Blachernitissa, called Theotokos of Blachernae or Our Lady of Blachernae, is a 7th-century encaustic icon representing the Most Holy Theotokos and Ever-Virgin Mary. It is the given to the Church built in honour of the Virgin Mary in the Blachernae section of Constantinople. Blachernitissa is unusual among Orthodox icons in that it is not flat, according to Sacred Tradition, the icon Blachernitissa was made of wax combined with the ashes of Christian martyrs who had been killed in the 6th century. The Church of St. Mary of Blachernae was sited close to the Blachernae imperial palace, the Theotokos intercession, asked through veneration and prayer before the icon, was credited with saving Constantinople from the Persians during the reign of Heraclius and from the Arabs. These miracles are commemorated annually in the Orthodox Church on the Saturday of the Akathist on the Fifth Saturday of Great Lent, like many holy objects of Byzantine tradition, the Blachernitissa resurfaced on Mount Athos in the mid-17th century.
It has been suggested that the Athonite icon had its origins in the Blachernae quarter and it was in 1653 that the icon was sent by the Athonite monks to Moscow as their gift to Tsar Alexis. A Constantinople merchant, Demetrios Costinari, brought it to Moscow on October 16,1653 and he was met by the Tsar in person, and Alexis had the icon enshrined in Moscows main church, the Dormition Cathedral, opposite Russias protectress, the Theotokos of Vladimir. This event is celebrated annually in the Russian Orthodox Church on July 7, paul of Aleppo, who accompanied the Patriarch of Antioch to Moscow in early 1655, was impressed by the reverence in which the icon was held. According to his account, the Blachernitissa appears as if she had a form and it stands out against the background so strongly. It was encased in a sumptuous chasuble glittering with gold and precious stones, so only the hands. Paul proceeds to describe how the Tsar had it placed in front of his own seat in a sledge, the Syrian clergyman, tells a different story about the icons provenance than that adopted by the Russian Orthodox Church.
It was a Constantinople widow who discovered the icon in her house, the 1650s were a time when the Russian Church, steered by Patriarch Nikon, began to place great store on renewing its ties with the older members of the Pentarchy. This emphasis dovetailed neatly with the prevailing Third Rome doctrine which saw Moscow as the successor to Constantinople, with this in mind, the metochion sent the newly recovered Byzantine relic to Moscow and was handsomely remunerated with 800 dinars from the Tsars coffers. When placed in the Kremlin, the icon was in disrepair from old age and use, so that Simon Ushakov, the carved high relief icon has similarities to a set of 13th-century icons of St. George from the Crimea and Castoria. An original Greek inscription recently discovered under the coat of wax paints has a parallel in a seal from a Trapezunt monastery. Thus the 13th century seems to be emerging as the most likely date for the icon, following the Bolshevik Revolution the icon was removed from the Kremlin to the Vozdvizhenka Church of the Crosss Exultation.
Upon the churchs demolition, the icon was returned to the Kremlins museums, after Nikons downfall and Alexiss death, the icon was neglected so much that it was not evacuated from the Kremlin during Napoleons occupation and was put at risk during the Great Fire of 1812
Moscow Circus on Tsvetnoy Boulevard
Moscow Circus on Tsvetnoi Boulevard, or Nikulins Circus, is located on Tsvetnoi Boulevard in the Tverskoy District of central Moscow. It was the circus in the city between 1926 and 1971, and still remains the most popular one. The circus building was opened as the Solomonsky Circus on 20 October 1880, the circus is one of the oldest circuses in Russia. Known by a variety of names during the Soviet period, the troupe was awarded the Order of Lenin in 1939, among the famous performers who worked there were the clowns Karandash, Oleg Popov, and Yuri Nikulin. Nikulin managed the company for fifteen years, and it has borne his name since his death in 1997, in front of the building is a remarkable statue of Nikulin, whose son has managed the circus since his death. Valentin Gneushev was the circus choreographer in the late 1990s, bolshoi Circus on Vernadsky Prospekt Ciniselli Circus in Saint Petersburg Encyclopaedia of Moscow. Russian Popular Culture and Society Since 1900
Moscow State University
Lomonosov Moscow State University is a coeducational and public research university located in Moscow, Russia. It was founded on January 25,1755 by Mikhail Lomonosov, MSU was renamed after Lomonosov in 1940 and was known as Lomonosov University. It claims to house the tallest educational building in the world and it is rated among the universities with the best reputation in the world. Its current rector is Viktor Sadovnichiy, ivan Shuvalov and Mikhail Lomonosov promoted the idea of a university in Moscow, and Russian Empress Elizabeth decreed its establishment on January 251755. The first lectures were given on April 26th, russians still celebrate January 25th as Students Day. Saint Petersburg State University and Moscow State University engage in rivalry over the title of Russias oldest university. The present Moscow State University originally occupied the Principal Medicine Store on Red Square from 1755 to 1787, in the 18th century, the University had three departments, philosophy and law.
