Chemical Weapons Convention
The Chemical Weapons Convention is an arms control treaty which outlaws the production and use of chemical weapons and their precursors. The treaty entered force in 1997. The parties main obligation under the convention is to prohibit the use and production of chemical weapons, the destruction activities are verified by the OPCW. As of April 2016,192 states have given their consent to be bound by the CWC, israel has signed but not ratified the agreement, while three other UN member states have neither signed nor acceded to the treaty. Most recently, Angola deposited its instrument of accession to the CWC on 16 September 2015, as of October 2016, about 93% of the worlds declared stockpile of chemical weapons had been destroyed. On 3 September 1992 the Conference on Disarmament submitted to the U. N. General Assembly its annual report, the General Assembly approved the Convention on 30 November 1992, and the U. N. Secretary-General opened the Convention for signature in Paris on 13 January 1993.
The CWC remained open for signature until its entry into force on 29 April 1997,180 days after the deposit of the 65th instrument of ratification, the convention augments the Geneva Protocol of 1925 for chemical weapons and includes extensive verification measures such as on-site inspections. It does not, cover biological weapons, the convention is administered by the Organisation for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons, which acts as the legal platform for specification of the CWC provisions. The Conference of the States Parties is mandated to change the CWC, the Technical Secretariat of the organization conducts inspections to ensure compliance of member states. These inspections target destruction facilities, chemical production facilities which have been dismantled or converted for civil use. The Secretariat may furthermore conduct investigations of alleged use of chemical weapons, the classification is based on the quantities of the substance produced commercially for legitimate purposes.
Each class is split into Part A, which are chemicals that can be used directly as weapons and this includes all such chemicals, regardless of their origin or of their method of production, and regardless of whether they are produced in facilities, in munitions or elsewhere. Schedule 1 chemicals have few, or no uses outside chemical weapons and these may be produced or used for research, pharmaceutical or chemical weapon defence testing purposes but production above 100 grams per year must be declared to the OPCW. A country is limited to possessing a maximum of 1 tonne of these materials, examples are sulfur mustard and nerve agents, and substances which are solely used as precursor chemicals in their manufacture. A few of these chemicals have very small scale non-military applications, schedule 2 chemicals have legitimate small-scale applications. Manufacture must be declared and there are restrictions on export to countries which are not CWC signatories, an example is thiodiglycol which can be used in the manufacture of mustard agents, but is used as a solvent in inks.
Schedule 3 chemicals have large-scale uses apart from chemical weapons, plants which manufacture more than 30 tonnes per year must be declared and can be inspected, and there are restrictions on export to countries which are not CWC signatories. The treaty deals with carbon compounds called in the treaty discrete organic chemicals and these are any carbon compounds apart from long chain polymers, oxides and metal carbonates, such as organophosphates
Convention on Biological Diversity
The Convention on Biological Diversity, known informally as the Biodiversity Convention, is a multilateral treaty. In other words, its objective is to develop strategies for the conservation. It is often seen as the key document regarding sustainable development, the Convention was opened for signature at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro on 5 June 1992 and entered into force on 29 December 1993. At the 2010 10th Conference of Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity in October in Nagoya, the notion of an international convention on biological diversity was conceived at a United Nations Environment Programme Ad Hoc Working Group of Experts on Biological Diversity in November 1988. In 1991, a negotiating committee was established, tasked with finalizing the conventions text. A Conference for the Adoption of the Agreed Text of the Convention on Biological Diversity was held in Nairobi, Kenya, in 1992, the Conventions text was opened for signature on 5 June 1992 at the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development.
By its closing date,4 June 1993, the convention had received 168 signatures and it entered into force on 29 December 1993. The agreement covers all ecosystems and genetic resources and it links traditional conservation efforts to the economic goal of using biological resources sustainably. It sets principles for the fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising from the use of genetic resources and it covers the rapidly expanding field of biotechnology through its Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety, addressing technology development and transfer, benefit-sharing and biosafety issues. Importantly, the Convention is legally binding, countries that join it are obliged to implement its provisions, the convention reminds decision-makers that natural resources are not infinite and sets out a philosophy of sustainable use. While past conservation efforts were aimed at protecting particular species and habitats, this should be done in a way and at a rate that does not lead to the long-term decline of biological diversity.
