- Goodall, B. (1987) The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography. London: Penguin.
- Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) The Social Science Encyclopedia. 2nd edition. London: Routledge.
1. City – A city is a large and permanent human settlement. Cities generally have complex systems for sanitation, utilities, land usage, housing, a big city or metropolis usually has associated suburbs and exurbs. Such cities are associated with metropolitan areas and urban areas. Once a city expands far enough to another city, this region can be deemed a conurbation or megalopolis. Damascus is arguably the oldest city in the world, in terms of population, the largest city proper is Shanghai, while the fastest-growing is Dubai. There is not enough evidence to assert what conditions gave rise to the first cities, some theorists have speculated on what they consider suitable pre-conditions and basic mechanisms that might have been important driving forces. The conventional view holds that cities first formed after the Neolithic revolution, the Neolithic revolution brought agriculture, which made denser human populations possible, thereby supporting city development. The advent of farming encouraged hunter-gatherers to abandon nomadic lifestyles and to settle near others who lived by agricultural production, the increased population density encouraged by farming and the increased output of food per unit of land created conditions that seem more suitable for city-like activities. In his book, Cities and Economic Development, Paul Bairoch takes up position in his argument that agricultural activity appears necessary before true cities can form. According to Vere Gordon Childe, for a settlement to qualify as a city, it must have enough surplus of raw materials to support trade and a relatively large population. To illustrate this point, Bairoch offers an example, Western Europe during the pre-Neolithic, when the cost of transport is taken into account, the figure rises to 200,000 square kilometres. Bairoch noted that this is roughly the size of Great Britain, the urban theorist Jane Jacobs suggests that city formation preceded the birth of agriculture, but this view is not widely accepted. In his book City Economics, Brendan OFlaherty asserts Cities could persist—as they have for thousands of years—only if their advantages offset the disadvantages, OFlaherty illustrates two similar attracting advantages known as increasing returns to scale and economies of scale, which are concepts usually associated with businesses. Their applications are seen in more basic economic systems as well, increasing returns to scale occurs when doubling all inputs more than doubles the output an activity has economies of scale if doubling output less than doubles cost. To offer an example of these concepts, OFlaherty makes use of one of the oldest reasons why cities were built, in this example, the inputs are anything that would be used for protection and the output is the area protected and everything of value contained in it. OFlaherty then asks that we suppose the protected area is square, the advantage is expressed as, O = s 2, where O is the output and s stands for the length of a side. This equation shows that output is proportional to the square of the length of a side, the inputs depend on the length of the perimeter, I =4 s, where I stands for the quantity of inputs. So there are increasing returns to scale, O = I2 /16 and this equation shows that with twice the inputs, you produce quadruple the output
2. Human settlement – In geography, statistics and archaeology, a settlement, locality or populated place is a community in which people live. A settlement can range in size from a number of dwellings grouped together to the largest of cities with surrounding urbanized areas. Settlements may include hamlets, villages, towns and cities, a settlement may have known historical properties such as the date or era in which it was first settled, or first settled by a particular people. In the field of geospatial predictive modeling, settlements are a city, town, village ghost or other agglomeration of buildings where people live and work. The oldest remains that have found of constructed dwellings are remains of huts that were made of mud. The Natufians built houses, also in the Levant, around 10,000 BC, remains of settlements such as villages become much more common after the invention of agriculture. Landscape history studies the form of settlements – for example whether they are dispersed or nucleated, urban morphology can thus be considered a special type of cultural-historical landscape studies. Settlements can be ordered by size, centrality or other factors to define a settlement hierarchy, geoscience