The Bettmerhorn is a mountain of the Bernese Alps, located north of Bettmeralp in the Swiss canton of Valais. The summit can be reached with a 30-minute vertical hike after ascending most of the mountain by cable car from the car free village of Bettmeralp, Bettmeralp is accessible by cable car from the Betten train station. The Bettmerhorn summit station offers views on the Bernese Alps and the Aletsch Glacier. The view extends to the Lepontine and Pennine Alps
Fil de Cassons
Fil de Cassons is a mountain in the Glarus Alps, located near Flims in the canton of Graubünden, Switzerland. The southern face is referred to as Flimserstein, dominating the appearance of the town of Flims. In its east lies Bargis from where a valley leads to its face, while to its western face the sliding surface tears off of the biggest visible landslide in the world. Piz Dolf is lying to the north across the Bargis valley, walking on top you will easily identify the tectonic line under your feet, as rocks turn from greenish to bright light grey on top of the wide ridge. For hikers aiming for more than a walk, several routes reach the high plateau, one hiking route uses the ascent via Val Bargis and Scala Mola, the path that the cows are being sent up to graze in summer. If you stay at the base of the valley of Bargis, being a ridge, there is very often hardly snow, allowing walks even in winter along at least one mile on Fil de Cassons. List of mountains of Switzerland accessible by public transport Cassons – experiencing Nature myswitzerland. com
The Gotthard Pass or St Gotthard Pass is a mountain pass in the Alps, connecting northern and southern Switzerland. The pass lies between Airolo in the Italian-speaking canton of Ticino, and Andermatt in the German-speaking canton of Uri, and connects further Bellinzona to Lucerne, Basel, as early as 1236, Gotthard Pass was dedicated to the Roman Catholic Saint Gotthard of Hildesheim. The Gotthard Pass connects the cantons of Uri and Ticino, the pass itself is located within the latter canton, about 2 km south of the border with Uri, between the massifs of Pizzo Lucendro and Pizzo Centrale. The pass lies on the most important route between the canton of Ticino and central Switzerland as well as most of the northern part of the country. It is the most direct link between Zürich and Lugano and some regions of Germany and Italy. The nearest towns are Hospental near Andermatt and Airolo, respectively in the valleys of Urseren, the region of Andermatt lies at the foot of the Furka and Oberalp passes connecting the Rhone and Rhine valleys thus making the Gotthard area a strategic place for transports and military.
The hospice is located south of the pass at 2,091 metres, near the Lago della Piazza, Lago di Lucendro and Lago Sella are larger reservoir lakes accessible from the pass. From the north side the pass can be reached by crossing the Schöllenen, according to the oral histories of the nearby villages, seasonal deaths resulting from drowning reached a peak in April–May of most years and thus a safer crossing was required. The original bridge built under these conditions was one of so many devils bridges that the legends about them form a category in the Aarne-Thompson classification system for folktales. The legend of this particular bridge states that the Reuss was so difficult to ford that a Swiss herdsman wished the devil would make a bridge, the Devil appeared, but required that the soul of the first to cross would be given to him. The mountaineer agreed, but drove a goat across ahead of him, angered by this trickery, the devil fetched a rock with the intention of smashing the bridge, but an old woman drew a cross on the rock so the devil could not lift it anymore.