The Convention acknowledges that substantial investments are required to conserve biological diversity and it argues, that conservation will bring us significant environmental and social benefits in return. The Convention on Biological Diversity of 2010 banned some forms of geoengineering, some of the many issues dealt with under the convention include, Measures the incentives for the conservation and sustainable use of biological diversity. Regulated access to resources and traditional knowledge, including Prior Informed Consent of the party providing resources. Access to and transfer of technology, including biotechnology, to the governments and/or local communities that provided traditional knowledge and/or biodiversity resources, coordination of a global directory of taxonomic expertise. National reporting on efforts to implement treaty commitments, the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety of the Convention, known as the Biosafety Protocol, was adopted in January 2000. The Biosafety Protocol seeks to protect biological diversity from the risks posed by living modified organisms resulting from modern biotechnology.
The Biosafety Protocol makes clear that products from new technologies must be based on the precautionary principle, the required number of 50 instruments of ratification/accession/approval/acceptance by countries was reached in May 2003
French protectorate of Tunisia
The French protectorate of Tunisia was established in 1881, during the French colonial Empire era, and lasted until Tunisian independence in 1956. Tunisia formed a province of the decaying Ottoman Empire but enjoyed a measure of autonomy under the bey Muhammad III as-Sadiq. In 1877, Russia declared war on the Ottoman Empire, russian victory foreshadowed the dismemberment of the empire, including independence for several Balkan possessions and international discussions about the future of the North African provinces. The Berlin Congress of 1878 convened to resolve the Ottoman question, although opposed to total dismantling of the Ottoman Empire, offered France control of Tunisia, in return for Cyprus. Italy, which had interests in Tunisia, strongly opposed the plan but was unable to impose its will. Both of these countries had been possessions of the Ottoman Empire for three centuries, yet each had long ago attained political autonomy from the Sultan in Constantinople. Before the French arrived, Tunisia had begun a process of modern reforms, after their occupation the French government assumed Tunisias international obligations.
Major developments and improvements were undertaken by the French in several areas, including transport and infrastructure, the system, public health. Yet French business and its citizens were favored, not to the liking of Tunisians and their preexisting national sense was early expressed in speech and in print, political organization followed. The independence movement was active before World War I. Its ultimate aim was achieved in 1956, before French occupation, Tunisia formed a province of the Ottoman Empire, but enjoyed a large measure of autonomy. The Ottoman ruler had placed a governor, a pasha, in charge of the Tunisian province, this pasha quickly lost control to the military commander, the dey. And the dey, in his turn, had been ousted by a civil administrator, the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire subsequently elevated the bey to the rank of dey and pasha, so that the decorum was satisfied all round. In 1705, the fell into the hands of Al-Husayn I ibn Ali at-Turki. When European influence continued to grow during the half of the 19th century.
The bey had his own army and navy, struck his own coins, declared war and peace, maintained separate diplomatic relations and signed treaties. Nevertheless, the bey was officially a Turkish governor, invoked the Sultan in his prayers, and on first taking office had to apply for a firman, that is official recognition by the Sultan. From 1859 to 1882 Tunisia was ruled by the bey Muhammad III as-Sadiq, and the powerful Prime Minister, Mustapha Khaznadar, Khaznadar was minister of finance and foreign affairs and was assisted by the interior and naval ministers
African Development Bank
The African Development Bank Group is a multilateral development finance institution established to contribute to the economic development and social progress of African countries. The AfDB was founded in 1964 and comprises three entities, The African Development Bank, the African Development Fund and the Nigeria Trust Fund, the AfDB is a financial provider to African governments and private companies investing in the regional member countries. While it was headquartered in Abidjan, Côte dIvoire, the banks headquarters moved to Tunis, Tunisia in 2003, due to the Ivorian civil war. The agreement came into force on 10 September 1964, although established officially in under the auspices of the Economic Commission for Africa, the AfDB began operation in 1966. Although originally only African countries were able to join the bank, during its forty years of operations, AfDB has financed 2,885 operations, for a total of $47.5 billion. In 2003, it received an AAA rating from the financial rating agencies and had a capital of $32.043 billion.
