Category:Units of length
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Pages in category "Units of length"
The following 149 pages are in this category, out of 149 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Units of length.|
The following 149 pages are in this category, out of 149 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Cubit – The cubit is an ancient unit based on the forearm length from the middle finger tip to the elbow bottom. Cubits of various lengths were employed in many parts of the world in antiquity, during the Middle Ages, the term is still used in hedge laying, the length of the forearm being frequently used to determine the interval between stakes placed within the hedge. The English word cubit comes from the Latin noun cubitus elbow, from the verb cubo, cubare, cubui, cubitum to lie down, the ancient Egyptian royal cubit is the earliest attested standard measure. Cubit rods were used for the measurement of length, a number of these rods have survived, two are known from the tomb of Maya, the treasurer of the 18th dynasty pharaoh Tutankhamun, in Saqqara, another was found in the tomb of Kha in Thebes. Fourteen such rods, including one double cubit rod, were described and compared by Lepsius in 1865. These cubit rods range from 523.5 to 529.2 mm in length, and are divided into seven palms, each palm is divided into four fingers and the fingers are further subdivided. Use of the royal cubit is also known from Old Kingdom architecture, in 1916, during the last years of the Ottoman Empire and in the middle of World War I, the German assyriologist Eckhard Unger found a copper-alloy bar while excavating at Nippur. The bar dates from c.2650 BC and Unger claimed it was used as a measurement standard and this irregularly formed and irregularly marked graduated rule supposedly defined the Sumerian cubit as about 518.6 mm. The Near Eastern or Biblical cubit is usually estimated as approximately 457.2 mm, in ancient Greek units of measurement, the standard forearm cubit measured approximately 0.46 m. The short forearm cubit, from the wrist to the elbow, in ancient Rome, according to Vitruvius, a cubit was equal to 1 1⁄2 Roman feet or 6 palm widths. Other measurements based on the length of the forearm include some lengths of ell, the Chinese chi, the Japanese shaku, the Indian hasta, the Thai sok, the Tamil, the Telugu, a cubit arm in heraldry may be dexter or sinister. It may be vested and may be shown in positions, most commonly erect. It is most often used erect as a crest, for example by the families of Poyntz of Iron Acton, Rolle of Stevenstone, the Encyclopaedia of Ancient Egyptian Architecture. The Cubit, A History and Measurement Commentary, Journal of Anthropology doi,10. 1155/2014/489757,2014 Media related to Cubit arms at Wikimedia Commons The dictionary definition of cubit at Wiktionary
2. Earth radius – Earth radius is the distance from the Earths center to its surface, about 6,371 km. This length is used as a unit of distance, especially in astronomy and geology. This article deals primarily with spherical and ellipsoidal models of the Earth, see Figure of the Earth for a more complete discussion of the models. The Earth is only approximately spherical, so no single value serves as its natural radius, distances from points on the surface to the center range from 6,353 km to 6,384 km. Several different ways of modeling the Earth as a sphere each yield a mean radius of 6,371 km. It can also mean some kind of average of such distances, Aristotle, writing in On the Heavens around 350 BC, reports that the mathematicians guess the circumference of the Earth to be 400,000 stadia. Due to uncertainty about which stadion variant Aristotle meant, scholars have interpreted Aristotles figure to be anywhere from highly accurate to almost double the true value, the first known scientific measurement and calculation of the radius of the Earth was performed by Eratosthenes about 240 BC. Estimates of the accuracy of Eratosthenes’s measurement range from within 0. 5% to within 17%, as with Aristotles report, uncertainty in the accuracy of his measurement is due to modern uncertainty over which stadion definition he used. Earths rotation, internal density variations, and external tidal forces cause its shape to deviate systematically from a perfect sphere, local topography increases the variance, resulting in a surface of profound complexity. Our descriptions of the Earths surface must be simpler than reality in order to be tractable, hence, we create models to approximate characteristics of the Earths surface, generally relying on the simplest model that suits the need. Each of the models in use involve some notion of the geometric radius. Strictly speaking, spheres are the solids to have radii. In the case of the geoid and ellipsoids, the distance from any point on the model to the specified center is called a radius of the Earth or the radius of the Earth at that point. It is also common to refer to any mean radius of a model as the radius of the earth. When considering the Earths real surface, on the hand, it is uncommon to refer to a radius. Rather, elevation above or below sea level is useful, regardless of the model, any radius falls between the polar minimum of about 6,357 km and the equatorial maximum of about 6,378 km. Hence, the Earth deviates from a sphere by only a third of a percent. While specific values differ, the concepts in this article generalize to any major planet
