Category:Valleys of Tennessee
Pages in category "Valleys of Tennessee"
The following 20 pages are in this category, out of 20 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 20 pages are in this category, out of 20 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Cades Cove – Cades Cove is an isolated valley located in the Tennessee section of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park, USA. The valley was home to numerous settlers before the formation of the national park, the Cades Cove Historic District is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Geologically, Cades Cove is a type of known as a limestone window, created by erosion that removed the older Precambrian sandstone. The majority of the rocks make up Cades Cove are unaltered sedimentary rocks formed between 340 million and 570 million years ago during the Ordovician Period. The Precambrian rocks that comprise the high ridges surrounding the cove are Ocoee Supergroup sandstones, the fracturing and weathering of the limestone and sandstone in Cades Cove has led to the formation of several caves in the vicinity, the two largest of which are Gregorys Cave and Bull Cave. Bull Cave, at 924 feet, is the deepest cave in Tennessee, trilobite and brachiopod fossils have been found in Gregorys Cave. The entrance to Gregorys Cave is approximately 10 feet wide and 4 feet high, the cave consists primarily of one large passage that averages 20 to 55 feet wide and 15 feet high. This passage is 435 feet long and a passage to the right is developed about 300 feet from the entrance. This side passage ends after about 100 feet, in the vicinity of this side passage are talley marks on the wall, which were typically left by saltpeter miners. The dirt on this side of the cave has been excavated and removed, since this is a relatively small cave and the amount of dirt in the cave was not extensive, this would have been a small mining operation. Gregorys Cave is the cave in the national park that was ever developed as a commercial cave. The cave was opened to the public in July 1925, one of her sons was allowed to remain on the property until he harvested his crop in the fall of 1943, after which the property was completely owned by the National Park Service. Donald K. MacKay, a geologist with the National Park Service, at that time the admission price was 50 cents for adults and children were admitted free. During its history as a cave, Gregorys Cave had walkways, which were made of wood in some places. Wesley Herman Gregory, son of J. J. Gregory, during the Cold War, Gregorys Cave was designated as a fallout shelter, with an assigned capacity of 1,000 people. The cave was stocked with food, water, and other emergency supplies, Gregorys Cave is now securely gated and entrance is by permit only from the National Park Service. Entrance is generally restricted to scientific researchers, throughout the 18th century, the Cherokee used two main trails to cross the Smokies from North Carolina to Tennessee en route to the Overhill settlements. One was the Indian Gap Trail, which connected the Rutherford Indian Trace in the Balsam Mountains to the Great Indian Warpath in modern-day Sevier County, the other was a lower trail that crested at Ekaneetlee Gap, a col just east of Gregory Bald
2. Cumberland Gap – The Cumberland Gap is a narrow pass through the long ridge of the Cumberland Mountains, within the Appalachian Mountains, near the junction of the U. S. states of Kentucky, Virginia, and Tennessee. Long used by Native Americans, the Cumberland Gap was brought to the attention of settlers in 1750 by Thomas Walker, a Virginia physician and explorer. The path was explored by a team of frontiersmen led by Daniel Boone, making it accessible to pioneers who used it to journey into the frontiers of Kentucky. The Cumberland Gap is one of many passes in the Appalachian Mountains and it lies within Cumberland Gap National Historical Park and is located on the border of present-day Kentucky and Virginia, approximately 0.25 miles northeast of the tri-state marker with Tennessee. Scientists have dated this region to the Cambrian or Pennsylvanian period, the unique landscape seen today is a result of the uplift of sedimentary rock in conjunction with several million years of weathering and erosion. These features include narrow ridges, steep cliffs, overlooks, the Cumberland Gap is now known as a wind gap since water no longer flows through it. The V-shaped gap serves as a gateway to the west, the base of the gap is about 300 feet above the valley floor below even though the north side of the pass was lowered 20 feet during the construction of Old U. S. Route 25E. To the south the ridge rises 600 feet above the pass, because it is centrally located in the United States, the region around Cumberland Gap experiences all four seasons. The summers are sunny, warm and humid with average temperatures in the mid to upper 90s F. In the winter months, January through March, temperatures range in the 30s to 40s F and are mild with rain. The nearest cities