The African Development Bank Group has two entities, the African Development Fund and the Nigeria Trust Fund. Established in 1972, the African Development Fund started operations in 1974, in harmony with its lending strategy, poverty reduction is the main aim of ADF activities. Twenty-four non-African countries along with the AfDB constitute its current membership, the Federal Reserve Bank of New York was designated as the depositor bank for the fund according to telegraphs sent from the U. S. Embassy in Abidjan in 1976. The ADF’s sources are mainly contributions and periodic replacements by non-African member states, the fund is usually replenished every three years, unless member states decide otherwise. The total donations, at the end of 1996, amounted to $12.58 billion. The ADF lends at no interest rate, with a service charge of 0. 75%, a commitment fee of 0. 5%. The tenth United Kingdom replenishment of the ADF was in 2006, the Nigeria Trust Fund was established in 1976 by the Nigerian government with an initial capital of $80 million.
The NTF is aimed at assisting in the development efforts of the poorest AfDB members, in 1996, the NTF had a total resource base of $432 million. It lends at a 4% interest rate with a 25-year repayment period, the AfDB is controlled by a Board of Executive Directors, made up of representatives of its member countries. The voting power on the Board is split according to the size of each members share, the largest African Development Bank shareholder is Nigeria with nearly 9 percent of the vote. All member countries of the AfDB are represented on the AfDB Board of Executive Directors, dr. Akinwumi Ayodeji Adesina is the 8th elected President of the African Development Bank Group], having taken the oath of office on September 1,2015. He chairs the Boards of both the African Development Bank and the African Development Fund, dr. Adesina served as Nigeria’s Minister of Agriculture and Rural Development from 2011 to 2015
Crime of apartheid
On November 30,1973, the United Nations General Assembly opened for signature and ratification the International Convention on the Suppression and Punishment of the Crime of Apartheid. The term apartheid, from Afrikaans for apartness, was the name of the South African system of racial segregation which existed after 1948. Complaints about the system were brought to the United Nations as early as 12 July 1948 when Dr, in 1971, the USSR and Guinea together submitted early drafts of a convention to deal with the suppression and punishment of apartheid. In 1973, the General Assembly of the United Nations agreed on the text of the International Convention on the Suppression, the Convention has 31 signatories and 107 parties. The convention came into force in 1976 after 20 countries had ratified it, as such, apartheid was declared to be a crime against humanity, with a scope that went far beyond South Africa. While the crime of apartheid is most often associated with the racist policies of South Africa after 1948, the term more generally refers to racially based policies in any state.
In explanation of the US vote against the convention, Ambassador Clarence Clyde Ferguson Jr. said, crimes against humanity are so grave in nature that they must be meticulously elaborated and strictly construed under existing international law. In 1977, Addition Protocol 1 to the Geneva Conventions designated apartheid as a breach of the Protocol. There are 169 parties to the Protocol, the International Criminal Court provides for individual criminal responsibility for crimes against humanity, including the crime of apartheid. The International Criminal Court came into being on 1 July 2002, many of the member states have provided their own national courts with universal jurisdiction over the same offenses and do not recognize any statute of limitations for crimes against humanity. As of July 2008,106 countries are parties. This definition does not make any difference between discrimination based on ethnicity and race, in part because the distinction between the two remains debatable among anthropologists.
Similarly, in British law the phrase racial group means any group of people who are defined by reference to their race and suggested that the legal consequences of a prolonged occupation with features of colonialism and apartheid be put to the International Court of Justice. In 2010, Richard Falk, the next UN Special Rapporteur for Palestine concludes that this structure of apartheid that exists in the Occupied Palestinian Territories. Makes the allegation increasingly credible despite the differences between the characteristics of South African apartheid and that of the Occupied Palestinian Territories regime. Nothing there comes close to the definition of apartheid under the 1998 Rome Statute, Goldstone noted that Arab citizens of Israel are allowed to vote, have political parties, and hold seats in the Knesset and other positions, including one on the Israeli Supreme Court. However the Goldstone Report does not contain any reference to charges of apartheid, with regard to associated issue of positive findings of Israeli war crimes in the report, Goldstone has argued for a redaction.
