Category:Vice-Presidents of Egypt
Pages in category "Vice-Presidents of Egypt"
The following 17 pages are in this category, out of 17 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 17 pages are in this category, out of 17 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Vice-President of Egypt – The Vice-President of the Arab Republic of Egypt was a senior official within the Egyptian government. Five of the councils 11 members were Vice-Presidents of Egypt, according to article 139 of the 1971 Constitution, the President may appoint one or more Vice-Presidents define their jurisdiction and relieve them of their posts. The rules relating to the calling to account of the President of the Republic shall be applicable to the Vice-Presidents, the Constitution gave broad authority to the President to determine the number of Vice-Presidents, as well as their appointment, dismissal and duties of office. The 2012 Constitution does not include the position of Vice-President, with the adoption of the 2012 Constitution on 26 December 2012, the office of Vice-President was abolished. Mahmoud Mekki was the last person to hold the office before the adoption of the 2012 Constitution and he was sworn in on 14 July. On 14 August 2013, following a violent crackdown by security forces on supporters of deposed President Morsi, in more than 800 people were killed. Much like the 2012 Constitution, the 2014 Constitution does not include the position of Vice-President, with the adoption of the 2014 Constitution, the office of Vice-President was abolished again. Mohamed ElBaradei was the last person to hold the office until he resigned on 14 August 2013 and this list contains Vice-Presidents of United Arab Republic and Arab Republic of Egypt. El-Gawady, Mohamed, Cabinets during period of Revolution Hafez, Salah, Democracy Shock http, //nasser. bibalex. org/Days/DaysAll. aspx. CS=1&x=5
2. Abdel Hakim Amer – Mohamed Abdel Hakim Amer was an Egyptian general and political leader. Amer was born in Astal, Samallot, in the Al Minya Governorate on 11 December 1919, after finishing grade school, he attended the Cairo Military Academy and graduated in 1938. He was commissioned into the Egyptian Army in 1939, Amer served in the 1948 Arab–Israeli War, took part in the 1952 Revolution and commanded the Egyptian Army in the Suez Crisis, the North Yemen Civil War and the Six-Day War. Amer played a role in the military coup that overthrew King Farouk in 1952. The following year, Amer was made Egypts Chief-of-Staff, bypassing four military ranks, in 1956, Amer was appointed commander-in-chief of the joint military command established by Egypt and Syria. He also led Egyptian forces against both Israeli and allied British-French forces during the 1956 Suez war, after the fighting ended, Amer accused Nasser of provoking an unnecessary war and then blaming the military for the result. As Nassers representative in Syria, Amer was detained by rebels during the 1961 Syrian coup détat, in March 1964, Amer was made first vice-president to Nasser and deputy supreme commander, with the power to rule for 60 days if the president was incapacitated. Amers distinguished career came to an end after Egypts crushing defeat by Israel in the Six-Day War of June 1967. Many historians have stated that much the Egyptian militarys failures in the 1967 war can be laid at the feet of Amer, when Amer heard of the fall of Abu Ageila to Israel, he panicked and ordered all units in the Sinai to retreat. This order effectively meant the defeat of Egypt, shortly after the Six Day War ended, he was relieved of all his duties and forced into early retirement. In August that year, Amer, along with over 50 Egyptian military officers and he was kept under house arrest at his villa in Giza. After surviving and being taken home the day, he managed to evade his guards. Later, Cairo radio announced his burial in his village of Astal. Amer chose the option and received a full military burial. Anwar Al Sadat, who later became President of Egypt, expressed his opinion if he was in Amers position. In September 2012, Amers family filed a case to investigate his death and they claimed that he was murdered. Abdel Hakim Amer was awarded the title Hero of the Soviet Union on 13 May 1964, malaysia, Honorary Grand Commander of the Order of the Defender of the Realm
3. Abdel Latif Boghdadi (politician) – Abdel Latif Boghdadi or Abd el-Latif el-Baghdadi was an Egyptian politician, senior air force officer, and judge. An original member of the Free Officers Movement which overthrew the monarchy in Egypt in the 1952 Revolution, the French author Jean Lacouture called Boghdadi a robust manager who only lacked stature comparable to Nassers. Boghdadi was born in El Mansoura on 20 September 1917 and he is known to have excelled at Egypts military academy in 1938 and, later on, its air force academy. Boghdadi later became one of the ten members of the Free Officers Movement. During the 1952 revolution led by the Free Officers, Boghdadi commanded jet fighter units to circle around Cairo to prevent possible outside interference in the coup against King Farouk, Boghdadi also became a member of the Egyptian Revolutionary Command Council. In 1953, he was appointed inspector-general of the revolutions first political organization, when Naguib was removed from his