are Middlesboro, Kentucky, and Harrogate, Tennessee, the gap was formed by the development of three major structural features, the Pine Mountain Thrust Sheet, the Middlesboro Syncline, and the Rocky Face Fault. Lateral compressive forces of sedimentary rocks from deep layers of the Earths crust pushing upward 320 to 200 million years ago created the thrust sheet, resistance on the fault from the opposing Cumberland Mountain to Pine Mountain caused the U-shaped structure of the Middlesboro Syncline. The once flat-lying sedimentary rocks were now deformed roughly 40 degrees northwest, further constriction to the northwest of Cumberland Mountain developed into a fault trending north-to-south called the Rocky Face Fault, which eventually cut through Cumberland Mountain. This combination of geological processes created ideal conditions for weathering. However, the discovery of the Middlesboro impact structure has proposed new details in the formation of Cumberland Gap, less than 300 million years ago a meteorite, approximately the size of a football field, struck the earth, creating the Middlesboro Crater. One of three astroblemes in the state, it is a 3. 7-mile diameter meteorite impact crater with the city of Middlesboro, Kentucky, detailed mapping by geologists in the 1960s led many to interpret the geological features of the area to be a site of an ancient impact. In 1966 Robert Dietz discovered shatter cones in sandstone, proving recent speculation. Shatter cones, a rock-shattering pattern naturally formed only during events, are found in abundance in the area
3. Grassy Cove – Grassy Cove is an enclosed valley in Cumberland County, Tennessee, United States. The valley is notable for its karst formations, which have designated a National Natural Landmark. Grassy Cove is also home to an unincorporated community. Grassy Cove is located atop the Cumberland Plateau, approximately 5 miles east of Crossville and 5 miles west of the plateaus Walden Ridge escarpment, the mountains that surround the cove are part of the southern fringe of the Cumberland Mountains. The cove is geologically related to the Sequatchie Valley, a narrow valley stretching just opposite the mountains to the south. Tennessee State Route 68 passes through the part of Grassy Cove. Grassy Cove is walled in by 2, 930-foot Brady Mountain to the west,2, 930-foot Bear Den Mountain on the east, Brady and Bear Den both converge in a V-shaped formation to enclose the cove to the south. Just beyond this convergence, Hinch Mountain— the highest point in Cumberland County— rises to 3,048 feet, the southern slopes of Hinch descend drastically to the Sequatchie Valley. The elevation of Grassy Cove is just over 1,500 feet, both the Sequatchie Valley and Grassy Cove were part of an anticline that formed as rock strata were bent upward by thrust faulting to form a large ridge during the Paleozoic era. During the Mesozoic era, continued erosion along this ridge exposed its younger, over subsequent millennia, the limestone dissolved, forming a series of sinkholes that eventually coalesced to create the Sequatchie Valley. Grassy Cove is one such sinkhole that has yet to coalesce with the rest of the Sequatchie Valley, Grassy Cove is drained entirely by underground streams. The valleys main stream, Grassy Cove Creek, flows northward across the cove before dropping into Mill Cave on the slopes of Brady Mountain. It then winds its way southward through a series of caves before reemerging in the Sequatchie Valley to the south, where it forms the headwaters of the Sequatchie River. Grassy Cove Saltpeter Cave, located on the slope of Brady Mountain, is the eleventh-longest cave in Tennessee. Other caves in the cove include Windlass Cave, Bristow Cave, Mill Cave, and Milksick Cave. Sinkhole dimensions, Area,13.3 km2 Perimeter,38.9 km Depth,42.7 m Volume,37,736,946 m3 Low,465.9 m High,508. Also, early 19th-century settlers reportedly found the cove bottom cleared, the first Euro-American settlers arrived in Grassy Cove in 1801. This early caravan consisted primarily of families from Fluvanna County, Virginia, in 1803, they completed a log church and formed the Grassy Cove United Methodist Church, one of the first congregations in the Cumberland Plateau region
4. Great Appalachian Valley – The Great Valley, also called the Great Appalachian Valley or Great Valley Region, is one of the major landform features of eastern North America. It is a gigantic trough—a chain of valley lowlands—and the central feature of the Appalachian Mountain system, the trough stretches about 1,200 miles from Quebec to Alabama and has been an important north-south route of travel since prehistoric times. Broadly defined, the Great Valley marks the edge of the Ridge. There are many names of the Great Valley, such as the Shenandoah Valley. From a large perspective the Great Valley can be divided into a northern section, a series of mountains bounds the northern half of the Great Valley on both sides. Some consider this gap the dividing point between the northern and southern sections of