3. Caliber – In guns, particularly firearms, caliber or calibre is the approximate internal diameter of the barrel, or the diameter of the projectile it fires, in hundredths or sometimes thousandths of an inch. For example, a 45 caliber firearm has a diameter of.45 of an inch. Barrel diameters can also be expressed using metric dimensions, as in 9mm pistol, when the barrel diameter is given in inches, the abbreviation cal can be used. Good performance requires a bullet to closely match the diameter of a barrel to ensure a good seal. While modern cartridges and cartridge firearms are referred to by the cartridge name. Firearm calibers outside the range of 17 to 50 exist, but are rarely encountered. Larger calibers, such as.577.585.600.700, the.950 JDJ is the only known cartridge beyond 79 caliber used in a rifle. Referring to artillery, caliber is used to describe the length as multiples of the bore diameter. A 5-inch 50 calibre gun has a diameter of 5 in. The main guns of the USS Missouri are 1650 caliber, makers of early cartridge arms had to invent methods of naming the cartridges, since no established convention existed then. One of the early established cartridge arms was the Spencer repeating rifle, later various derivatives were created using the same basic cartridge, but with smaller-diameter bullets, these were named by the cartridge diameter at the base and mouth. The original No.56 became the. 56-56, and the smaller versions. 56-52. 56-50, the. 56-52, the most common of the new calibers, used a 50-cal bullet. Optionally, the weight in grains was designated, e. g. 45-70-405. Variations on these methods persist today, with new cartridges such as the.204 Ruger, metric diameters for small arms refer to cartridge dimensions and are expressed with an × between the bore diameter and the length of the cartridge case, for example,7. 62×51 NATO. This indicates that the diameter is 7. 62mm, loaded in a case 51mm long. Similarly, the 6. 5×55 Swedish cartridge has a diameter of 6.5 mm. An exception to rule is the proprietary cartridge used by U. S. maker Lazzeroni. The following table lists commonly used calibers where both metric and imperial are used as equivalents
4. Furlong – A furlong is a measure of distance in imperial units and U. S. customary units equal to one-eighth of a mile, equivalent to 660 feet,220 yards,40 rods, or 10 chains. Using the international definition of the inch as exactly 25.4 millimetres, however, the United States does not uniformly use this conversion ratio. Older ratios are in use for surveying purposes in some states and this variation is too small to have many practical consequences. Five furlongs are about 1.0 kilometre, the name furlong derives from the Old English words furh and lang. Dating back at least to early Anglo-Saxon times, it referred to the length of the furrow in one acre of a ploughed open field. The system of long furrows arose because turning a team of oxen pulling a heavy plough was difficult and this offset the drainage advantages of short furrows and meant furrows were made as long as possible. An acre is an area that is one long and one chain wide. For this reason, the furlong was once called an acres length. The term furlong, or shot, was used to describe a grouping of adjacent strips within an open field. Among the early Anglo-Saxons, the rod was the unit of land measurement. A furlong was forty rods, a four by 40 rods, or four rods by one furlong. At the time, the Saxons used the North German foot, when England changed to the shorter foot in the late 13th century, rods and furlongs remained unchanged, since property boundaries were already defined in rods and furlongs. The only thing changed was the number of feet and yards in a rod or a furlong. The definition of the rod went from 15 old feet to 16 1⁄2 new feet, the furlong went from 600 old feet to 660 new feet, or from 200 old yards to 220 new yards. The acre went from 36,000 old square feet to 43,560 new square feet, the furlong was historically viewed as being equivalent to the Roman stade, which in turn derived from the Greek system. In the Roman system, there were 625 feet to the stadium, eight stadia to the mile, a league was considered to be the distance a man could walk in one hour, and the mile consisted of 1,000 passus. After the fall of the Roman Empire, medieval Europe continued with the Roman system, around the year 1300, by royal decree England standardized a long list of measures. Among the important units of distance and length at the time were the foot, yard, rod, furlong, and the mile
