Category:United Nations Military Observers
Pages in category "United Nations Military Observers"
The following 11 pages are in this category, out of 11 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 11 pages are in this category, out of 11 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. MONUSCO – Since 1999, about US$8.74 billion has been spent to fund the UN peacekeeping effort in DRC. As of December 2015, the strength of UN peacekeeping troops in DRC exceed 23,000. More than thirty nations have contributed military and police personnel for peacekeeping effort, in June 2011, it was reported that India is preparing to gradually scale back its military commitment to MONUSCO. The first liaison officers arrived in the DRC on 3 September 1999, in November 1999 the number of liaison officers totaled 39, distributed in the capitals of the warring countries including 24 who were stationed in Kinshasa. In January 2000 they reached the number of 79 and they were spread over the territory of DRC. Their mission was to liaise with all the factions, give a technical assistance. On 24 February 2000 with the resolution 1291, the U. N. Security Council authorized the deployment of a maximum of 5537 military personnel in the DRC, on 4 April 2000 the Senegalese Major General Mountago Diallo was appointed as the commander of MONUCs military force. Acting under Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter the U. N, in December 2000 there were 224 military personnel deployed, including 148 observers in 13 points around the country. The observers could only record the non-application of the Ceasefire, the violent fighting at Kisangani and in the Equateur, the deployment of UN troops was impossible due to the security situation and the reluctance of the Congolese government. In March 2001, the first Uruguayan guard unit arrived in Kalemie, the force was deployed in four sectors at Kananga, Kisangani, Kalemie and Mbandaka. In July 2001, the strength was of 2366 soldiers. They came from South Africa, Uruguay, Morocco, Senegal, guard units protected MONUC installations in Kinshasa, Kananga, Kisangani, Kalemie, Goma and Mbandaka. A Uruguayan riverine unit and a South African air medical evacuation team were also deployed, with Security Council Resolution 1376, the Security Council launched the third phase of the deployment of MONUC troops, in the East of DRC. The site for the base was planned to be Kindu. In 2002, the 450 military observers, split in 95 teams, the teams also investigated violations of the Ceasefire. Foreign troops continued to leave the country, the riverine units escorted the first ships on the Congo river, which was again open to commercial traffic. In June 2002 the UN troops total number was 3804, contingents from Ghana and Bolivia joined the force, of which more than a third of the soldiers were Uruguayan. More than a thousand soldiers were deployed in Kisangani, on 14 May 2002, a military observer died near Ikela following the explosion of a mine under his vehicle
2. United Nations Truce Supervision Organization – The United Nations Truce Supervision Organization is an organization founded on 29 May 1948 for peacekeeping in the Middle East. The command structure of the UNTSO was maintained to cover the later peace keeper organisations of the United Nations Disengagement Observer Force, all the members of the party were experienced international civil servants with a background of service with the United Nations Secretariat at Headquarters. While on duty in Palestine, they were to continue to wear United Nations guard uniforms, the plan was not accepted by the Palestinian Arabs and Arab States and only partially accepted by the Jewish Agency of Palestine. On 14 May 1948, the United Kingdom relinquished its mandate over Palestine, on the following day, the Arab States invaded Palestine Mandate territory. On 14 May 1948, the Assembly adopts resolution 186, which affirms its support for the efforts of the Security Council to secure a truce in Palestine, Count Folke Bernadotte of Sweden was appointed. On 22 May 1948, the Security Council adopts resolution 49, the resolution also calls upon the parties to facilitate the task of the U. N. Mediator. Wasson, US Consul and member of the UN Truce Commission was assassinated in Jerusalem, to enforce the first of two truces, lasting four weeks, the UN then established an observer formation, with members drawn from Belgium, France, and the United States. He was wounded while investigating an alleged violation of the provisions by Jewish forces. The Mediator was instructed on 29 May 1948 to create a truce in Palestine. The Mediator concept was teamed with the Truce Commission for supervisory over-watch of the Truce Plan, as a result, the Mediator and the Truce Commission would be provided with a number of military observers which set a precedent for todays assignment of UNMOs in the Middle East. The month-long truce went into effect on 11 June,1948, on the same day, the first group of 36 observers arrived via Cairo, Egypt and continued to arrive for the next three days. The first truce did not last long due to violence which again erupted. As a result, the observers were withdrawn on 9 July 1948, the second truce, indefinite in length, was called by the United Nations Security Council on 15 July 1948. This declaration was to be put into effect on 18 July 1948, during the autumn of 1948, UNTSO was re-established with an increase in size to supervise the Second Truce. The first group of observers to serve in Palestine under the UN Mediator, Count Folke Bernadotte and it included 41 Americans and about 25 Belgians and were deployed on 21 July 1948. The initial group was expanded to 93 in total because of the tremendous area that had to be covered. Initially, the command was headed by a Chief-of-Staff in accordance with the direction of the Mediator. On 17 September 1948, UN Mediator Count Folke Bernadotte, in the Katamon quarter of Jerusalem by Jewish assailants