the Great Valley, to the west or continental side, a series of more impenetrable mountain regions border the northern Great Valley. The northernmost is the Adirondack Mountains, an extension of the Canadian Shield. This long ridge is broken by narrow and dramatic gaps, known as wind. In its southern section, the Great Valley is bounded to the east by the Blue Ridge Mountains, some describe the Coosa River Valley as the southernmost part of the Great Valley. These southern portions of the Great Valley are sometimes grouped into two parts, the Valley of Virginia and the Tennessee Valley, an important gap in these mountains occurs near Roanoke, Virginia. Other gaps of note in the Blue Ridge of Virginia, connecting the Piedmont region with the Great Valley, include Thornton Gap, Swift Run Gap, the Cumberland Gap connects the Great Valley region with Kentucky and Tennessee lands to the west. Massanutten Mountain lies in the middle of the Valley of Virginia portion of the Great Valley, the Valley of Virginia is a region of karst, with many sinkholes and caverns. Routes through the valley were first used by Native Americans, in pre-colonial and early colonial times a major Indian pathway through the Great Valley was known as the Great Indian Warpath, Seneca Trail, and various other names. For European colonists the Great Valley was a route for settlement and commerce in the United States along the Great Wagon Road. In the Shenandoah Valley the road was known as the Valley Pike, another branch at Roanoke, called the Carolina Road, led into the Piedmont regions of North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia. The various gaps connecting the Great Valley to lands to the east and west have played important roles in American history, on the east side, the wide gap in southeast Pennsylvania became the main route for colonization of the Great Valley. By the 1730s the Pennsylvanian Great Valley west of South Mountain was open to settlement after treaty cessions, the region drew a steady and growing stream of immigrants and became known as the best poor mans country. Before long immigrants had settled the Great Valley in Pennsylvania and were rapidly migrating and settling southwards into the Shenandoah Valley of Virginia
5. Sequatchie Valley – Sequatchie Valley is a relatively long and narrow valley in the U. S. state of Tennessee and, in some definitions, Alabama. The Sequatchie River drains the valley in Tennessee, flowing south to southwest from the part of Cumberland County. Geologically, the Sequatchie Valley continues south of the Tennessee River into central Alabama, the Tennessee River flows through the Alabama portion of the valley to the vicinity of Guntersville, Alabama. The valley continues south of Guntersville, where it is called Browns Valley, although this whole valley is geologically the same, the name Sequatchie is commonly used only for the Tennessee portion of the valley, through which the Sequatchie River flows. A distinctive feature of the Sequatchie Valley is its straightness, from its northern end to its geological southern end at Browns Valley, the valley is almost perfectly straight. It is over 150 miles long in the sense and about 65 miles long as the valley of the Sequatchie River. Its width is about 3–5 miles, the valley is bounded on either side by escarpments of the Cumberland Plateau. The portion of the plateau east of the valley is relatively narrow, to the west the plateau is simply called the Cumberland Plateau. In Bledsoe County, Tennessee a section of the west side escarpment is called Little Mountain, in Alabama the plateau to the east of the valley is called Sand Mountain, while that to the west is Gunters Mountain. At its northern end, the Sequatchie Valley is marked by a mountainous portion of the Cumberland Plateau known as the Crab Orchard Mountains. Between the main Crab Orchard Mountains and the Sequatchie Valley there is another valley, called Grassy Cove, Grassy Cove is a karst valley which, through underground erosion, should eventually become part of Sequatchie Valley. Another, smaller karst valley, Bat Town Cove, is forming northeast of Grassy Cove, the Tennessee section of Sequatchie Valley contains the towns of Pikeville, Dunlap, Whitwell, Jasper, and, on the Tennessee River, South Pittsburg. Towns in the Alabama portion of the valley include Bridgeport, Scottsboro, Guntersville. Dunlap Coke Ovens Thornbury, William D, regional Geomorphology of the United States. John Wiley & Sons, New York,1965, U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System, Sequatchie Valley, Sequatchie Valley U. S. Geological Survey Geographic Names Information System, Sequatchie Valley, Browns Valley