Australia defines a populated place as a named settlement with a population of 200 or more persons. The Committee for Geographical Names in Australasia used the term localities for rural areas, the Bulgarian Government publishes a National Register of Populated Places. The Canadian government uses the term populated place in the Atlas of Canada, Statistics Canada uses the term localities for historical named locations. The Croatian Bureau of Statistics records population in units called settlements, the Census Commission of India has a special definition of census towns. The Central Statistics Office of the Republic of Ireland has a definition of census towns. There are various types of inhabited localities in Russia, Statistics Sweden uses the term localities for various densely populated places. The common English-language translation is urban areas, the UK Department for Communities and Local Government uses the term urban settlement to denote an urban area when analysing census information. The Registrar General for Scotland defines settlements as groups of one or more contiguous localities, the Scottish settlements are used as one of several factors defining urban areas. A populated place is not incorporated and by definition has no legal boundaries. However, a place may have a corresponding civil record. Census − a statistical area delineated locally specifically for the tabulation of Census Bureau data, civil − a political division formed for administrative purposes
3. Istanbul – Istanbul, historically known as Constantinople and Byzantium, is the most populous city in Turkey and the countrys economic, cultural, and historic center. Istanbul is a city in Eurasia, straddling the Bosphorus strait between the Sea of Marmara and the Black Sea. Its commercial and historical center lies on the European side and about a third of its population lives on the Asian side, the city is the administrative center of the Istanbul Metropolitan Municipality, both hosting a population of around 14.7 million residents. Istanbul is one of the worlds most populous cities and ranks as the worlds 7th-largest city proper, founded under the name of Byzantion on the Sarayburnu promontory around 660 BCE, the city developed to become one of the most significant in history. After its reestablishment as Constantinople in 330 CE, it served as a capital for almost 16 centuries, during the Roman and Byzantine, the Latin. Overlooked for the new capital Ankara during the period, the city has since regained much of its prominence. The population of the city has increased tenfold since the 1950s, as migrants from across Anatolia have moved in, arts, music, film, and cultural festivals were established at the end of the 20th century and continue to be hosted by the city today. Infrastructure improvements have produced a complex transportation network, considered a global city, Istanbul has one of the fastest-growing metropolitan economies in the world. It hosts the headquarters of many Turkish companies and media outlets and accounts for more than a quarter of the gross domestic product. Hoping to capitalize on its revitalization and rapid expansion, Istanbul has bid for the Summer Olympics five times in twenty years, the first known name of the city is Byzantium, the name given to it at its foundation by Megarean colonists around 660 BCE. The name is thought to be derived from a personal name, ancient Greek tradition refers to a legendary king of that name as the leader of the Greek colonists. Modern scholars have hypothesized that the name of Byzas was of local Thracian or Illyrian origin. He also attempted to promote the name Nova Roma and its Greek version Νέα Ῥώμη Nea Romē, the use of Constantinople to refer to the city during the Ottoman period is now considered politically incorrect, even if not historically inaccurate, by Turks. By the 19th century, the city had acquired other names used by foreigners or Turks. Europeans used Constantinople to refer to the whole of the city, pera was used to describe the area between the Golden Horn and the Bosphorus, but Turks also used the name Beyoğlu. The name İstanbul is commonly held to derive from the Medieval Greek phrase εἰς τὴν Πόλιν and this reflected its status as the only major city in the vicinity. The importance of Constantinople in the Ottoman world was reflected by its Ottoman name Der Saadet meaning the gate to Prosperity in Ottoman. An alternative view is that the name evolved directly from the name Constantinople, with the first, a Turkish folk etymology traces the name to Islam bol plenty of Islam because the city was called Islambol or Islambul as the capital of the Islamic Ottoman Empire