3. UN mediation of the Kashmir dispute – Following the cease-fire of hostilities, it also established the United Nations Military Observer Group for India and Pakistan to monitor the cease-fire line. India sought resolution of the issue at the UN Security Council on 1 January 1948, following the set-up of the United Nations Commission for India and Pakistan, the UN Security Council passed Resolution 47 on 21 April 1948. However, it was not until 1 January 1949 that the ceasefire could be put into effect, signed by General Gracey on behalf of Pakistan and General Roy Bucher on behalf of India. However, both India and Pakistan failed to arrive at an agreement due to differences over interpretation of the procedure for. One sticking point was whether the Azad Kashmiri army was to be disbanded during the stage or at the plebiscite stage. The UNCIP made three visits to the subcontinent between 1948 and 1949, trying to find a solution agreeable to both India and Pakistan and it reported to the Security Council in August 1948 that the presence of troops of Pakistan inside Kashmir represented a material change in the situation. A two-part process was proposed for the withdrawal of forces, in the first part, Pakistan was to withdraw its forces as well as other Pakistani nationals from the state. In the second part, when the Commission shall have notified the Government of India that Pakistani withdrawal has been completed, after both the withdrawals were completed, a plebiscite would be held. The resolution was accepted by India but effectively rejected by Pakistan, the Indian government considered itself to be under legal possession of Jammu and Kashmir by virtue of the accession of the state. The Pakistan government held that the state of Jammu and Kashmir had executed a Standstill Agreement with Pakistan which precluded it from entering into agreements with other countries. It also held that the Maharaja had no authority left to execute accession because his people had revolted and it believed that the Azad Kashmir movement as well as the tribal incursions were indigenous and spontaneous, and Pakistans assistance to them was not open to criticism. In short, India required an asymmetric treatment of the two countries in the arrangements regarding Pakistan as an aggressor, whereas Pakistan insisted on parity. The UN mediators tended towards parity, which was not to Indias satisfaction, in the end, no withdrawal was ever carried out, India insisting that Pakistan had to withdraw first, and Pakistan contending that there was no guarantee that India would withdraw afterwards. No agreement could be reached between the two countries on the process of demilitarisation, declassified British papers indicate that Britain and US have let their cold war calculations inlfuence their policy in the UN disregarding the merits of the case. The Security Council of United Nations on the complaint of Government of India concerning the dispute over the State of Jammu, the Indian Army should withdraw and maintain a skeletal force to ensure proper functioning of the civil affairs of the state after satisfactory withdrawal of Pakistani tribesmen and forces. It recommended to the governments of India and Pakistan to restore peace and order in Jammu and Kashmir and provide freedom to all subjects of the state. UN Official statement, The boundaries and names shown and the used on the map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations. The Dotted line represents approximately the Line of Control of Jammu and Kashmir agreed upon by the Republic of India, both the parties have not yet agreed upon the final status of the region and nothing significant has been implemented since the peace process began in 2004
4. United Nations Observer Mission in Georgia – 88 military advisors were authorized to be deployed to the region. It ended on 15 June 2009, when Russia vetoed an extension of the mission, the last observers left the region on 15 July 2009. The missions original mandate was invalidated after renewed fighting broke out in the area in September 1993, UNOMIG was subsequently given an interim mandate by Security Council in November 1993 to maintain contacts with the parties involved and to monitor and report on the situation. It aimed to work towards achieving a political settlement. In May 1994, both signed the Agreement on a Cease-fire and Separation of Forces. In July 1994 the Security Council authorized an increase in observers, the new mission was considerably more broad than the original. UNOMIGs original responsibilities in verifying the implementation of the ceasefire were retained, however, UNOMIG was now responsible for observing the operation of the new peacekeeping force that had been deployed by the Commonwealth of Independent States. UNOMIG was to oversee the withdrawal of Georgian troops from the Kodori Valley and thus and their patrols replaced those of Georgia in the valley. Finally, they were to work towards making conditions safe for the return of refugees. On 10 December 1996, a United Nations office for the protection of rights in Abkhazia was established in Tbilisi, Georgia. It is jointly staffed by the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights, the office forms part of UNOMIG and reports to the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights, through the Head of the UNOMIG Mission. Though they maintain an office in Tbilisi, their military headquarters are in Sukhumi. On 8 October 2001 a UNOMIG helicopter was shot down in Abkhazia, the perpetrators have never been found, despite repeated demands from the Security Council. In 2002, UNOMIG vigorously opposed the resumption of services between Sukhumi, Abkhazia and the city of Sochi in Russia. On 30 January 2004, again at the request of Secretary-General Annan, Security Council Resolution 1524 was passed, today, UNOMIG is concerned with security, assisting the return of the displaced and repairs of key infrastructure, such as roads and bridges. As of January 2003,21 projects were at an advanced or intermediate stage and 10 others were awaiting the release of funds by donors and they have also continued to push for a political settlement to the conflict, though Secretary-General Annan has complained about the slow rate of progress. In late 2003, UNOMIG became concerned about an increase in kidnappings, murders and robberies and they also expressed concern about potential instability around the tenth anniversary of the end of the war. The current chief military observer is Major General Anwar Hussain from Bangladesh, the strength of UNOMIG on 20 September 2008 stood at 134 military observers and 17 police advisers