6. Tennessee Valley – The Tennessee Valley is the drainage basin of the Tennessee River and is largely within the U. S. state of Tennessee. It stretches from southwest Kentucky to north Georgia and from northeast Mississippi to the mountains of Virginia, the border of the valley is known as the Tennessee Valley Divide. The Tennessee Valley contributes greatly to the formation of Tennessees legally recognized Grand Divisions, Tennessee Valley is a generally accepted term for North Alabama, anchored by the city of Huntsville. The river then enters the Tennessee River Gorge as it winds its way around the corner of the Cumberland Plateau. After traversing North Alabama, the river veers northwestward, after forming the boundary between Alabama and Mississippi for a stretch of 10 miles, the river reenters Tennessee, where it creates the dividing line between Middle Tennessee and West Tennessee. It empties into the Ohio River in western Kentucky, where it divides the region known as the Jackson Purchase from the rest of Kentucky, geologically, the eastern portion of the Tennessee Valley consists of many small valleys and ridges within a great valley. The larger region is termed the Ridge and Valley Province and the valley is termed the Great Appalachian Valley. Chattanooga and its suburbs form the second most populous area in the valley. The Battle of Chattanooga was fought on nearby Lookout Mountain. e, the Electric Power Board, in the United States. Decatur, Alabama, known as The River City, dominated the landscape of north Alabama until the late 1950s. For most of the 20th century up to point, Decatur held the top position in terms of economic impact. Decatur also claims the nickname The Heart of the Valley because of its location near the center of the length of the Tennessee River. Also because most north/south shipping traffic is funneled through the town utilizing three river crossings that are main routes for rail and road traffic between Birmingham and Nashville. The city is also an important river port that uses intramodal facilities to switch shipping methods between trains, trucks, and barges. Elizabethton, Tennessee, is a city formerly known by the moniker The City of Power prior to the post World War II era of nuclear power production. It is located at the confluence of the Doe River and Watauga River downstream from the Watauga Reservoir, both are maintained by the Tennessee Valley Authority. Florence, Alabama, considered part of the Shoals with Muscle Shoals, Sheffield, Florence is the birthplace of W. C. Handy and is where the only Frank Lloyd Wright designed house in Alabama is located, Guntersville, Alabama, is a major city of northeast Alabama and has a major lake and river port, Lake Guntersville and the Port of Guntersville, respectively
7. The Sugarlands – The Sugarlands is a valley in the north-central Great Smoky Mountains, located in the Southeastern United States. Formerly home to a string of small Appalachian communities, the valley is now the location of the Great Smoky Mountains National Park headquarters, lying just south of Gatlinburg, the Sugarlands is one of the parks most popular access points. The Sugarlands area stretches roughly from Grapeyard Ridge and Roaring Fork in the east to the slopes of Sugarland Mountain to the west, Mount Le Conte rises 5,000 feet above the valley to the south and southeast. The West Fork of the Little Pigeon River, its high in the mountains, slices through the Sugarlands. When the first Euro-American settlers arrived in the early 19th century, syrup was made from the sap in these trees and used as a sweetener in the days before the availability of cane sugar. While these trees were cleared by the settlers, the sugar maple is still common throughout the park. The Sugarlands is underlain by a Precambrian sandstone of the Ocoee Supergroup and this rock, like other formations throughout the Appalachian region, was formed from ancient ocean sediments nearly one billion years ago. Early farmers, having to move rocks in order plant crops, stacked them up to make crude stone walls. In Cherokee lore, the Sugarlands was part of the known as Walasiyi. Walasiyi included Mount Le Conte and Bull Head, as well as the ridge extending into Sevier County, Tennessee, the first European settlers arrived in the area around 1800, settling in the vicinity of what would eventually become Gatlinburg. Richard Reagan and William Black Bill Ogle — children of early settlers — farmed land along Mill Creek in the eastern half of the Sugarlands. William Trentham would homestead in the Fighting Creek area, where the Sugarlands Visitor Center now stands, most of the inhabitants still living in the Sugarlands when the park was formed were descended from these early settlers. For much of the 19th Century, Sugarlanders lived in log cabins, the typical mountain cabin consisted of one room,16 ×20, constructed of notched logs and puncheon floors. A chimney — usually made of slate and clay — rose along one wall, a lone window was on the wall opposite the chimney. Around 1900, modern frame houses slowly started replacing the log cabins, a standard farm in the Sugarlands consisted of the cabin or house and a small vegetable garden, all of which was surrounded by a paling fence, and several outbuildings. A smokehouse and woodshed would likely be found near the kitchen, other likely outbuildings included barns, corn cribs, chicken coops, and toolsheds. There were at least five gristmills in the Sugarlands, the largest belonging to Caleb Trentham, the tubwheel-powered mill of Noah Bud Ogle still stands today at Cherokee Orchard. Like much of Southern Appalachia, the U. S. Civil War proved devastating for the Sugarlands, the mountain communities of East Tennessee were especially vulnerable, as they were easy targets for Confederate raiders from North Carolina