4. Magnitogorsk – Magnitogorsk is an industrial city in Chelyabinsk Oblast, Russia, located on the eastern side of the extreme southern extent of the Ural Mountains by the Ural River. It was named after the Magnitnaya Mountain and it is the second largest city in Russia that is not the administrative center of any federal subject or district. Here the largest iron and steel works in the country is situated, Magnitnaya was founded in 1743 as part of the Orenburg Line of forts built during the reign of the Empress Elizabeth. By 1747, the settlement had been large enough to guide the building of a small wooden chapel named subsequently The Church of the Holy Trinity. Iron ore mining in this region back to 1752, when two entrepreneurs named Tverdysh and Myasnikov decided to check on the feasibility of mining in the area that became famous later. They managed to take advantage of the fact that the Magnitnaya mountain did not belong to anyone at that time. So, they secured it for themselves by way of petition to Empress Elizabeth, in 1759, the petition was eventually accepted, and they launched iron ore production. At this time, hundreds of foreign experts kept coming here in order to implement and direct the work. In 1928, a Soviet delegation arrived in Cleveland, Ohio to discuss with American consulting company Arthur G. McKee a plan to set up in Magnitogorsk a copy of the US Steel steel mill in Gary. The contract was four times increased and eventually the new plant had a capacity of four million tons annually. It was a showpiece of Soviet achievement, huge reserves of iron ore in the area made it a prime location to build a steel plant capable of challenging its Western rivals. However, a proportion of the workforce, as ex-peasants, typically had few industrial skills. To solve these issues, several hundred foreign specialists arrived to direct the work, however, by the time that May completed his plans for Magnitogorsk construction of both factory and housing had already started. The sprawling factory and enormous cleansing lakes had left little room available for development and this modification resulted in a city being more rope-like than linear. The book Behind the Urals, by John Scott, documents the development of Magnitogorsk during the 1930s. Scott discusses the fast-paced industrial and social developments during Stalins first five-year plan, in 1937, foreigners were told to exit and Magnitogorsk was declared a closed city. There is not much information about events and development of the city during the closed period. During perestroika the closed city status was removed and foreigners were allowed to visit the city again, with the depletion of the substantial local iron-ore reserves, Magnitogorsk has to import raw materials from Sokolvsko-Sarbaisky deposit in northern Kazakhstan
5. Orenburg – Orenburg is the administrative center of Orenburg Oblast, Russia, lies on the River Ural,1,478 kilometers southeast of Moscow. Its geographical location is in the boundary of Europe and Asia, Orenburg is also very close to the border with Kazakhstan. The city is in the basin of the current of the River Ural. The highest point of the city is 154.4 meters, several historians have tried to explain the origins of the citys name. It was traditionally accepted that the word means a fortress on the River Or. In all probability, the word combination orenburg was proposed by I. K, kirillov, who was the founder of the city. In 1734, in accordance with his project, a package of documents was worked out. This was the point for Orenburg as a fortress city near the place where the Or. On 7 June 1734, A Privilege for Orenburg was ordered by Empress Anna Ivanovna, while a construction site of the main fortress changed many times, the very name Orenburg has not changed since its founding in 1743. Between 1938 and 1957, the city was referred to as Chkalov, named after the famous Soviet pilot Valery Chkalov, although he was not born in and never lived in Orenburg, and never visited Orenburg. In 1954, Chkalovs 5-meter bronze sculpture was erected on the occasion of his 50th birth anniversary, Orenburg is unofficially called the Asian capital of Russia. In 1734, the Russian Empire began expanding its control and influence in Asia starting from the construction of the city called Orenburg on its eastern border. For this purpose, a settlement was founded here in 1735 - at the place where the Or, the initial site was chosen for settlement during the expedition of I. K. Kirilov, who initiated developmental activities in the region and he argued that the city was necessary. for opening up transit routes to Bukhara, Badakhshan, Bulk, and to India, making it possible to receive wealth from there — gold, lapis lazuli, and garnet. After his death, a new administrator of the Orenburg expedition and he did not considered this place to be convenient for construction of the city, because it was constantly flooded by the spring high waters. This encouraged to launch in 1739 preparations for building a new town with the old name downstream the river Ural on the mountain Krasnaya, the old settlement was named the Orsk fortress. On 6 August 1741, the new town was founded, however, its construction did not start. The location on the mountain Krasnaya — treeless, rocky and remote from the river — was also inappropriate for building the town, a new administrator of the Orenburg expedition, Ivan Neplyuyev, was appointed