Al-Jazeera News reported, Rima Khalaf says she resigns after UN leaders forced her to withdraw a report accusing Israel of apartheid
It does not, address the movement of radioactive waste. The Convention was opened for signature on 22 March 1989, as of November 2016,184 states and the European Union are parties to the Convention. Haiti and the United States have signed the Convention but not ratified it, with the tightening of environmental laws in developed nations in the 1970s, disposal costs for hazardous waste rose dramatically. At the same time, globalization of shipping made transboundary movement of more accessible. Consequently, the trade in hazardous waste, particularly to LDCs and it sailed for many months, changing its name several times. Unable to unload the cargo in any port, the crew was believed to have dumped much of it at sea and these practices have been deemed Toxic Colonialism by many developing countries. At its most recent meeting,27 November to 1 December 2006, the Conference of the parties of the Basel Agreement focused on issues of electronic waste, according to Maureen Walsh, only around 4% of hazardous wastes that come from OECD countries are actually shipped across international borders.
These wastes include, among others, chemical waste, radioactive waste, municipal waste, incinerator ash. Of internationally shipped waste that comes from developed countries, more than half is shipped for recovery, increased trade in recyclable materials has led to an increase in a market for used products such as computers. This market is valued in billions of dollars, at issue is the distinction when used computers stop being a commodity and become a waste. As of November 2016, there are 185 parties to the treaty, which includes 182 UN member states, the Cook Islands, the European Union, and the State of Palestine. The 11 UN member states that are not party to the treaty are Angola, East Timor, Grenada, San Marino, Solomon Islands, South Sudan, United States, and Vanuatu. A waste falls under the scope of the Convention if it is within the category of wastes listed in Annex I of the Convention, in other words, it must both be listed and possess a characteristic such as being explosive, toxic, or corrosive.
The definition of the disposal is made in Article 2 al 4 and just refers to annex IV. The examples of disposal are broad and include recovery, radioactive waste that is covered under other international control systems and wastes from the normal operation of ships are not covered. Annex IX attempts to define commodities which are not considered wastes, in addition to conditions on the import and export of the above wastes, there are stringent requirements for notice and tracking for movement of wastes across national boundaries. It is of note that the Convention places a prohibition on the exportation or importation of wastes between Parties and non-Parties. The exception to rule is where the waste is subject to another treaty that does not take away from the Basel Convention
Biological Weapons Convention
The Convention was the result of prolonged efforts by the international community to establish a new instrument that would supplement the 1925 Geneva Protocol. The Geneva Protocol prohibits use but not possession or development of chemical and biological weapons and it commits the 178 states which are party to it as of December 2016 to prohibit the development and stockpiling of biological and toxin weapons. However, the absence of any formal verification regime to monitor compliance has limited the effectiveness of the Convention, an additional six states have signed the BWC but have yet to ratify the treaty. The scope of the BWCs prohibition is defined in Article 1 and this includes all microbial and other biological agents or toxins and their means of delivery. Subsequent Review Conferences have reaffirmed that the general purpose criterion encompasses all future scientific and it is not the objects themselves, but rather certain purposes for which they may be employed which are prohibited, similar to Art.
II,1 in the Chemical Weapons Convention. Permitted purposes under the BWC are defined as prophylactic, the objects may not be retained in quantities that have no justification or which are inconsistent with the permitted purposes. The United States Congress passed the Bioweapons Anti-Terrorism Act in 1989 to implement the Convention, the law applies the Conventions convent to countries and private citizens, and criminalizes violations of the Convention. Article I, Never under any circumstances to acquire or retain biological weapons, Article II, To destroy or divert to peaceful purposes biological weapons and associated resources prior to joining. Article III, Not to transfer, or in any way assist, Article IV, To take any national measures necessary to implement the provisions of the BWC domestically. Article V, To consult bilaterally and multilaterally to solve any problems with the implementation of the BWC, Article VI, To request the UN Security Council to investigate alleged breaches of the BWC and to comply with its subsequent decisions.