5. Foot (unit) – The foot is a unit of length in the imperial and US customary systems of measurement. Since 1959, both units have been defined by international agreement as equivalent to 0.3048 meters exactly, in both systems, the foot comprises 12 inches and three feet compose a yard. Historically the foot was a part of local systems of units, including the Greek, Roman, Chinese, French. It varied in length from country to country, from city to city and its length was usually between 250 mm and 335 mm and was generally, but not always, subdivided into 12 inches or 16 digits. The United States is the industrialized nation that uses the international foot and the survey foot in preference to the meter in its commercial, engineering. The foot is legally recognized in the United Kingdom, road signs must use imperial units, the measurement of altitude in international aviation is one of the few areas where the foot is widely used outside the English-speaking world. The length of the international foot corresponds to a foot with shoe size of 13,14,15.5 or 46. Historically the human body has been used to provide the basis for units of length. The foot of a male is typically about 15. 3% of his height, giving a person of 160 cm a foot of 245 mm. These figures are less than the used in most cities over time. Archeologists believe that the Egyptians, Ancient Indians and Mesopotamians preferred the cubit while the Romans, under the Harappan linear measures, Indus cities during the Bronze Age used a foot of 13.2 inches and a cubit of 20.8 inches. The Egyptian equivalent of the measure of four palms or 16 digits—was known as the djeser and has been reconstructed as about 30 cm. The Greek foot had a length of 1⁄600 of a stadion, one stadion being about 181.2 m, the standard Roman foot was normally about 295.7 mm, but in the provinces, the pes Drusianus was used, with a length of about 334 mm. Originally both the Greeks and the Romans subdivided the foot into 16 digits, but in later years, after the fall of the Roman Empire, some Roman traditions were continued but others fell into disuse. In AD790 Charlemagne attempted to reform the units of measure in his domains and his units of length were based on the toise and in particular the toise de lÉcritoire, the distance between the fingertips of the outstretched arms of a man. The toise has 6 pieds each of 326.6 mm, at the same time, monastic buildings used the Carolingian foot of 340 mm. The procedure for verification of the foot as described in the 16th century by Jacob Koebel in his book Geometrei, the measures of Iron Age Britain are uncertain and proposed reconstructions such as the Megalithic Yard are controversial. Later Welsh legend credited Dyfnwal Moelmud with the establishment of their units, the Belgic or North German foot of 335 mm was introduced to England either by the Belgic Celts during their invasions prior to the Romans or by the Anglo-Saxons in the 5th & 6th century
6. Chi (unit) – The chi is a traditional Chinese unit of length. It first appeared during Chinas Shang dynasty approximately 3000 years ago and has since adopted by other East Asian cultures such as Japan, Korea. In its ancient and modern forms, the chi is divided into 10 smaller units known as cun and 10 chi together form one zhang, in the Peoples Republic of China chi has been defined since 1984 as exactly 1/3 of a meter, i. e. 33 1⁄3 cm. However, in the Hong Kong SAR the corresponding unit, pronounced chek in Cantonese, is defined as exactly 0.371475 m, the two units are sometimes referred to in English as Chinese foot and Hong Kong foot. In Taiwan, chi is the same as the Japanese shaku, even earlier, during the Warring States era, the value of chi was essentially the same. It is thought that the ancient Chinese astronomers also used chi as an angular unit, in the 19th century, the value of chi, depending on the part of the country and the application, varied between 31 and 36 cm. In Guangzhou, however, the chi used for local trade varied from 14.625 to 14.81 inches – i. e. very close to the modern chek. The value fixed by a Sino-British treaty for the purposes of customs duties in Hong Kong was 14.1 inches, due to its long history and its widespread usage, chi has also seen metaphorical usages in the Chinese language. For example, chi cun, a made up of the units chi and cun, refers to the dimensions of an object. In informal use, it is sometimes used to refer to the US or imperial foot
7. Inch – The inch is a unit of length in the imperial and United States customary systems of measurement now formally equal to 1⁄36 yard but usually understood as 1⁄12 of a foot. Derived from the Roman uncia, inch is also used to translate related units in other measurement systems. The English word inch was a borrowing from Latin uncia not present in other Germanic languages. The vowel change from Latin /u/ to English /ɪ/ is known as umlaut, the consonant change from the Latin /k/ to English /tʃ/ or /ʃ/ is palatalisation. Both were features of Old English phonology, inch is cognate with ounce, whose separate pronunciation and spelling reflect its reborrowing in Middle English from Anglo-Norman unce and ounce. In many other European languages, the word for inch is the same as or derived from the word for thumb, the inch is a commonly used customary unit of length in the United States, Canada, and the United Kingdom. It is also used in Japan for electronic parts, especially display screens, for example, three feet two inches