8. Thumping Dick Hollow – Thumping Dick Hollow, also known as Thumping Dick Cove, is a small cove in Franklin County, south Tennessee, within the domain of the University of the South and town of Sewanee. It is noted for its name, old growth forest. Thumping Dick Hollow is a cove with multiple sinkholes and caves including Solomons Temple. It is also noted for its old growth forest and it is one of the segments of the Sewanee Perimeter Trail. There are multiple traditions as to the origin of the unusual name, the hollow was referred to as early as 1858 before the University of the South was built. Another version of the states that the a hydro powered sump pump or sawmill made a thumping sound when in operation. Thumping Dick Hollow located off of the old Stagecoach route of the Breakfield Road in Sewanee, Tennessee and it is approximately 700 feet in elevation below Breakfield Road. From gate #7 on Breakfield Road, follow the path beyond the gate for.8 miles until it crosses a stream with a collapsed bridge, cross over the stream and follow a faint path to the left until the entrance to the Columned Entrance Cave is visible. The second cave, Solomons Temple, is further ahead around the cliff on the right, noted early 20th century New England author, drama critic, and Yale professor Walter Prichard Eaton wrote of the hollow. In his 1922 collection of essays Penguin, Persons, and Peppermints, Sewanee Day Hiking Maps Retrieved June 5,2016 Eaton, Walter P. Penguin, Persons, and Peppermints BOOKS FOR LIBRARIES PRESS,1922, Retrieved August 14,2013
9. Wear Cove – Wear Cove is a valley in southwestern Sevier County, Tennessee. It runs parallel to the Great Smoky Mountains National Park just to its south, like other park border regions, the history and economy of the valley are intertwined with that of the Smokies. The primary community is Wears Valley, Wear Cove is a type of valley known as a limestone window, created when erosion weathers through the older Precambrian sandstone and exposes the younger Paleozoic limestone beneath. The northern rim of the Smokies is dotted with limestone coves, limestone coves contain very fertile soil which lured early settlers. Wear Cove is hemmed in by Cove Mountain to the southeast, Roundtop to the southwest, Davis Mountain to the northwest, numerous hollows cut into the ridges throughout the cove, including Happy Hollow, Smith Hollow, and Little Cove. U. S. Route 321 is the main road, connecting Townsend in the west with Pigeon Forge in east. This section of 321 is known as Wears Valley Road, lyon Springs Road connects Wears Valley Road with Little River Road inside the national park, crossing the gap between Cove Mountain and Roundtop and emerging at the Metcalf Bottoms campground. Wear Cove is named after Samuel Wear, a Revolutionary War veteran who erected a fort near the entrance to the valley in what is now Pigeon Forge, the original name of the valley was Crowson Cove, after its first settler, Aaron Crowson. While no one is sure why its name changed, the valley was using its current name by 1900, Crowson arrived in Wear Cove from North Carolina in 1792 along with his friend, Peter Percefield. This was a period of elevated strife between the Cherokee and the fast-encroaching Euro-American settlers, Wears Fort was attacked in 1793, with Wear leading a punitive march against the Cherokee village of Tallassee shortly thereafter. In May 1794, Percefield was killed in a Cherokee attack, Crowson rode to Wears Fort to get help, but the Cherokee had fled by the time he returned. Several settlers marched onward to Great Tellico to the west, where they murdered four Cherokee while they slept, Percefield was buried on a hill in the eastern half of Wear Cove in what is now Crowson Cemetery. Later that year, Crowson received a grant for this plot of land. Another War of 1812 veteran, Peter Brickey, arrived in 1808, Brickey operated a large farm and distillery in the valley until his death in 1856. The log home he shortly after his arrival still stands in Smith Hollow and is listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Like many other farms in the cove, the Brickey farm was ravaged by the U. S. Civil War, isaac Trotter, who operated the iron forge at Pigeon Forge reported a Cherokee raid in Wear Cove in 1864. Earlier in the war, a Union army passed through the valley en route to dislodge the troops of Will Thomas who were entrenched in Gatlinburg, sometime after the war, Alfred Line established a farm at the base of Roundtop Mountain, near the southern half of Wear Cove. Line Spring, a mountain spring which flows down from the slopes of Roundtop