Category:Treasure troves of the Iron Age
Pages in category "Treasure troves of the Iron Age"
The following 12 pages are in this category, out of 12 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 12 pages are in this category, out of 12 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Treasure trove – The legal definition of what constitutes treasure trove and its treatment under law vary considerably from country to country, and from era to era. The term is often used metaphorically. Collections of articles published as a book are often titled Treasure Trove and this was especially fashionable for titles of childrens books in the early- and mid-20th century. Treasure trove, sometimes rendered treasure-trove, literally means treasure that has been found, the English term treasure trove was derived from tresor trové, the Anglo-French equivalent of the Latin legal term thesaurus inventus. The term wealth deposit has been proposed as a more accurate alternative, the term treasure trove is often used metaphorically to mean a valuable find, and hence a source of treasure, or a reserve or repository of valuable things. Trove is often used alone to refer to the concept, the word having been reanalysed as a noun via folk etymology from an original Anglo-French adjective trové, phrases of this form are often used either with the etymologically correct plural form or as fully rederived plural forms. In the case of treasure trove, the plural form is almost always treasure troves. In Roman law treasure trove was called thesaurus, and defined by the Roman jurist Paulus as vetus quædam depositio pecuniæ, cujus non extat memoria, ut jam dominum non habeat. R. W. Lee, in his book The Elements of Roman Law, commented that this definition was not quite satisfactory as treasure was not confined to money, nor was there any abandonment of ownership. Under the emperors, if treasure was found on a persons own land or on sacred or religious land, an interpretation of Roman law regarding treasure troves makes an appearance in the 13th chapter of the Gospel of Matthew. The Parable of the Hidden Treasure is told by Jesus of Nazareth to the crowds surrounding him, in the parable, the treasure trove is hidden in a field, which is open country and anyone could conceivably discover something hidden in that location. Its also assumed that the present owner has no knowledge or memory of the treasure, the finder of the treasure kept the trove secret until he could raise capital to purchase the land holding the trove. Selling all he had, the finder purchased the land and then unearthed the trove and, as the finder and owner, he was legally entitled to the entire trove. Jesus compared the kingdom of Heaven to the trove, being of value than all a persons earthly wealth. It has been said that the concept of treasure trove in English law dates back to the time of Edward the Confessor. If the person who had hidden the treasure was known or discovered later, to be treasure trove, an object had to be substantially – that is, more than 50% – gold or silver. Treasure trove had to be hidden with animus revocandi, that is, the Crown could grant its right to treasure trove to any person in the form of a franchise. It was the duty of the finder, and indeed of anyone who had acquired knowledge of the matter, concealing a find was a misdemeanour punishable with fine and imprisonment
2. Iron Age – The Iron Age is an archaeological era, referring to a period of time in the prehistory and protohistory of the Old World when the dominant toolmaking material was iron. It is commonly preceded by the Bronze Age in Europe and Asia with exceptions, meteoric iron has been used by humans since at least 3200 BC. Ancient iron production did not become widespread until the ability to smelt ore, remove impurities. The start of the Iron Age proper is considered by many to fall between around 1200 BC and 600 BC, depending on the region, the earliest known iron artifacts are nine small beads dated to 3200 BC, which were found in burials at Gerzeh, Lower Egypt. They have been identified as meteoric iron shaped by careful hammering, meteoric iron, a characteristic iron–nickel alloy, was used by various ancient peoples thousands of years before the Iron Age. Such iron, being in its metallic state, required no smelting of ores. Smelted iron appears sporadically in the record from the middle Bronze Age. While terrestrial iron is abundant, its high melting point of 1,538 °C placed it out of reach of common use until the end of the second millennium BC. Tins low melting point of 231, similarly, recent archaeological remains of iron working in the Ganges Valley in India have been tentatively dated to 1800 BC. By the Middle Bronze Age, increasing numbers of smelted iron objects appeared in the Middle East, Southeast Asia, African sites are turning up dates as early as 1200 BC. Modern archaeological evidence identifies the start of iron production in around 1200 BC. Between 1200 BC and 1000 BC, diffusion in the understanding of iron metallurgy and use of objects was fast. As evidence, many bronze implements were recycled into weapons during this time, more widespread use of iron led to improved steel-making technology at lower cost. Thus, even when tin became available again, iron was cheaper, stronger, and lighter, and forged iron implements superseded cast bronze tools permanently. Increasingly, the Iron Age in Europe is being seen as a part of the Bronze Age collapse in the ancient Near East, in ancient India, ancient Iran, and ancient Greece. In other regions of Europe, the Iron Age began in the 8th century BC in Central Europe, the Near Eastern Iron Age is divided into two subsections, Iron I and Iron II. Iron I illustrates both continuity and discontinuity with the previous Late Bronze Age, during the Iron Age, the best tools and weapons were made from steel, particularly alloys which were produced with a carbon content between approximately 0. 