can be written as 3′ 2″. Paragraph LXVII sets out the fine for wounds of various depths, one inch, one shilling, an Anglo-Saxon unit of length was the barleycorn. After 1066,1 inch was equal to 3 barleycorns, which continued to be its legal definition for several centuries, similar definitions are recorded in both English and Welsh medieval law tracts. One, dating from the first half of the 10th century, is contained in the Laws of Hywel Dda which superseded those of Dyfnwal, both definitions, as recorded in Ancient Laws and Institutes of Wales, are that three lengths of a barleycorn is the inch. However, the oldest surviving manuscripts date from the early 14th century, john Bouvier similarly recorded in his 1843 law dictionary that the barleycorn was the fundamental measure. He noted that this process would not perfectly recover the standard, before the adoption of the international yard and pound, various definitions were in use. In the United Kingdom and most countries of the British Commonwealth, the United States adopted the conversion factor 1 metre =39.37 inches by an act in 1866. In 1930, the British Standards Institution adopted an inch of exactly 25.4 mm, the American Standards Association followed suit in 1933. By 1935, industry in 16 countries had adopted the industrial inch as it came to be known, in 1946, the Commonwealth Science Congress recommended a yard of exactly 0.9144 metres for adoption throughout the British Commonwealth. This was adopted by Canada in 1951, the United States on 1 July 1959, Australia in 1961, effective 1 January 1964, and the United Kingdom in 1963, effective on 1 January 1964. The new standards gave an inch of exactly 25.4 mm,1.7 millionths of a longer than the old imperial inch and 2 millionths of an inch shorter than the old US inch. The United States retains the 1/39. 37-metre definition for survey purposes and this is approximately 1/8-inch in a mile
8. Irish measure – Irish measure or plantation measure was a system of units of land measurement used in Ireland from the 16th century plantations until the 19th century, with residual use into the 20th century. The units were based on English measure but used a linear perch measuring 7 yards as opposed to the English rod of 5.5 yards. Imperial measure soon replaced Irish measure in the use of the Dublin Castle administration, but Irish measure persisted in local government, a third system, Scotch measure or Cunningham measure, was also used in Ulster Scots areas. The Irish mile as latterly defined measured exactly 8 Irish furlongs,320 Irish perches, or 2240 yards, during the Elizabethan era,4 Irish miles were generally equated to 5 English ones although whether this meant the old English mile or the shorter statute mile is unclear. The 21-foot perch was in use by the time of William Petty, however, a 1715 statute of the Parliament of Ireland defines the fare for ferries in terms of common Irish miles, at one English mile and an half or twelve furlongs at least to each mile. Under British rule, the Irish mile was not always used, the Ordnance Survey of Ireland, from its establishment in 1824, used English miles. Thomas Telfords Howth–Dublin Post Office extension of the London–Holyhead turnpike had its mileposts in English miles, Irish measure was formally abolished by the 1824 Weights and Measures Act but the Irish Post Office continued to use the measure until 1856. Several post-1824 statutes used Irish miles, One was the Lighting of Towns Act,1828, which allowed those residing within one Irish mile of a town market to vote on whether to establish town commissioners. Another was the Parliamentary Boundaries Act,1832 which defined the radius of the borough of Sligo as One Mile, Irish Admeasurement. The Market Cross, the same as the established for local taxation purposes in 1803. Prior to the publication of standardised traffic regulations by the Irish Free State in 1926, signage varied from county to county, the 1909 Thorough Guide said, The Railway Companies adopt English miles. The car proprietors are apt to be elastic in their choice, the Counties of Dublin, Waterford, Cork, Antrim, and Armagh use English milestones, Donegal uses Irish only, and the other counties either have both or a mixture. Metal milestones, however, show English, and stone ones Irish, the Oxford English Dictionary’s 1906 definition of mile described the Irish mile as still in rustic use. The Irish Free State standardised its roads using English statute miles, in 1965, two deputies proposed an amendment to the Road Transport Act to replace the English statute miles with Irish ones, it was rejected. Two-Mile Borris, County Tipperary is two Irish miles from Leighmore, site of a medieval monastery, threemilehouse, County Monaghan is three Irish miles from Monaghan town. Fivemiletown, County Tyrone is five Irish miles equidistant from Clogher, Brookeborough, sixmilebridge, County Clare is six Irish miles from Thomondgate, Limerick. Sixmilecross, County Tyrone is six Irish miles from Omagh, the name of Six Mile Water, County Antrim is said to derive from the crossing point six Irish miles from Antrim town on the road to Carrickfergus. The Irish acre or plantation acre measured one Irish chain by one Irish furlong, or 4 Irish perches by 40, or 7840 square yards, approximately 0.66 hectares or 1.62 statute acres