A preparatory college was affiliated with the University until its abolition in 1812, in 1779, Mikhail Kheraskov founded a boarding school for noblemen which in 1830 became a gymnasium for the Russian nobility. The university press, run by Nikolay Novikov in the 1780s, published the most popular newspaper in Imperial Russia, in 1804, medical education split into clinical and obstetrics faculties. During 1884–1897, the Department of Medicine -- supported by donations. The campus, and medical education in general, were separated from the University in 1918, as of 2015, Devichye Pole was operated by the independent I. M. Sechenov First Moscow State Medical University and by various other state and private institutions. The roots of student unrest in the University reach deep into the nineteenth century, in 1905, a social-democratic organization emerged at the University and called for the overthrow of the Czarist government and the establishment of a republic in Russia. The imperial government repeatedly threatened to close the University, after the October Revolution of 1917, the institution began to admit the children of the proletariat and peasantry.
In 1919, the University abolished fees for tuition and established a facility to help working-class children prepare for entrance examinations. During the implementation of Joseph Stalins First Five-Year Plan, prisoners from the Gulag were forced to construct parts of the newly expanded University, after 1991, nine new faculties were established. The following year, the University gained a status, it is funded directly from the state budget. On March 19,2008, Russias most powerful supercomputer to date and its peak performance of 60 TFLOPS makes it the fastest supercomputer in the Commonwealth of Independent States. Since 1953, most of the faculties have been situated on Sparrow Hills, the main building was designed by architect Lev Vladimirovich Rudnev
The Orlov is a large diamond that is part of the collection of the Diamond Fund of the Moscow Kremlin. It is described as having the shape and proportions of half a chickens egg, the as yet unnamed stone passed from merchant to merchant, eventually appearing for sale in Amsterdam. Shaffrass, an Iranian millionaire who owned the diamond, found a buyer in Count Grigory Grigorievich Orlov. The Count paid a purported 400,000 Dutch florins and their affair continued as Grigory Orlov led the way in the dethronement of her husband in a coup détat and the elevation of Catherine to power. Their relationship carried on for years and produced an illegitimate child. Count Orlov sought to rekindle their romance by offering her the diamond, while he failed to regain her affections, Catherine did bestow many gifts upon Count Orlov, these gifts included the Marble Palace in St. Petersburg. Catherine named the diamond after the Count, and had her jeweller, C. N. Troitinski, now known as the Imperial Sceptre, it was completed in 1784.
The Orlov is set at the top, with its domed top facing forward, above it is a double-headed eagle with the Arms of Russia enameled on its breast. The Orlov is a rarity among historic diamonds, for it retains its original Indian rose-style cut and its colour is widely stated as white with a faint bluish-green tinge. Data released by the Kremlin give the Orlovs measurements as 32 millimetres x 35 millimetres x 21 millimetres, the weight is just an estimate – it has not formally been weighed in many years. Lord Twinings book A History of the Crown Jewels of Europe mentions how once, during a circa 1913 inspection of the jewels by the curator. He weighed the stone, but did not write down its exact weight and he said that it was about 190 carats, which corresponds to the measurement-based estimate. Malecka, Did Orlov buy the Orlov, gems & Jewellery, The Gemmological Association of Great Britain, vol. Malecka, The Great Mughal and the Orlov, Famous Diamonds of the World, pp. 15–18. Gemological Institute of America, USA Twining, Lord Edward Francis, a History of the Crown Jewels of Europe, B. T.
Images of the Orlov in its sceptre at The World of Famous Diamonds
Memorial Museum of Cosmonautics
The Memorial Museum of Cosmonautics is a museum in Moscow, dedicated to space exploration. It is located within the base of the Monument to the Conquerors of Space in the north-east of the city. The museum contains a variety of Soviet and Russian space-related exhibits and models which explore the history of flight, space exploration, space technology. According to the Russian tourist board, the collection holds approximately 85,000 different items, primarily from the Soviet period. Though the space monuments tower was erected in 1964, the museum did not exist for another seventeen years. Opening ceremonies took place on April 10,1981, to commemorate the 20th anniversary of the day Yuri Gagarin became the first human to orbit the Earth in space. The museum primarily focuses on the Soviet space program with major themes like Gagarin, Sergey Korolev, Sputnik, on Cosmonautics Day,2009, the museum was reopened after three years of reconstruction. It has virtually tripled its size and has added new sections dedicated to space programs worldwide, including the USA, China.