The rock is still there and, in 1977,300,000 Swiss francs were spent to move the 220 ton rock by 127 m in order to make room for the new Gotthard road tunnel. It carried only foot traffic and pack animals until 1775, when the first carriage made the journey on an improved road, several tunnels provide access through the pass. The 15 kilometres Gotthard Rail Tunnel was the first and opened in 1882 for railway traffic at a cost of around 200 workers lives and it bypassed the pass road, connecting Göschenen with Airolo. A17 kilometres motorway tunnel, the Gotthard Road Tunnel opened in 1980 and it was closed for two months in 2001 following a fatal fire. The Gotthard Base Tunnel was opened on 1 June 2016 and it is the longest rail tunnel in the world at 57.091 kilometres. A number of artists have been inspired by the dramatic scenery of the St. Gotthard Pass, the Schöllenen Gorge. Gotthard Pass is prominent in the manga series Wolfsmund by Mitsuhisa Kuji
The Aletsch Glacier or Great Aletsch Glacier is the largest glacier in the Alps. It has a length of about 23 km, has about a volume of 15.4 km3, the Aletsch Glacier is composed of four smaller glaciers converging at Concordia, where its thickness was measured by the ETH to be still near 1 km. It continues towards the Rhône valley before giving birth to the Massa, the whole area, including other glaciers is part of the Jungfrau-Aletsch Protected Area, which was declared a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 2001. The Aletsch Glacier is one of the many glaciers located between the cantons of Bern and Valais on the Bernese Alps located east of the Gemmi Pass, the whole area is considered to be the largest glaciated area in western Eurasia. The Fiescher and Aar Glaciers lying on the east have similar extensions, except the Finsteraarhorn, all the highest summits of the Bernese Alps are located within the drainage basin of the glacier. The Jungfrau and Mönch constitute the northern boundary, the Gross Fiescherhorn and Gross Wannenhorn lie on its east side, finally the culminating point, the Grosser Aletschfirn is supplied from the north by three notable firns, the Äbeni Flue-Firn, the Gletscherhornfirn, and the Kranzbergfirn.
All of these firns have their points at around 3,800 m. From the Äbeni Flue-Firn to the Konkordiaplatz, the Grosser Aletschfirn is 9 km long and is on average about 1.5 km wide. On the west, the Grosser Aletschfirn connects with the Langgletscher over the 3,158 m high glacier pass, from the northwestern mouth flows the Jungfraufirn. This firn in fact represents the continuation of the Aletsch Glacier. It has its origin on the flank of the Mönch. Up to the Konkordiaplatz, the Jungfraufirn is a scarce 7 km long, and returns to flank the Kranzberg in the west, at its highest point, it is 2 km wide, and further down it is still a good 1 km wide. From the northern mouth flows the Ewigschneefäld, where its starting point takes the east flank of the Mönch, in an elbow, it flanks from Trugberg in the west and the Gross Fiescherhorn and Grünhorn in the east, flowing on to the Konkordiaplatz. Up to here, it is about 8 km long and averages about 1.2 km wide, the mouth at the Konkordiaplatz it follows over a rise with a descent from 25 to 30 percent, the glacier is sharply split.
Against the north is the Ewigschneefäld over the pass of the Unners Mönchsjoch. Through the Obere Mönchsjoch between the Mönch and the Trugberg stands a connection to the Jungfraufirn, from the east, the smallest firn arrives at the Konkordiaplatz, the Grüneggfirn. Its northern arm begins below the Grünegghorn, the southern arm collects its snow and ice in the pot flanked by the Wyssnollen, Fiescher Gabelhorn, and the Chamm. Between the peaks Wyssnollen and Grünhörnli another glacier pass, the Grünhornlücke, the Grüneggfirn enters the Konkordiaplatz in a gap between the mountainsides Grünegg to the north and the Fülberg to the south
The Klein Matterhorn is a peak of the Pennine Alps, overlooking Zermatt in the Swiss canton of Valais. At 3,883 metres above sea level, it is the highest place in Europe that can be reached by aerial tramway, as well as by any other means of transport. The Klein Matterhorn is part of the Breithorn massif and overlooks on its side the almost equally high flat glacier named Breithorn Plateau. The name Klein Matterhorn is a reference to its larger neighbour, the Matterhorn. Even before the license application was filed, the building promoter had to negotiate with the Swiss Alpine Club. These discussions resulted in two large natural reserve zones, the third area was designated as a tourist zone. Licensing was further delayed until 1969 by the citizens of Zermatt filing a complaint to the council of the Canton of Valais. In December 1970, the Swiss government finally gave permission for the cable way, eventually, on 17 December 1973, the Federal Council rejected objections and granted a construction license.