30% and 1. 2% by weight. Steel weapons and tools were nearly the same weight as those of bronze, however, steel was difficult to produce with the methods available, and alloys that were easier to make, such as wrought iron, were more common in lower-priced goods
3. Ipswich Hoard – There are two notable Ipswich Hoards. The first was a hoard of Anglo-Saxon coins discovered in 1863, the second was a hoard of six Iron Age gold torcs that was discovered in 1968 and 1969. The latter hoard has been described as only to the Snettisham Hoard in importance as a hoard from the Iron Age. It was reported as consisting of 150 coins, although only 75 are known now, the coins were all silver pennies of the reign of Æthelred the Unready, minted in London and Ipswich. It is tempting to associate this find with the ravaging of Ipswich which took place in 991, however clues in the coins indicate that the hoard may have been deposited between 979 and 985. The torcs were manufactured by twisting two strands of large diameter wire around each other and fashioning them into a near circle, the ends of the twisted wire are finished with terminal decorations. They are made from gold as they have a lower proportion of silver in them than later finds. However the torcs may have used by many generations before they were hoarded away. The museum estimates that the neck diameter of the people who wore these torcs was 18.7 centimetres. These would have created in wax around the ends of the wire. The wax is then coated, at least once, with a ceramic slurry, the ceramic is then heated which allows the wax to leave and gold is poured into the cavity. This lost wax process allows the terminals to include a level of detail that was created on the wax. The terminals created for these torcs were hollow, each of the torcs has a slightly different design for the left and right terminal. The 1968 finds are in room 50 of the British Museum, torc List of hoards in Britain
4. Newark Torc – The Newark Torc is a complete Iron Age gold alloy torc found by a metal detectorist on the outskirts of Newark-on-Trent, Nottinghamshire, England, in February 2005. The torc is made from electrum, an alloy of gold, silver and copper, the body is formed from rolled gold alloy wires, which had then been plaited into eight thin ropes then twisted together. The terminals are ring-shaped and bear floral and point-work designs, the torc was probably made in Norfolk. The torc had been buried in a pit, and as such is considered an item rather than a stray loss. The reason for its deposition is uncertain, although Dr Jeremy Hill, head of research at the British Museum, probably the most significant find of Iron Age Celtic gold jewellery made in the last 50 years. Shows an incredibly high level of skill in working the metal. The torc has been dated to between 250 and 50 BC, and is thought to have buried in around 75 BC. The torc was found by Maurice Richardson, a tree surgeon, the torc was declared treasure trove in 2005 and purchased in 2006 for Newarks Millgate Museum, with significant grant aid from the National Heritage Memorial Fund. The £350,000 proceeds were split between the finder and Trinity College, Cambridge, the landowner, the torc was displayed to the press on 18 November 2008 at the British Museum
5. Wickham Market Hoard – After excavation of the site, a total of 825 coins were found, and by the time the hoard was declared treasure trove,840 coins had been discovered. It was the largest hoard of staters to be found since the Whaddon Chase Iron Age hoard in 1849. The coins dated from 40 BC–15 AD and, at the time, in June 2011, the hoard was purchased by Ipswich Museum for the sum of £316,000. Dark identified the coin, via the internet, as a Freckenham stater—so called because of the hoard in which the type was first found in 1885. A week later, in spite of snowfall since his previous trip to the field, after further searching, he remarked that his metal detector suddenly went doolally and that he knew for sure was standing right on top of a crock of gold. With a spade, he dug out 774 more coins, some coins were still inside the broken pot, and most were found 6–8 in under the ground. After washing them in water, Dark gave the coins to the landowner. During this excavation,42 further coins were discovered, making a total of 824 at that time, analysis of the surrounding area, including intersecting ditches, dated the burial of the hoard at around 15 AD, which was concurrent with the minting of the latest coin found. The coins were declared treasure after a