6. Suez – Suez is a seaport city in north-eastern Egypt, located on the north coast of the Gulf of Suez, near the southern terminus of the Suez Canal, having the same boundaries as Suez governorate. It has three harbors, Adabya, Ain Sukhna and Port Tawfiq, and extensive port facilities, together they form a metropolitan area. Railway lines and highways connect the city with Cairo, Port Said, Suez has a petrochemical plant, and its oil refineries have pipelines carrying the finished product to Cairo. In the 7th century AD a town named Kolzum stood just north of the site of present-day Suez and served as terminus of a canal built by Amr ibn al-As linking the Nile River. Kolzums trade fell following the closure of the canal in 770 by the second Abbasid caliph al-Mansur to prevent his enemies in Arabia from accessing supplies from Egypt, nonetheless, the town benefited from the trade that remained between Egypt and Arabia. By 780 al-Mansurs successor al-Mahdi restored part of the canal, the Qarmatians led by Hasan ibn Ahmad defeated a Fatimid army headed by Gawhar al-Siqilli at Kolzum in 971 and thereby captured the town. Following his defeat in Cairo by al-Siqilli at the end of year, Hasan. Suez was situated nearby and served as a source of drinking water for Kolzum according to Arab traveler al-Muqaddasi who visited in 986, the Ayyubid sultan of Egypt, Saladin, fortified both Kolzum and Suez in to defend Egypts eastern frontier from Crusader raids by Raynald of Chatillon. Between 1183-84, Raynald had ships stationed in the Red Sea to prevent the Ayyubid garrison at Kolzum from accessing water, in response, Saladins brother al-Adil had Husam ad-Din Lulu build a naval fleet which sailed to the southern port of Aidab to end Raynalds venture. By the 13th century it was recorded that Kolzum was in ruins as was Suez which had replaced the former as a population center. According to Muslim historians al-Maqrizi and al-Idrisi, Kolzum had once been a prosperous town, Arab geographer al-Dimashqi noted that Kolzum belonged to the Mamluk province of al-Karak at the time. Following the Ottomans conquest of Egypt at the beginning of the 16th century, the Ottoman fleets at Suez were instrumental in disputing control with the Portuguese over Indian Ocean trade. However, by 1798, during Napoleonic invasion, Suez had devolved into an unimportant town, fighting between the French and the British in 1800 left most of the town in ruins. Its importance as a port increased after the Suez Canal opened in 1869, the city was virtually destroyed during battles in the late 1960s and early 1970s between Egyptian and Israeli forces occupying the Sinai Peninsula. The town was deserted following the Six Day War in 1967, reconstruction of Suez began soon after Egypt reopened the Suez Canal, following the October War with Israel. Suez was the first city to major protests against the government of Hosni Mubarak during the 2011 Egyptian revolution and was the scene of the first fatality of that uprising. On account of this, it has called the Sidi Bouzid of Egypt. The city is divided into five districts, It is most populous district of the city
7. Continent – A continent is one of several very large landmasses on Earth. Generally identified by convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven regions are regarded as continents. Ordered from largest in size to smallest, they are, Asia, Africa, North America, South America, Antarctica, Europe, in geology, areas of continental crust include regions covered with water. Islands are frequently grouped with a continent to divide all the worlds land into geopolitical regions. Under this scheme, most of the countries and territories in the Pacific Ocean are grouped together with the continent of Australia to form a geopolitical region called Oceania. By convention, continents are understood to be large, continuous, discrete masses of land, many of the seven most commonly recognized continents identified by convention are not discrete landmasses separated completely by water. Earths major landmasses all have coasts on a single, continuous World Ocean, the most