The next major obstacle proved to be the recruitment of a force to build the lift system. At altitudes of 3000 to 4000m above sea level, worker productivity would be reduced by up to 50% compared to normal levels, and workers would be required to live for weeks on end within the camps. The construction of cable car started in August 1976 at all three construction sites, the valley terminal, the three tower sites and the mountain terminal. Creation of the terminal was a difficult undertaking. Some 2000 cubic metres of concrete were used in the station, all of which had to be transported there by helicopter in specially insulated tanks, mixed with warm water. Weather conditions at the site in high mountain terrain were extreme, temperatures falling to minus 40 °C, snowfalls. It took several weeks to cover the distance of 3,600 meters, with an altitude of almost 1,000 meters. On December 1978, all four track cables were installed, the Cable car was built by Von Roll LTD Bern Switzerland. The Klein Matterhorn is at the end of a cable car journey from Zermatt, via Furi.
The last station lies at a height of 3,820 metres, a tunnel connects it with the Breithorn Plateau on the south side
Guraletschsee is a lake above Vals in the canton of Grisons, Switzerland. The lake lies entirely on territory of the municipality of Vals, the water from the lake runs down north and is suspected to be divertet to Lake Zervreila at the level of its dam. A popular hike starts at Zervreila, passes the three remote lakes Guraletschsee and Selvasee and descends via Selva Alp to Vals, Vals is famous for its spa, designed by Peter Zumthor
The Albula Railway is a single track metre gauge railway line forming part of the so-called core network of the Rhaetian Railway, in the Canton of Graubünden, Switzerland. It links Thusis on the Hinterrhein with the spa resort of St. Moritz in Engadine, construction of the Albula Railway was begun in September 1898, the opening took place on 1 July 1903, and the extension to St. Moritz commenced operations on 10 July 1904. With its 55 bridges and 39 tunnels, the 61. 67-kilometre long line is one of the most spectacular narrow gauge railways in the world, the best known trains operating on the Albula Railway are the Glacier Express and the Bernina Express. Up until 1890, the south east of Switzerland was extremely poorly served by railways, alpine transit traffic was drawn to the Gotthard Railway, so that the construction of transcontinental railways in Graubünden appeared not to be economically viable. Only the success of the Landquart-Davos-Bahn led to a turning point, in 1895, the LD changed its name to Rhaetian Railway.
Two years later, the people of Graubünden decided, in a referendum and these two changes created suitable conditions for a rapid construction of further RhB lines, which were intended to open up large parts of the Canton. Holsboer had to abandon this planned Scalettabahn, in favour of a route through what was to become the Albula Tunnel, zeller planned this proposed route as a standard gauge line. It would have passed under the Albula Alps through a 12 km long tunnel from the mouth of the Val Tisch to the Inn Valley below Bever, as the Ofenbergbahn, the Engadine-Orient-Railway would have cut a connection through to the Val Müstair. It was only on 30 June 1898 that the Federal Assembly in Bern finally decided on the construction of the Albula Railway, the Federal Assembly thereby decided against another standard gauge transit railway, and a similarly contemplated railway over the Julier Pass. In 1896, there were only 20 km of standard railway line in Graubünden - and 90 km of narrow gauge railways.
Priority was given to the construction of a connection to the spa at St Moritz, which at that time was a 14-hour stage coach ride distant from Chur. After Thusis was reached from Chur, the construction of the Albula Railway began on 15 October 1898. Unlike the Bernina Railway, which was opened a good ten years later, and operated in fully electrified form right from the start, moreover, it was intended to be universally available, particularly for the transport of goods. Thus, the Albula Railway, in the interests of maximising its effectiveness, such an architectural style required a variety of engineering structures. So, for example, the viaducts were exclusively solidly constructed, especially problematical was the ascent of the valley between Bergün/Bravuogn and Preda, where, in a distance of 5 km as the crow flies, a difference in altitude of over 400 m needed to be overcome. To stay within the maximum gradient parameters, the supervisor, Friedrich Hennings, devised an intricate alignment.