post and arrested in late 1954, Nasser was still prime minister and transferred Boghdadi to municipal affairs minister. During this time, he was responsible for the construction of the Nile Corniche road in Cairo, for this reason Boghdadi was sometimes referred to sarcastically by his rivals as Abdel Rassif al-Boghdadi, rassif meaning pavement in Arabic. Nasser refused and put Boghdadi in charge of organizing Egyptian resistance along the canal, after the Suez War, he was appointed general administrator for reconstruction of the canal area and according to author Said Aburish, performed admirably. Boghdadi was elected as Speaker of the First National Assembly, Boghdadi accompanied Nasser on his trip to Damascus on 24 February 1958, after the unification of Syria and Egypt to form the United Arab Republic. His role in the new republic was, along with Amer, in this period in the early 1960s Boghdadi held the additional post of planning minister. In 1962, shortly after the UARs collapse, Nasser adopted a more Soviet -style economic system for Egypt to which Boghdadi disapproved and he was utterly opposed to the extensive socialist measures and the new system altogether. He declared his resignation, claiming Nassers behavior amounted to a loss of direction, Boghdadi also preferred closer relations with the United States, rather than the USSR. Boghdadi submitted his resignation again on 16 May 1964, after disagreeing with Nassers decision to send Egyptian troops to North Yemen to support Nassers partisans in the civil war and he referred to the war as Nassers Vietnam. Boghdadi also wanted a more circumspect policy of Egypt first, in response to his resignation, Nasser put Boghdadis brother Saad under house arrest and prevented his brother-in-law from traveling to the United Kingdom to complete his doctorate. Nasser also claimed Boghdadi was implicated in illegal Muslim Brotherhood activities, as a result of the fallout, Boghdadi withdrew from political life, although the rift between him and Nasser was reconciled before 1970. According to Nassers close associates, Nasser requested Boghdadi rejoin the government, due to Boghdadis previous resignation concerning the close relationship to the USSR, he asked Nasser at first hand the nature of the new Egypt-Soviet informal alliance. They both agreed that Boghdadi visit the USSR alone to ensure there were not any differences in perception of what the new relationship between the two countries meant, Boghdadi opposed Sadats peace treaty with Israel in 1978, as did all the other then-living former RCC members. On 8 September 1999 Boghdadi was hospitalized for complications from liver cancer and he was pronounced dead at the age of 81 the next day
4. Mohamed ElBaradei – Mohamed Mustafa ElBaradei is an Egyptian law scholar and diplomat who was the last Vice-President of Egypt serving on an interim basis from 14 July 2013 until his resignation on 14 August 2013. He was the Director General of the International Atomic Energy Agency and he and the IAEA were jointly awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 2005. ElBaradei was born and raised in Cairo, Egypt and he was one of five children of Mostafa ElBaradei, an attorney who headed the Egyptian Bar Association. ElBaradeis father was also a supporter of democratic rights in Egypt, supporting a free press, ElBaradei is married to Aida El-Kachef, an early-childhood teacher. They have two children, a daughter, Laila, who is a living in London, and a son, Mostafa. They also have two granddaughters, Maya and Nina, a native speaker of Arabic, ElBaradei is also fluent in English and French, and knows enough German to get by, at least in Vienna. His thesis was titled The right of passage through straits in time of peace, from 1974 to 1978, he was a special assistant to the foreign minister. In 1980, he became a fellow in charge of the International Law Program at the United Nations Institute for Training. From 1981 to 1987, he was also a professor of international law at the New York University School of Law. In 1984, ElBaradei became a staff member of the IAEA Secretariat, serving as the agencys legal adviser. ElBaradei is currently a member of both the International Law Association and the American Society of International Law, ElBaradei began to serve as Director General of the IAEA, which is based in Vienna, on 1 December 1997, succeeding Hans Blix of Sweden. He was re-elected for two more terms in 2001 and in 2005. His third and last term ended in November 2009, ElBaradeis tenure has been marked by high-profile, non-proliferation issues, which include the inspections in Iraq preceding the March 2003 invasion, and tensions over the nuclear program of Iran. When in office, ElBaradei launched a program to establish integrated safeguards combining the IAEA’s comprehensive safeguard agreements with the newly adopted Additional Protocol and we should work together to ensure that, by the year 2000, all states have concluded outstanding-safeguards agreements and also the Additional Protocol. ElBaradei repeated this call through his years as the Director General of the IAEA, in November 2009,93 countries had Additional Protocols in force. ElBaradei’s first term ended in November 2001, just two months after the terrorist attacks of 9/11 and these attacks made clear that more needed to be done to protect nuclear material and installations from theft or a terrorist attack. One of the issues during ElBaradei’s second term as the director general of the IAEA was the agency’s inspections in Iraq. ElBaradei disputed the U. S. rationale for the 2003 invasion of Iraq from the time of the 2002 Iraq disarmament crisis, ElBaradei told the UN Security Council in March 2003 that documents purporting to show that Iraq had tried to acquire uranium from Niger were not authentic