Article VII, To assist States which have exposed to a danger as a result of a violation of the BWC. Article X, To do all of the above in a way that encourages the peaceful uses of biological science, the BWC has 178 States Parties as of November 2016, with Guinea the most recent to become a party. The Republic of China had deposited an instrument of ratification before the changeover of the United Nations seat to the Peoples Republic of China. Of the UN member states which are not a party to the treaty, six have signed, a long process of negotiation to add a verification mechanism began in the 1990s. Previously, at the second Review Conference of State Parties in 1986, the following Review Conference in 1991 established a group of government experts. Negotiations towards an internationally binding verification protocol to the BWC took place between 1995 and 2001 in a known as the Ad Hoc Group. On 25 July 2001, the Bush administration, after conducting a review of policy on biological weapons, States Parties have formally reviewed the operation of the BWC at quinquennial review conferences held in 1980,1986,1991,1996, 2001/02,2006,2011, and 2016.
These additional understandings are contained in the Final Declarations of the Review Conferences, there has been an increase in the percentage of delegates from States Parties who have been women since the first review conference, with just 7 percent in 1980 to 26 percent in 2011
Tunisia, officially the Republic of Tunisia is the northernmost country in Africa, covering 165,000 square kilometres. Its northernmost point, Cape Angela, is the northernmost point on the African continent and it is bordered by Algeria to the west and southwest, Libya to the southeast, and the Mediterranean Sea to the north and east. Tunisias population was estimated to be just under 11 million in 2014, Tunisias name is derived from its capital city, which is located on Tunisias northeast coast. Geographically, Tunisia contains the end of the Atlas Mountains. Much of the rest of the land is fertile soil. Tunisia is a unitary semi-presidential representative democratic republic and it is considered to be the only full democracy in the Arab World. It has a human development index. In addition, Tunisia is a state of the United Nations. Close relations with Europe – in particular with France and with Italy – have been forged through economic cooperation, privatisation, in ancient times, Tunisia was primarily inhabited by Berbers.
Phoenician immigration began in the 12th century BC, these immigrants founded Carthage, a major mercantile power and a military rival of the Roman Republic, Carthage was defeated by the Romans in 146 BC. The Romans, who would occupy Tunisia for most of the eight hundred years, introduced Christianity. After several attempts starting in 647, the Arabs conquered the whole of Tunisia by 697, the Ottomans held sway for over three hundred years. The French colonization of Tunisia occurred in 1881, Tunisia gained independence with Habib Bourguiba and declared the Tunisian Republic in 1957. In 2011, the Tunisian Revolution resulted in the overthrow of President Zine El Abidine Ben Ali, the country voted for parliament again on 26 October 2014, and for President on 23 November 2014. The word Tunisia is derived from Tunis, an urban hub. The present form of the name, with its Latinate suffix -ia, the French derivative Tunisie was adopted in some European languages with slight modifications, introducing a distinctive name to designate the country.
Other languages remained untouched, such as the Russian Туни́с and Spanish Túnez, in this case, the same name is used for both country and city, as with the Arabic تونس, and only by context can one tell the difference. The name Tunis can be attributed to different origins and it is generally associated with the Berber root ⵜⵏⵙ, transcribed tns, which means to lay down or encampment
Chicago Convention on International Civil Aviation
The Convention establishes rules of airspace, aircraft registration and safety, and details the rights of the signatories in relation to air travel. The Convention exempts air fuels in transit from taxation, the document was signed on December 7,1944 in Chicago by 52 signatory states. It received the requisite 26th ratification on March 5,1947 and went into effect on April 4,1947, in October of the same year, ICAO became a specialized agency of the United Nations Economic and Social Council. The Convention has since been revised eight times, as of 2013, the Chicago Convention has 191 state parties, which includes all member states of the United Nations except Dominica and Tuvalu as well as the Cook Islands. The convention has been extended to cover Liechtenstein by the ratification of Switzerland, some important articles are, Article 1, Every state has complete and exclusive sovereignty over airspace above its territory. Article 3 bis, Every other State must refrain from resorting to the use of weapons against civil aircraft in flight.