Two curved tunnels, three tunnels, and a number of bridges overcame the engineering problem, by winding the track around like the thread of a screw. On this part of the line, the construction of the 660 m long Rugnux Spiral Tunnels in particular led to problems, because the 4 °C cold mountain water hampered the activities of the workers
Caumasee is a lake near Flims, in the Grisons, Switzerland. It is one of the lakes on the Flims Rockslide deposits, the lake is fed from underground sources. Its surface area is 10.3194 ha, a maximum level is reached by mid July but may be topped in August even after previous falling due to summer rain. The very western bay never freezes in winter, probably showing a water flow in this area. Water temperature in summer is at an average 21 Celsius, with a maximum around 24 Celsius, the walk from the edge of town to the funicular takes about 10 minutes. As close as 500 yards to the Caumasee is another dell and altering lake, called Lag Tuleritg and this lake dries out completely in autumn and remains empty until being filled by a small river of just about 800m in length, covering some 100 meters difference in altitude. That river will start flowing around May, depending on temperatures and its origin is another lake, Lag Prau Pulté, which is fed by underground water only in spring, disappearing in autumn and staying dry all winter.
During a cold period in spring, water entered the basin of this lake may disappear again as snow melt decreases. Due to its origin, the water of lakes is grey all summer until the level starts to go down in autumn. Further changes occurred when the basin fills with water every year, was slightly altered. Since 2011 additional water is being fed near the tunnel into the running from Lag Prau Pulte to Lag Tuleritg to compensate the water loss in the underground system. A fourth Lake, Crestasee, is fed by underground water. Waterlevels Media related to Caumasee at Wikimedia Commons
Furka Cogwheel Steam Railway
Culminating at 2,160 metres above sea level, it is an old mountainous section of the Furka-Oberalp-Bahn that was abandoned after the construction of the Furka Tunnel. It has been brought back into service by the Verein Furka-Bergstrecke with the use of only steam locomotives. The Furka Railway is the second highest rail crossing in Europe, the Uri side of the line constitutes the highest railway in Central Switzerland. The rebuilding of the line has not been without new difficulties. Another section, running through a nature reserve, has had to be fitted with a sprinkler system that operates before and after trains pass. Relays allow the system to cascade up or down the section in line with the train, the organisation is currently restoring 2 HG 4/4 D Steam Locomotives. The organisation is currently endeavouring to raise approximately Swiss Fr,1,700,000, or 1,200,000 Euro or 1,200,000 US Dollars for the work required. The test runs of one of the locomotives are planned for 2013, the cost of a new firebox, one of the components the HG 4/4s require, is about Swiss Fr.
Another current project is the restoration of a rotary snowplough to deal with the heavy snowfall that needs to be cleared from the route before services can commence each year. This may provide an opportunity as photographers and film-makers from across Europe. The foundation provides investment for equipment and construction on the line generally, donations to it are tax free in Switzerland
Piz Corvatsch is a mountain in the Bernina Range of the Alps, overlooking Lake Sils and Lake Silvaplana in the Engadin region of the canton of Graubünden. With an elevation of 3,451 m, it is the highest point on the range separating the main Inn valley from the Val Roseg. Aside from Piz Corvatsch, two slightly lower summits make up the Corvatsch massif, Piz Murtèl and the unnamed summit where lies the Corvatsch upper cable car station. The tripoint between the municipalities is the summit of Piz Murtèl. Several glaciers lie on the east side on the massif, the largest, below Piz Corvatsch, is named Vadret dal Murtèl. The second largest, below Piz Murtèl and the station, is named Vadret dal Corvatsch, the Corvatsch cable car starts above the village of Surlej, east of Silvaplana and culminates at 3,298 m. From there, the summit of Piz Corvatsch can be reached by traversing Piz Murtèl, in winter and spring, the mountain is part of a ski area, which is amongst the highest in Switzerland and the Eastern Alps