restricted meaning of continent is that of a continuous area of land or mainland, with the coastline and any land boundaries forming the edge of the continent. From this perspective the edge of the shelf is the true edge of the continent. In this sense the islands of Great Britain and Ireland are part of Europe, while Australia, as a cultural construct, the concept of a continent may go beyond the continental shelf to include oceanic islands and continental fragments. In this way, Iceland is considered part of Europe and Madagascar part of Africa, extrapolating the concept to its extreme, some geographers group the Australasian continental plate with other islands in the Pacific into one continent called Oceania. This divides the land surface of Earth into continents or quasi-continents. The ideal criterion that each continent be a discrete landmass is commonly relaxed due to historical conventions, of the seven most globally recognized continents, only Antarctica and Australia are completely separated from other continents by ocean. Several continents are defined not as absolutely distinct bodies but as more or less discrete masses of land, Asia and Africa are joined by the Isthmus of Suez, and North and South America by the Isthmus of Panama. In both cases, there is no separation of these landmasses by water. Both these isthmuses are very narrow compared to the bulk off the landmasses they unite, North America and South America are treated as separate continents in the seven-continent model. However, they may also be viewed as a continent known as America or the Americas. This viewpoint was common in the United States until World War II and this remains the more common vision in Latin American countries, Spain, Portugal, France, Italy and Greece, where they are taught as a single continent. The criterion of a landmass is completely disregarded if the continuous landmass of Eurasia is classified as two separate continents, Europe and Asia
8. Atyrau – Atyrau, known as Guryev until 1991, is a city in Kazakhstan, and the capital of Atyrau Region. It is located at the mouth of the Ural River on the Caspian Sea,2,700 kilometres west of Almaty and 351 kilometres east of the Russian city of Astrakhan, modern Atyrau is famous for its oil and fish industries. It has 154,100 inhabitants, up from 142,500, 90% ethnic Kazakhs, the fort was plundered by the Yaik Cossacks, leading the Guriev family to rebuild it in stone. Tsar Alexis sent a garrison of Streltsy to protect the fort from Cossack incursions, despite these efforts, the Cossack rebel Stepan Razin held the town in 1667 and 1668. The fort gradually lost its significance and was demolished in 1810. Between 1708 and 1992 the city was known as Guriev, the Kazakh name Atıraw means river delta. Atyrau is Kazakhstans main harbour city on the Caspian Sea, Atyrau at the delta of the Ural River, Atyrau city is approximately 20 metres below sea level. The city is considered to be located both in Asia and Europe, as it is divided by the Ural River, the city is a hub for the oil-rich Caspian Depression, because of this, many oil wells have been drilled in the Tengiz Field and Kashagan Field areas. An oil pipeline runs from Atyrau to Samara, where it joins the Russian pipeline system, a separate oil pipeline runs from the Tengiz field to the Russian Black Sea port of Novorossiisk. Atyraus climate is semi-arid, just shy of being classified as arid, with hot summers, precipitation is low throughout the year. Snow is common, though light, in winter, the lowest temperature on record is −37.9 °C, recorded in 1909, and the highest temperature is 42.7 °C, recorded in 1984. These vast temperature swings are more comparable to Siberia and the North American plains, the third biggest refinery in Kazakhstan is located in Atyrau. Atyrau Refinery is operated by KazMunayGas and has a capacity of 16,600 m³/day, a deep oil refining complex is under construction which is the final stage of complete reconstruction of Atyrau Oil Refinery. This project is designed to process 2.4 million tons/year of raw materials, the project will increase the depth of the oil processing at the refinery by 2016 to 85%. The volume of oil refining will reach 5.5 million tons per year, Atyrau is located near Tengiz field, which is operated in part by Chevron. Most families of Chevron employees live in Dostyk village, a compound that includes housing, recreational facilities, Atyrau also has expatriate populations working for Agip, ExxonMobil, Royal Dutch Shell, and ConocoPhillips. The city is home to the basketball team BC Barsy Atyrau, the team competes in the international FIBA Asia Champions Cup and the Kazakhstan Basketball Championship. It plays its games at the Sports and Recreation complex Atyrau