9. Astronomical unit – The astronomical unit is a unit of length, roughly the distance from Earth to the Sun. However, that varies as Earth orbits the Sun, from a maximum to a minimum. Originally conceived as the average of Earths aphelion and perihelion, it is now defined as exactly 149597870700 metres, the astronomical unit is used primarily as a convenient yardstick for measuring distances within the Solar System or around other stars. However, it is also a component in the definition of another unit of astronomical length. A variety of symbols and abbreviations have been in use for the astronomical unit. In a 1976 resolution, the International Astronomical Union used the symbol A for the astronomical unit, in 2006, the International Bureau of Weights and Measures recommended ua as the symbol for the unit. In 2012, the IAU, noting that various symbols are presently in use for the astronomical unit, in the 2014 revision of the SI Brochure, the BIPM used the unit symbol au. In ISO 80000-3, the symbol of the unit is ua. Earths orbit around the Sun is an ellipse, the semi-major axis of this ellipse is defined to be half of the straight line segment that joins the aphelion and perihelion. The centre of the sun lies on this line segment. In addition, it mapped out exactly the largest straight-line distance that Earth traverses over the course of a year, knowing Earths shift and a stars shift enabled the stars distance to be calculated. But all measurements are subject to some degree of error or uncertainty, improvements in precision have always been a key to improving astronomical understanding. Improving measurements were continually checked and cross-checked by means of our understanding of the laws of celestial mechanics, the expected positions and distances of objects at an established time are calculated from these laws, and assembled into a collection of data called an ephemeris. NASAs Jet Propulsion Laboratory provides one of several ephemeris computation services, in 1976, in order to establish a yet more precise measure for the astronomical unit, the IAU formally adopted a new definition. Equivalently, by definition, one AU is the radius of an unperturbed circular Newtonian orbit about the sun of a particle having infinitesimal mass. As with all measurements, these rely on measuring the time taken for photons to be reflected from an object. However, for precision the calculations require adjustment for such as the motions of the probe. In addition, the measurement of the time itself must be translated to a scale that accounts for relativistic time dilation
10. Ken (unit) – The ken is a traditional Japanese unit of length, equal to six Japanese feet. The exact value has varied over time and location but has generally been a shorter than 2 meters. It is now standardized as 1 9/11 meter, in this context, it is commonly translated as bay. The length also appears in contexts, such as the standard length of the bō staff in Japanese martial arts. As these are used to cover the floors of most Japanese houses, floor surfaces are commonly measured not in square meters. Among English loanwords of Japanese origin, both ken and ma are derived from readings of the same character 間 and this kanji graphically combines 門 door and 日 sun. The earlier variant character 閒 was written with 月 moon rather than sun, unlike most Japanese units, the ken is not based on a Chinese original but is a local development. A buildings proportions were measured in ken, as for example in the case of Enryaku-jis Konponchū-dō, inside buildings, available space was often divided in squares measuring one ken across, and each square was then called a ma, term written with the same Chinese character as ken. Traditional buildings usually measure an odd number of bays, for example 3×3 or 5×5, a type of temples gate called rōmon can have dimensions going from 5×2 bays to the more common 3×2 bays down to even 1×1 bay. The Zen butsuden in the illustration measures 5×5 ken across externally because its 3×3 ken core is surrounded by a 1-ken aisle called hisashi, the value of a ken could change from building to building, but was usually kept constant within the same structure. Kasuga Taishas tiny hondens dimensions, for example, are 1×1 in ken, in the case of Izumo Taishas honden, a ken is 6.32 m, well above its standard value. The distance between pillars was standardized very early and started being used as a unit of measurement, land area in particular was measured using the ken as a basis. The unit was born out of the necessity to measure land surface to calculate taxes, at the time of Toyotomi Hideyoshi, the ken was about 1.97 m, but around 1650 the Tokugawa shogunate reduced it to 1.818 m specifically to increase taxes. After the Edo period, the ken started to be called kyōma, Japanese Art Net User System Dictionary of Japanese Architectural and Art Historical Terminology, articles Kasuga-zukuri, Ken and Kondō. Accessed on May 6,2009 Iwanami Kōjien Japanese dictionary, 6th Edition, DVD version