coroners inquest in June 2009, all but two of the coins had been minted in East Anglia by the Iceni tribe, two were from Lincolnshire. The modern-day equivalent of the value was estimated at somewhere between £500,000 and £1,000,000. The Freckenham staters were composed of a mix of 40% copper, 20% silver and 40% gold, sometimes called rose gold. The collectors guide, Spink’s Coins of England, valued each coin to a buyer at £250–£700, each coin weighed just over 5 g. The hoard was the largest number of Iron Age gold staters found since 1849, ian Leins, then curator of Iron Age coins at the British Museum, remarked, It is the largest hoard of British Iron Age gold coins to be studied in its entirety. In June 2011 it was announced that the hoard had been acquired for £316,000 by Ipswich Museum, with the help of a grant of £225,900 from the Heritage Lottery Fund, the hoard would be put on permanent display at Ipswich Museum. In 1984, a hoard of 1,587 Romano-British coins were found in a pot in the Wickham Market area, dating from 270 AD
6. Hallaton Treasure – The Hallaton Treasure, the largest hoard of British Iron Age coins, was discovered in 2000 near Hallaton in southeast Leicestershire, England, by volunteers from the Hallaton Fieldwork Group. The initial find was made by Ken Wallace on 19 November 2000, the hoard includes over 5,000 silver and gold coins, a silver-gilt Roman parade helmet, jewellery, and other objects. Most of the date to around the time of the Roman Conquest of Britain in the 1st century AD. Of the coins from the site,4,835 can be attributed to the local tribe and this find more than doubled the total number of Corieltauvian coins previously recorded. A silver Roman coin from the hoard has been dated by local museums to 211 BC, some archaeologists have however speculated that it found its way into Britain before the Roman conquest in 43 AD and is evidence of exchange through trade or diplomacy. The site of the proved to be an internationally important ritual site dating mostly to the generations before. Archaeologists believe that the site is a type of open air shrine that is the first of its kind to have discovered in the UK. It was located on a hilltop in the Welland valley and was enclosed by a ditch. It indicates there was contact between this region and the Roman Empire despite the distance between the East Midlands and the parts of Britain the Romans arrived in, like Colchester and Chichester, finds from the Treasure are displayed at Harborough Museum. The Roman Hallaton Helmet underwent 9 years of conservation at the British Museum, in January 2011, it was announced that the skeleton of a dog believed to have been sacrificed to guard the treasure would go on display at Harborough Museum. In 2012 a silver ring inscribed TOT was found in the area that the Hallaton Treasure was discovered. The inscription is believed to refer to the Celtic god Toutatis, corresponding to the Roman god Mars, who Adam Daubney, Leicestershire County Council have acquired the ring for display at the Harborough Museum. List of hoards in Britain The Hallaton Treasure interactive display
7. Sedgeford Torc – The Sedgeford Torc is a broken Iron Age gold torc found near the village of Sedgeford in Norfolk. The torc is now displayed at the British Museum, the torc dates from 200-50 BC and is made from twisted gold wires. Forty-eight 2mm wires were twisted in pairs to form 24 wires, then three of these paired wires were twisted together in the opposite direction to make a rope. These eight thicker ropes were twisted together to form the body of the torc. In total,25 metres of wire was used to form the torc. The torc is similar to the Great Torc from Snettisham and also to the Ipswich torcs and it is considered so similar to the Newark Torc, found in Newark-on-Trent in Nottinghamshire, that it might have been made by the same craftsman. The torc was buried deliberately, and as such is considered a hoarded object and it may have been broken when it was buried, or broken at a later date by ploughing. It is thought to have buried in about 75 BC. The major part of the torc was found on 6 May 1965 in a field at West Hall Farm in Sedgeford, Norfolk, as the harrow only penetrated a few inches, it is thought that the torc had been brought to near the surface by earlier deep ploughing. The findspot is only two miles west of the site of the large Snettisham Hoard, which included many gold torcs, the torc was declared treasure trove during an inquest held at Sedgeford on 29 December 1966. The British Museum arranged for a replica to be made, to be displayed at the Norwich Castle Museum, in Easter 2004 the missing terminal was found during an archaeological fieldwalking survey, using metal detectors, arranged by the Sedgeford Historical and Archaeological Research Project. The terminal was found by retired chemistry lecturer Dr. Steve Hammond about 400 metres from the findspot of the body of the torc. The terminal was also declared treasure trove and purchased for the British Museum with assistance from The Art Fund and it has since been reunited with the rest of the Sedgeford Torc at the British Museum
