –22 June, Royal Observatory founded. 1675 –10 August, construction began,1714 Longitude Act established the Board of Longitude and Longitude rewards. The Astronomer Royal was, until the Board was dissolved in 1828,1767 Astronomer Royal Nevil Maskelyne began publication of the Nautical Almanac, based on observations made at the Observatory. 1833 Daily time signals began, marked by dropping a Time ball,1899 The New Physical Observatory was completed. 1924 Hourly time signals from the Royal Observatory were first broadcast on 5 February,1948 Office of the Astronomer Royal was moved to Herstmonceux. 1957 Royal Observatory completed its move to Herstmonceux, becoming the Royal Greenwich Observatory, the Greenwich site is renamed the Old Royal Observatory. Greenwich site is returned to its name, the Royal Observatory. The Ordnance Office was given responsibility for building the Observatory, with Moore providing the key instruments, Moore donated two clocks, built by Thomas Tompion, which were installed in the 20 foot high Octagon Room, the principal room of the building. They were of unusual design, each with a pendulum 13 feet in length mounted above the face, giving a period of four seconds. British astronomers have used the Royal Observatory as a basis for measurement. Four separate meridians have passed through the buildings, defined by successive instruments, subsequently, nations across the world used it as their standard for mapping and timekeeping. When the Airy circle became the reference for the meridian, the difference resulting from the change was considered enough to be neglected. When a new triangulation was done between 1936 and 1962, scientists determined that in the Ordnance Survey system the longitude of the international Greenwich meridian was not 0° and this old astronomical prime meridian has been replaced by a more precise prime meridian
9. Semaphore, South Australia – Semaphore is bounded to the north by Union and Hargrave Streets, to the south by Hart Street, to the west by Gulf St Vincent and to the east by Woolnough Road and Swan Terrace. It is adjacent to Semaphore South, Glanville, Exeter and Largs Bay, the postcode for Semaphore is 5019. Semaphore was first surveyed for sale in 1849, at time it was isolated by swamps to the south. In 1851, George Coppin, a prominent publican, theatrical entrepreneur and actor, built a two-storeyed timber hotel on the corner of The Esplanade. A very high flagpole was erected to signal to his White Horse Cellars hotel at Port Adelaide the approach of ships, earning the area the name Semaphore, often called The Semaphore. In 1856, an official government signal station was established at the intersection of The Esplanade and Semaphore Road and it was also used to record information on water depth, tides and cargo loading. A Telegraph Office opened in 1856 and became a Post and Telegraph Office in March 1871, in 1875, the Time Ball Tower was erected adjacent to the Signal Station. The area was isolated from Port Adelaide by the Port River until 1859 when a wooden bridge, the following year saw the construction of the jetty. The majority of settlers in Semaphore were crewmen of boats. This was further augmented by the construction in 1878 of a railway, carnivals, sideshows and open air cinemas were opened, and 1917 a tram service from Port Adelaide was built. The Semaphore jetty, which was completed in 1860, once stood at 652 m in length and it overlooks the Fort Glanville steam train, which operates as a heritage item by the National Railway Museum. A World War I memorial clock was built in 1925 at the end of the jetty. In 1928, a merry-go-round, the largest in Australia, was constructed, driven by a lift motor and gearbox. An octagonal brick tower with two metre thick walls was erected in Blackler Street in 1880 to maintain a water supply when the Jervois bridge had to be raised for passing ships and it was in use until 1972 after which it was converted into a residence. The birthplace of Sir Ross Smith, the aviator who flew from the United Kingdom to Australia is preserved to this day, at 36 Newman Street. Semaphores beach is the busiest of those on the LeFevre Peninsula, there are large car parks on the foreshore to accommodate visitors. The beach is wide, with an amount of wide sand. The surf is low and good for swimming, but surfing is not possible