11. Hand (unit) – The hand is a non-SI unit of measurement of length standardized to 4 inches. It is used to measure the height of horses in some English-speaking countries, including Australia, Canada, the Republic of Ireland, the United Kingdom and it was originally based on the breadth of a human hand. The adoption of the inch in 1959 allowed for a standardized imperial form. It may be abbreviated to h or hh, thus,62 inches is fifteen and a half hands, or 15.2 hh. Hands may be abbreviated to h, or hh, the hh form is sometimes interpreted as standing for hands high. When spoken aloud, hands are stated by numbers,15.0 is fifteen hands,15.2 is alternately fifteen-two or fifteen hands, to convert inches to hands, the number in inches is divided by four, then the remainder is added after the radix point. A designation of 15.5 hands is not halfway between 15 and 16 hands, but rather reads 15 hands and five inches, an impossibility in a base 4 radix numbering system, where a hand is four inches. On surviving Ancient Egyptian cubit-rods, the royal cubit is divided into seven palms of four digits or fingers each, five digits are equal to a hand, with thumb, and six to a closed fist. The royal cubit measured approximately 525 mm, so the length of the ancient Egyptian hand was about 94 mm. The hand is a unit in the UK. is four-fingers breadth, being the fist clenched, whereby the height of a horse is measured. Today the hand is used to measure the height of horses, ponies and it is used in the U. S. and also in some other nations that use the metric system, such as Canada, Ireland and the UK. In other parts of the world, including continental Europe, and in FEI-regulated international competition, horses are measured in metric units, usually metres or centimetres. In South Africa, measurements may be given in both hands and centimetres, while in Australia, the equestrian regulations stipulate that both measurements are to be given, a horse is measured from the ground to the top of the highest non-variable point of the skeleton, the withers. For official measurement, the process of the fifth thoracic vertebra may be identified by palpation. Miniature horses, but not miniature ponies, are measured at the base of the last true hairs of the rather than at the withers. For international competition regulated by the Fédération Équestre Internationale and for USEF competition in the US, in the United Kingdom, official measurement of horses is overseen by the Joint Measurement Board. For JMB purposes, the shoes must be removed and the hooves correctly prepared for shoeing prior to measurement, anthropic units List of horse breeds List of unusual units of measurement Pony Span
12. Kilometre – The kilometre or kilometer is a unit of length in the metric system, equal to one thousand metres. K is occasionally used in some English-speaking countries as an alternative for the kilometre in colloquial writing. A slang term for the kilometre in the US military is klick, there are two common pronunciations for the word. It is generally preferred by the British Broadcasting Corporation and the Australian Broadcasting Corporation, many scientists and other users, particularly in countries where the metric system is not widely used, use the pronunciation with stress on the second syllable. The latter pronunciation follows the pattern used for the names of measuring instruments. The problem with this reasoning, however, is that the meter in those usages refers to a measuring device. The contrast is more obvious in countries using the British rather than American spelling of the word metre. When Australia introduced the system in 1975, the first pronunciation was declared official by the governments Metric Conversion Board. However, the Australian prime minister at the time, Gough Whitlam, by the 8 May 1790 decree, the Constituent assembly ordered the French Academy of Sciences to develop a new measurement system. In August 1793, the French National Convention decreed the metre as the length measurement system in the French Republic. The first name of the kilometre was Millaire, although the metre was formally defined in 1799, the myriametre was preferred to the kilometre for everyday use. The term myriamètre appeared a number of times in the text of Develeys book Physique dEmile, ou, Principes de la de la nature. French maps published in 1835 had scales showing myriametres and lieues de Poste, the Dutch, on the other hand, adopted the kilometre in 1817 but gave it the local name of the mijl. It was only in 1867 that the term became the only official unit of measure in the Netherlands to represent 1000 metres. In the US, the National Highway System Designation Act of 1995 prohibits the use of highway funds to convert existing signs or purchase new signs with metric units. Although the State DOTs had the option of using metric measurements or dual units, all of them abandoned metric measurements, the Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices since 2000 is published in both metric and American Customary Units. Some sporting disciplines feature 1000 m races in major events, but in other disciplines, even though records are catalogued