The museum now features original interactive exhibits, as well as a refurbished promenade, the museum is a favourite of students worldwide and a primary tourist attraction of the city. Monument to the Conquerors of Space Cosmonauts Alley Museum of Cosmonautics official website The Museum of cosmonautics from The official Russian museums list, Museum of Cosmonautics at Google Cultural Institute
Hotel Metropol Moscow
The Hotel Metropol Moscow is a historical hotel in the center of Moscow, built in 1899–1907 in Art Nouveau style. It is notable as the largest extant Moscow hotel built before the Russian Revolution of 1917, in 1898, Savva Mamontov and Petersburg Insurance consolidated a large lot of land around the former Chelyshev Hotel. Mamontov and sponsor of Private Opera, intended to redevelop the area into a cultural center built around an opera hall. Mamontov eventually hired Kekushev as a construction manager, Savva Mamontov was jailed for fraud and the project was taken over by Petersburg Insurance, omitting the original plans for opera hall. In 1901, the topped-out shell burnt down and had to be rebuilt from scratch in reinforced concrete, the hotel was completed in 1907. However, it is nowhere near Walcots original design, a notable feature of Metropol is its lack of any reference to the orders of architecture. A structural mass shaped without reference to systems of support. Rectangular bulk of Metropol is self-sufficient, it needs no supporting columns, in 1918, the hotel was nationalized by Bolshevik administration, renamed Second House of Soviets and housed living quarters and offices of growing Soviet bureaucracy.
Eventually, in 1930s it was converted to its original hotel function, Metropol has 365 rooms, and each is different in shape or decoration. William Craft Brumfield, The Origins of Modernism in Russian Architecture, University of California Press,1991 chapter 3, fig. 56-60 Official website
Moscow International House of Music
Also known as the Moscow International House of Music, it is situated on the Kosmodamianskaya Embankment off the Garden Ring Road. The project won the Khrustalny Dedal architectural award at the XI All-Russian Zodchestvo festival, the first stone was laid on September 7,2000 by Spivakov and Moscow Mayor Yury Luzhkov. The Turkish firm Enka Insaat ve Sanayi A. S. constructed the centre, the centre cost US$200 million to construct, and was financed entirely by the City of Moscow. It was the first classical music hall constructed in the city in over a century and it is part of a business and hotel complex called Riverside Towers, intended by the City to be its equivalent of Lincoln Center. The centre has a concert hall similar to the Philharmonie in Berlin. Seating is laid out on two levels, and arranged in various tiers that almost surround the stage. The hall is on the third storey, with areas below. The auditorium seats 1,735, and is composed largely of Siberian larch wood, the centre houses a 575-seat chamber hall and a 532-seat theater.
It has the largest organ in Russia, installed in Svetlanov hall in 2004, the organ was co-designed and built by the German firms of Glatter-Goetz and Johannes Klais. It has more than 5,500 pipes, ranging in size from 8 millimetres to 9.25 metres and it has 84 stops – three more than the second-largest Russian pipe organ, located at Moscows Tchaikovsky Concert Hall. The centre was originally conceived as a home for the Russian National Orchestra, at the end of the 2002–2003 concert season, the Russian National decided not to renew Spivakovs contract as principal conductor and musical director, and he abruptly resigned. Spivakov lobbied government officials to conduct a new orchestra in Moscow, the National Philharmonic Orchestra was formed under an executive order of Culture Minister Mikhail Shvydkoi, supported by President Vladimir Putin. Shortly after Spivakov became president of the Centre in May 2002, the Centre canceled the bookings for the Russian National, which rebooked some dates at higher fees and lost others.