10. Sydney Observatory – Sydney Observatory is located on a hill now known as Observatory Hill in the centre of Sydney. The site evolved from a built on Windmill Hill in the early 19th century to an astronomical observatory during the nineteenth century. In 1797, early on during the European settlement of New South Wales, Australia, within ten years the windmill had deteriorated to the point of being useless, the canvas sails were stolen, a storm damaged the machinery, and already by 1800 the foundations were giving way. The name of Millers Point remembers this early land use, in 1803, Fort Philip was built on the site under the direction of Governor Hunter to defend the new settlement against a possible attack by the French and also from rebellious convicts. The fort was never required to be used for any such purposes, in 1825 the eastern wall of the fort was converted to a signal station. Flags were used to send messages to ships in the harbour, the Colonys second observatory was established at Parramatta in 1821 by Governor Sir Thomas Brisbane. In 1848, a new station was built by the Colonial Architect, Mortimer Lewis. At the instigation of the Governor, Sir William Denison, it was agreed seven years later to build an observatory next to the signal station. The first Government Astronomer, William Scott, was appointed in 1856, the most important role of the observatory was to provide time through the time-ball tower. Every day at exactly 1.00 pm, the time-ball on top of the tower would drop to signal the time to the city. At the same time a cannon on Dawes Point was fired, the first time-ball was dropped at noon on 5 June 1858. Soon after the drop was rescheduled to one oclock, the time-ball is still dropped daily at 1pm using the original mechanism, but with the aid of an electric motor, not as in the early days when the ball was raised manually. The observatory is a building in the Italianate style. There are two domes on octagonal bases and a four-storey tower for the time-ball. A western wing was added in 1877 with office and library space, some of the first astronomical photographs of the southern sky were taken at the observatory, under the direction of Henry Chamberlain Russell. The observatory also took part in the compilation of the first atlas of the whole sky, the part completed at Sydney took over 70 years, from 1899 to 1971, and filled 53 volumes. After the federation of Australia in 1901, meteorology became a function for the Commonwealth Government from 1908, the observatory continued to contribute observations to The astrographic catalogue, kept time and provided information to the public. For example, each day the Observatory supplied Sydney newspapers with the rising and setting times of the sun, moon and planets
11. The Old Windmill, Brisbane – The Old Windmill is a heritage-listed tower located in Wickham Park, on Wickham Terrace in Spring Hill, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia. It is the oldest surviving building in Queensland, the Old Windmill was built in 1828 during colonial times by convicts for grinding grains, such as wheat and maize. The Old Windmill originally had wind-powered sails, the grinding of the grains was done by treadmill from October,1828, with the wind-powered sails being used from December,1838, after being repaired by Andrew Petrie. The treadmill was dismantled in 1842 when the settlement was closed. After the murder of two members of a party near Mount Lindesay in May 1840, three Aboriginal men were apprehended and tried for the crimes. In July 1841, the two surviving Aborigines were hanged from a beam from a window of the windmill. The grid had its origin at the windmill in Brisbane. On 20 January 1862, the Old Windmill became the first home of the Queensland Museum, the Old Windmill was later used as a signal tower, and is now used as a weather observatory. Towards the end of the 19th century, the tower was encased in a cement render to protect the brick, the current render dates from a 1988 refurbishment, and is scored to imitate the stone blocks it covers. The Tower was ideally suited for purpose as it commanded a panoramic view from Moreton Bay in the east. Nearby he erected a 150 feet mast and strung an 80 feet antenna between it and the Tower - the most impressive configuration of its kind in Queensland at the time, during the 1930s and 1940s the tower was the venue for pioneer television broadcasting. The tower was placed on the Queensland Heritage Register in 1992, paranormal researcher Joe Nickell visited the windmill October 2015 after learning that local paranormal groups considered the site haunted. The stories relate to the deaths of two Aboriginal men who were hanged from the upper window, in his investigation Nickell confirmed these deaths happened, but it was impossible for the execution to have happened inside the tower as ghost raconteurs have suggested. An often reported light in the story was found to be typical of ghostlore and according to Nickell. In all, the resulted in Nickell stating that the stories of the Tower Mill hauntings are the work of some percipients faulty imagination or the creation of a writer of fakelore
12. Titanic Memorial (New York City) – The Titanic Memorial is a 60-foot-tall lighthouse built, due in part to the instigation of Margaret Brown, to remember the people who died on the RMS Titanic on April 15,1912. Its design incorporates the use of a time ball, the lighthouse was originally erected by public subscription in 1913. It stood above the East River on the roof of the old Seamens Church Institute of New York and New Jersey at the corner of South Street and Coenties Slip. From 1913 to 1967 the time ball at the top of the lighthouse would drop down the pole to signal twelve noon to the ships in the harbor and this time ball mechanism was activated by a telegraphic signal, from the Naval Observatory in Washington D. C. In July 1968 the Seamens Church Institute moved to 15 State Street and that year, the Titanic Memorial Lighthouse was donated by the Kaiser-Nelson Steel & Salvage Corporation to the South Street Seaport Museum. It was erected at the entrance to the complex, on the corner of Fulton and Pearl streets, in May 1976. Straus Park,6 miles away, is another Titanic memorial, additional memorials exist in Canada, England and Northern Ireland. Media related to Titanic Memorial at Wikimedia Commons