Article 5, The aircraft of states, other than scheduled air services, have the right to make flights across states territories. However, the state may require the aircraft to make a landing, Article 6, No scheduled international air service may be operated over or into the territory of a contracting State, except with the special permission or other authorization of that State. Article 10, The state can require that landing to be at a customs airport. Article 16, The authorities of each state shall have the right to search the aircraft of states on landing or departure. Article 24, Aircraft flying to, from or across, the territory of a state shall be admitted free of duty. Fuel, spare parts, regular equipment and aircraft stores retained on board are exempt custom duty, inspection fees or similar charges. Article 29, Before an international flight, the pilot in command must ensure that the aircraft is airworthy, duly registered, the radios may only be used by members of the flight crew suitably licensed by the state in which the aircraft is registered.
Article 33, Certificates of Airworthiness, certificates of competency and licences issued or validated by the state in which the aircraft is registered, shall be recognised as valid by other states. The requirements for issue of those Certificates or Airworthiness, certificates of competency or licences must be equal to or above the standards established by the Convention. Article 40, No aircraft or personnel with endorsed licenses or certificate will engage in international navigation except with the permission of the state or states whose territory is entered, the Convention is supported by nineteen annexes containing standards and recommended practices. The annexes are amended regularly by ICAO and are as follows, Annex 1 – Personnel Licensing Licensing of flight crews, including Chapter 6 containing medical standards. Taxation of Aviation Fuel Paul Michael Krämer, Chicago Convention, 50th Anniversary Conference, zeitschrift für Luft- und Weltraumrecht 1995, S.57
Convention on Cluster Munitions
The Convention on Cluster Munitions is an international treaty that prohibits the use and stockpile of cluster bombs, a type of explosive weapon which scatters submunitions over an area. The convention was adopted on 30 May 2008 in Dublin, and was opened for signature on 3 December 2008 in Oslo and it entered into force on 1 August 2010, six months after it was ratified by 30 states. As of April 2016,108 states have signed the treaty and 100 have ratified it or acceded to it, weapons containing submunitions which all individually weigh at least 20 kg are excluded. A limited number of prohibited weapons and submunitions can be acquired and kept for training in, a varying proportion of submunitions dispersed by cluster bombs fail to explode on impact and can lie unexploded for years until disturbed. The sometimes brightly colored munitions are not camouflaged, but have compared to toys or Easter eggs. The 2006 Lebanon War provided momentum for the campaign to ban cluster bombs, the United Nations estimated that up to 40% of Israeli cluster bomblets failed to explode on impact.
Norway organized the independent Oslo process after discussions at the traditional disarmament forum in Geneva fell through in November 2006, the cluster munitions ban process, known as the Oslo Process, began in February 2007 in Oslo. The Oslo Process held meetings in Lima in May 2007 and Vienna in December 2007, in February 2008,79 countries adopted the Wellington Declaration, setting forth the principles to be included in the convention. Delegates from 107 nations agreed to the draft of the treaty at the end of a ten-day meeting held in May 2008 in Dublin. Its text was adopted on 30 May 2008 by 107 nations. The treaty was opposed by a number of countries that produce or stockpile significant quantities of munitions, including China, Russia. In 2006, Barack Obama voted to support a measure to limit use of the bombs, while his general election opponent John McCain. According to the Pentagons 2008 policy, cluster munitions are actually humane weapons, blanket elimination of cluster munitions is therefore unacceptable due not only to negative military consequences but due to potential negative consequences for civilians.
The treaty allows certain types of weapons with submunitions that do not have the indiscriminate area effects or pose the same unexploded ordnance risks as the prohibited weapons and these must contain no more than nine submunitions, and no submunition may weigh less than 4 kilograms. Each submunition must have the capability to detect and engage a target object and contain electronic self-destruct. Weapons containing submunitions which each weigh at least 20 kg are excluded, which supports the treaty, stated that the convention does not prohibit the SMArt 155 artillery shell that it has bought, which releases two self-guided self-destructing submunitions. David Miliband, who was Britains foreign secretary under Labour, approved the use of a loophole to manoeuvre around the ban and allow the US to keep the munitions on British territory. Prior to the Dublin meeting, the United Kingdom was thought to be one of a group of nations in a pivotal role whereby their cooperation could make or break the treaty