In 2003, the premiere of Vladimir Martynovs opera Vita Nova was performed by the Kirov Opera in concert format as a part of the 2003 Moscow Easter Festival. In December,2003, the National Philharmonic performed the Moscow premiere of Polish composer Krzysztof Pendereckis oratorio The Seven Gates of Jerusalem. In 2007, the premiere of Greek composer Dimitri Arapiss Symphony No.3 was performed by the State Symphony Orchestra and Capella of Russia. The Official Site of the Moscow International Performing Arts Centre
Holy Trinity Icon
The Holy Trinity is an important subject of iconographic representation in Eastern Orthodox Christianity, and has a rather different treatment from depictions in the Western Churches. There are two different types of Holy Trinity icons, the Old Testament Trinity and the New Testament Trinity, though this is not its traditional title, this icon is sometimes called Old Testament Trinity because of its relationship to Genesis 18, 1-15. In Genesis 18, 1-15 three individuals appear to Abraham at the Oak of Mamre, the interpretation that this appearance is related to the Trinity is a Christian interpretation of the Hebrew scriptures. Consequently, the title of Old Testament Trinity is interpreting the Genesis narrative as much as it is naming the icon, from certain Christian theological perspectives calling this icon Old Testament Trinity is a form of Supersessionism. The New Testament Trinity depicts the Father, the Son and the Holy Spirit distinctly, Christ may be shown either as an adult, or as an infant sitting on his Fathers knees, which is the norm in early Greek depictions.
The Father is painted as the Ancient of Days, a man with a very special type of nimbus. The Holy Spirit is shown as a dove with a halo of the same type as Father has. The dove may be placed between the Father and the Son, or the dove may be shown in a beam of light from the mouth of the Father and it is interesting that in Russian Orthodoxy, depictions of God the Father are prohibited. However, when the movement of antitrinitrarians became strong in medieval Novgorod, in this type of icon, Jesus Christ is depicted as an old white-haired man. The basis of this iconography is consubstantiality - the doctrine that Jesus, in the Western churches the Ancient of Days remains the basis and justification for depictions of God the Father, as made clear by, for example, a pronouncement by Pope Benedict XIV in 1745. The Second Council of Nicea in 787 confirmed that the depiction of Christ was allowed because he became man, the usual Orthodox representation of the Trinity was through the Old Testament Trinity of the three angels visiting Abraham - said in the text to be the Lord.
However post-Byzantine representations similar to those in the West are not uncommon in the Greek world, and though David the prophet says, From the womb before the morning star have I begotten Thee, that birth was not fleshly, but unspeakable and incomprehensible. For Christ Himself says in the holy Gospel, No man hath seen the Father, and Isaiah the prophet says in his fortieth chapter, To whom have ye likened the Lord. And with what likeness have ye made a similitude of Him, has not the artificier of wood made an image, or the goldsmiths, having melted gold, gilt it over, and made it a similitude. And John Damascene says, But furthermore, who can make a similitude of the invisible, uncircumscribed and it is, uttermost insanity and impiety to give a form to the Godhead. In like manner St. Gregory the Dialogist prohibits this, for this reason, it is fitting on this occasion only to depict the Holy Spirit in the likeness of a dove. But in any other place those who have intelligence will not depict the Holy Spirit in the likeness of a dove, for on Mount Tabor, He appeared as a cloud and, at another time, in other ways.
Furthermore, Sabaoth is the not only of the Father
Imperial Crown of Russia
The Imperial Crown of Russia, known as the Great Imperial Crown, was used by the Emperors of Russia until the monarchys abolition in 1917. The Great Imperial Crown was first used in a coronation by Catherine II and it survived the subsequent revolution and is currently on display in the Moscow Kremlin Armoury State Diamond Fund. By 1613, when Michael Romanov, the first Tsar of the Romanov Dynasty was crowned, the Russian regalia included a cross, a golden chain, a barmas, the Crown of Monomakh, sceptre. Over the centuries, various Tsars had fashioned their own private crowns, modeled for the most part after the Crown of Monomakh, in 1719, Tsar Peter I the Great founded the earliest version of what is now known as the Russian Federations State Diamond Fund. The Silk Imperial Crown of Russia was given as a coronation gift of the Russian Empire at the coronation of Nicholas II the last Emperor of the Romanov line. Nicholas II was the first and only monarch to be presented with such a coronation gift.
It was not intended as ceremonial regalia but as private Imperial property as a memento to his coronation event, the court jeweller Ekart and Jérémie Pauzié made the Great Imperial Crown for the coronation of Catherine the Great in 1762. The beautiful crown reflects Pauzies skilled workmanship and it is adorned with 4936 diamonds arranged in splendid patterns across the entire surface of the crown Bordering the edges of the mitre are a number of fine, large white pearls. It is believed to be the second largest spinel in the world, peter’s widow and successor, Catherine I, was the first Russian ruler to wear this form of imperial crown. It is believed to be the second largest spinel in the world, except for the two rows of large white pearls the entire surface of the crown is covered with 4936 diamonds and is quite heavy, weighing approximately nine pounds. At the coronation of Nicholas II in 1896, the crown was worn by Dowager Empress Maria Feodorovna as was her right as a crowned Empress.