13. United States Naval Observatory – The USNO operates the Master Clock, which provides precise time to the GPS satellite constellation run by the United States Air Force. The USNO performs radio VLBI-based positions of quasars with numerous global collaborators, aside from its scientific mission, a house located within the Naval Observatory complex serves as the official residence of the Vice President of the United States. President John Quincy Adams, who in 1825 signed the bill for the creation of an observatory just before leaving presidential office, had intended for it to be called the National Observatory. The names National Observatory and Naval Observatory were both used for 10 years, until a ruling was passed to use the latter. Adams had made protracted efforts to bring astronomy to a level at that time. He spent many nights at the observatory, watching and charting the stars, established by the order of the United States Secretary of the Navy John Branch on 6 December 1830 as the Depot of Charts and Instruments, the Observatory rose from humble beginnings. Placed under the command of Lieutenant Louis M. Goldsborough, with an budget of $330, its primary function was the restoration, repair. It was made into an observatory in 1842 via a federal law. Lieutenant James Melville Gilliss was put in charge of obtaining the instruments needed, lt. Gilliss visited the principal observatories of Europe with the mission to purchase telescopes and scientific devices and books. The observatorys primary mission was to care for the United States Navys marine chronometers, charts and it calibrated ships chronometers by timing the transit of stars across the meridian. These facilities were listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2017, the first superintendent was Navy Commander Matthew Fontaine Maury. Maury had the worlds first vulcanized time ball, created to his specifications by Charles Goodyear for the U. S. Observatory and it was the first time ball in the United States, being placed into service in 1845, and the 12th in the world. Maury kept accurate time by the stars and planets, the time ball was dropped every day except Sunday precisely at the astronomically defined moment of Mean Solar Noon, enabling all ships and civilians to know the exact time. Time was also sold to the railroads and was used in conjunction with railroad chronometers to schedule American rail transport, early in the 20th century, the Arlington Time Signal broadcast this service to wireless receivers. In 1849 the Nautical Almanac Office was established in Cambridge, Massachusetts as a separate organization and it was moved to Washington, D. C. in 1866, colocating with the U. S. Naval Observatory in 1893. On September 20,1894, the NAO became a branch of USNO, the astronomical measurements taken of the transit of Venus by a number of countries since 1639 resulted in a progressively more accurate definition of the AU. Relying heavily on methods, the naval observers returned 350 photographic plates in 1874. This calculated distance was a significant improvement over several previous estimates, the telescope used for the discovery of the Moons of Mars was the 26-inch refractor, then located at Foggy Bottom
14. Victoria & Alfred Waterfront – The Victoria & Alfred Waterfront in Cape Town is situated on the Atlantic shore, Table Bay Harbour, the City of Cape Town and Table Mountain. Adrian van der Vyver designed the complex, the Waterfront attracts more than 23 million visitors a year. Situated in South Africa’s oldest working harbour, the 123 hectares area has developed for mixed-use. Prince Alfred, second son of Queen Victoria, visited the Cape Colony harbour in 1860 as a sixteen year-old Royal Navy Midshipman in HMS Euryalus and he made a big splash with the colonials and the tribal chiefs on this first-ever visit by a member of the Royal Family. The first basin of the new Navy Yard was named after him, the complex houses over 450 retail outlets, including fashion, homeware and curios, to jewellery, leather goods and audio-visual equipment. The V&A Waterfront is also still a harbour and fishing boats bring in fresh fish. The Waterfront has recently seen development in its new Silo district, the project is expected to be completed in 2017 with the Zeitz Museum of Contemporary Art Africa, a Virgin Active gym and a hotel in the works. Two Oceans Aquarium University of Cape Town Graduate School of Business Nelson Mandela Gateway to Robben Island Chavonnes Battery Official web site V&A Waterfront – The Story of its Development