8. Snettisham Hoard – The Snettisham Hoard or Snettisham Treasure is a series of discoveries of Iron Age precious metal, found in the Snettisham area of the English county of Norfolk between 1948 and 1973. The hoard consists of metal, jet and over 150 gold torc fragments, over 70 of which form complete torcs, though the origins are unknown, it is of a high enough quality to have been royal treasure of the Iceni. In 1985 there was also a find of Romano-British jewellery and raw materials buried in a pot in AD155. Though it has no connection with the nearby Iron Age finds, it may be evidence of a long tradition of gold-. The finds are deposited in Norwich Castle Museum and the British Museum, probably the most famous item from the hoard is the Great Torc from Snettisham, which is now held by the British Museum. Similar specimens are the Sedgeford Torc, found in 1965, celt Britannia List of hoards in Britain
9. Vettersfelde Treasure – The objects in the trove are connected to the animal-themed art of the Scythians. The origin of the trove remains mysterious, among the most significant items in the trove are, an electrum plaque in the shape of a fish, which probably dates to the end of the 6th century BC. According to Furtwängler, it was originally an ornament on a shield, the body of the fish is covered by little animals in relief, including a panther catching a boar, and a lion catching a deer, and the tail is made up of two rams heads. It is believed to have made by the artisans of an Ionian colony on the northern coast of the Black Sea, such as Olbia or Panticapaeum. A golden plaque intended to cover the part of a sheath for an Acinaces. Length,19 cm. 6th century BC, a golden object made up of four disks, each decorated with animals around a central boss, and a smaller central disk. It might have been part of a breast plate or a harness, height,17 cm. 6th century BC. Other highlights include pendants of braided wire, a massive torc, part of the find went to Berlin and was kept with a suit of Scythian armour, which dated from around 500 BC. Other, smaller objects from the trove were sold or melted down, the discovery began a long scholarly debate. One such expedition is attested at the end of the sixth century BC as a result of Darius Scythian expedition, newer research on the find location argues that it might have been deposited as a sacrifice after being taken as booty from a Scythian prince. The presence of Scythians in this area is only suggested by the discover of three-fluted arrowheads. Vol.32, pp. 317–330 Adolf Furtwängler
10. Winchester Hoard – The Winchester Hoard is a hoard of Iron Age gold found in a field in the Winchester area of Hampshire, England, in 2000, by a retired florist and amateur metal detectorist, Kevan Halls. It was declared treasure and valued at £350, 000—the highest reward granted under the Treasure Act 1996 up to the time, the hoard consists of two sets of jewellery of a very high purity of gold dating from 75–25 BCE. Although, the items pre-date the Roman conquest of Britain in 43 CE, the total weight of the items is nearly 1,160 g. The find was described as the most important discovery of Iron Age gold objects for fifty years, the brooches alone were the third discovery of its kind from Britain. The Winchester Hoard is now housed at the British Museum in London, the hoard was discovered near Winchester over a series of trips to a farmers ploughed field in September, October, and December,2000 by retired florist and amateur metal detectorist Kevan Halls. No evidence of a settlement or temple, by way of remnants, was found. It was more likely that the hoard was buried on top of a small hill and it was also the first time the context of a find was investigated by the British Museum in conjunction with said Act. The hoard contains two sets of jewellery, each includes a torc, a pair of brooches, or fibulae, linked by a chain. They were all made with a high gold content – between 91% and 99% – determined by X-ray fluorescence tests at the British Museum. The total weight of the hoard is 1,158.8 g and it is dated from 75–25 BC, which places it in the Late British Iron Age. The bracelets are, or were in the case of the broken one, the ends of the torcs exhibit some ornamentation, and in the case of the smaller one, filigree. Both granulation and filigree had been attached by diffusion soldering, one of the torcs is larger than the other, so it is assumed that each was intended for different sexes, and that the items had been worn. The find was called the most important discovery of Iron Age gold objects since the Snettisham Hoard, the objects were also described as unique, very unusual and even iconic. However, the torcs were unusual in that no others of this type had found from Iron Age Britain, indeed Europe. Moreover, social changes in Hampshire and West Sussex in the first century BC were highlighted, no self-respecting Greek or Roman would have worn anything as gaudy. It was determined that the hoard was not associated with grave goods and it may, instead, have been a personal collection or votive offering. Hills further conjectured that hey were an expensive gift, a major diplomatic gift. Ingratiating themselves with pro-Roman tribal kings, the Romans would have found it easier to quell internal unrest, who the recipient, or indeed the giver, of the gift was is still unknown