A second identical lesser Imperial Crown was made for the young Empress Alexandra Feodorovna to wear, Dowager Empresses outranked reigning Empress Consorts at the Russian Court. The work is now in the collection of the Hermitage Museum, following the tradition of the Byzantine Emperors, the Tsar of Russia placed the crown upon his own head. This left no doubt that, in the Russian system, the power came directly from God. The prayer of the Metropolitan, similar to that of the Patriarch of Constantinople for the Byzantine Emperor, a few days prior to the crowning service itself, the Tsar made a processional entry into Moscow, where coronations were always held. After the Tsar entered the cathedral, he and his spouse venerated the icons there and he took it and placed it on his head himself, while the Metropolitan recited, In the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit, Amen. Following this, the new Tsar crowned his consort, first briefly with his own crown, further prayers and litanies were read, the Emperor was anointed just prior to reception of Holy Communion during the Divine Liturgy.
He was invited to enter the area through the Royal Doors
Novo-Ryazanskaya Street Garage
The main building of this truck garage has a semi-circular form, with service workshops and office in a standalone building between the tips of a horseshoe. Each of two levels could store 110 trucks, unlike Bakhmetevsky Bus Garage, these had to be parked conventionally, using reverse gear. Each tip of the horseshoe has a V-shaped protrusion with entry and exit gates set at an angle to the street line and this garage is still used as such, and houses Moscows Fourth Bus Park. However, since modern articulated buses are longer than 1920s trucks, rainer Graefe und andere, «Vladimir G. Suchov 1853—1939. Die Kunst der sparsamen Konstruktion. »,192 S, deutsche Verlags-Anstalt, Stuttgart,1990, ISBN 3-421-02984-9. Model of Novo-Ryazanskaya Street Garage Novo-Ryazanskaya Street Garage Мельников К. С, Искусство,311 стр.1985 Хан-Магомедов С. О. Архитектура-С, cерия, Мастера архитектуры,296 стр
Novodevichy Convent, known as Bogoroditse-Smolensky Monastery, is probably the best-known cloister of Moscow. Its name, sometimes translated as the New Maidens Monastery, was devised to differ from an ancient maidens convent within the Moscow Kremlin, unlike other Moscow cloisters, it has remained virtually intact since the 17th century. In 2004, it was proclaimed a UNESCO World Heritage Site, the Convent is situated in the south-western part of the historic town of Moscow. The Convent territory is enclosed within walls and surrounded by a park, the park is limited by the urban fabric of the city on the north and east sides. On the west side, it is limited by the Moscow River, the buildings are surrounded by a high masonry wall with 12 towers. The entrances are from the north and the south, the layout of the convent territory is an irregular rectangle stretching from the west to east. The oldest structure in the convent is the six-pillared five-domed Smolensky Cathedral and it is situated in the centre of the axes between the two entrance gates.
Most scholars agree that the cathedral was rebuilt in the 1550s or 1560s and it was formerly ringed by four smaller chapels, in an arrangement reminiscent of the Annunciation Cathedral in the Kremlin. Its frescos are among the finest in Moscow, the cathedral may be a focal point of the convent, but there are many other churches. Most date from the 1680s, when the convent was renovated at the behest of the regent Sofia Alexeyevna. The blood-red walls and crown-towers, two lofty over-the-gates churches, a refectory, and residential quarters were all designed in the Muscovite Baroque style, in the old cathedral, a new bowl for holy water and gilded carved iconostasis were installed in 1685. Its four tiers contain 16th-century icons endowed by Boris Godunov, the fifth tier displays icons by leading 17th-century painters, Simeon Ushakov and Fyodor Zubov. An arresting slender belltower, commissioned by tsarevna Sofia, was built in six tiers to a height of 72 metres and this light octagonal column seems to unite all major elements of the ensemble into one harmonious whole.
Vasili III, the Grand Prince of Moscow, founded the Novodevichy Convent in 1524 in commemoration of his conquest of Smolensk in 1514, the structure began as a fortress at a curve of the Moskva River three versts to the south-west of the Moscow Kremlin. It became an important part of the defensive belt of Moscow. Upon its founding, the Novodevichy Convent was granted 3,000 rubles, vasilis son, tsar Ivan the Terrible, would grant a number of other villages to the convent. In 1610–1611 a Polish unit under the command of Aleksander Gosiewski captured the Novodevichy Convent, once Russian forces had retaken the convent, tsar Michael Fyodorovich supplied it with permanent guards. By the end of the 17th century, the Novodevichy Convent possessed 36 villages in 27 uyezds of Russia, in 1744, it owned 14,489 peasants