5. Kamal el-Din Hussein – Kamal El-Din Hussein was a member of the Egyptian Free Officers who overthrew King Farouk. Kamal El-Din Hussein was born in 1921 in Banha, Qalyubia and he was admitted to Military college in 1937. In 1938 he received the degree of military science from Military Academy. He served in the artillery unit in the Western Desert. He was later a member of the Free Officers and was appointed member of the Egyptian Revolutionary Command Council after the 1952 Revolution. During the presidency of Gamal Abdel Nasser he was appointed Minister of Social Affairs in 1954 and he led the National Guard to defend Ismailia during the Suez War. In 1964 he resigned from his post as Vice President and minister of local governments. His main reason was the Egyptian intervention in the Yemen War, during Anwar El-Sadats presidency he was elected in 1971 to the Peoples Assembly. After criticizing Sadats government, he was dismissed from the Peoples assembly in 1978, in 1983 he made a tour with Yasser Arafat through Arab countries to end hostilities between different Palestinian factions throughout the Arab world. Kamal El-Din Hussein was diagnosed with liver cancer and his funeral was attended by the then Egyptian president Hosni Mubarak
6. Hassan Ibrahim – Hassan Ibrahim was an Egyptian Air Force officer and one of the founders of the Free Officers movement. He was a graduate of the Air Force Academy in Egypt, in 1952, Ibrahim served as an Air Force group captain. He was one of the three judges, who tried the members of the Brotherhood after their attempted assassination attack against then president Gamal Abdel Nasser in 1954, the other three judges were Anwar Sadat and Abdel Latif Boghdadi. The same year he was among the officers who arrested Mohammed Naguib, Ibrahim was also appointed minister for presidential affairs in 1954. Two years later, in 1956, Ibrahim became the head of the Egyptian economy agency, after dealing with business for a while, in February 1964, he was appointed as one of seven vice presidents of Nasser. Ibrahim resigned from office in 1966 due to Nassers request to end his relationship with a woman, Ibrahim was among five military officers who formed the first cell of the Free Officers movement in July or September 1949. In addition, Ibrahim was one of the leadership group of the Free Officers movement. The movement led the 1952 Revolution, then Ibrahim became a member of the 14-member Revolution Command Council that was charged with the running of Egypt following the success of the revolution. Malaysia, Honorary Grand Commander of the Order of the Defender of the Realm
7. Nur al-Din Kahala – Nur al-Din Kahala was a Syrian politician during the United Arab Republic period. Prior to the UAR period, Kahala served as a government bureaucrat. He served alongside vice presidents Abdel Hakim Amer and Abdel Latif Boghdadi, on 20 September he was appointed the additional post of Planning Minister. He accompanied Nasser on a tour of Syrian cities in February
8. Zakaria Mohieddin – Zakaria Mohieddin was an Egyptian military officer, politician, Prime Minister of Egypt and head of the first Intelligence body in Egypt, the Egyptian General Intelligence Directorate. Mohieddin attended Military College in 1938 and was a Staff College Graduate in 1948 and he was the Professional Army Professor of Tactics in the Officers Military College from 1940 to 1943 and again from 1950 to 1951. He was also the Professor of Tactics in the Officers Staff College from 1951 to 1952, in 1967, Mohieddin was appointed by president Gamal Abdel Nasser to take over position of president after Nassers resignation, an appointment he refused. In 1968, he resigned all positions and quit public life. As of 2005, after the death of Hussein El-Shafei and until his own death in 2012, he, on 15 May 2012, Mohieddin died at the age of 93. Mohieddin had various assignments within the army and he served with the Egyptian army in Sudan. In 1948, he was the chief of staff of the first brigade which was besieged at Faluja. One of his achievements in 1948 was to go back to the besieged brigade. He was rewarded for his bravery at the end of the war with the Mehmet Ali golden award for valour, in 1952, he prepared strategy for army movement and was in charge of operation that led to success of the movement. 1952-1956 - Member of Egyptian Revolutionary Command Council, 1952-1955 - In charge of the first Intelligence body the Egyptian General Intelligence Directorate 1953-1958 - Minister of Interior. 1958-1961 - Central Minister of Interior for Egypt and Syria during U. A. R, 1961-1968 - Vice President of Egypt. 1965-1966 - Prime Minister and Minister of Interior and his funeral was held at the Aal Rashdan Mosque in Nasr City, which is associated with the Egyptian military. In addition to his family, several military and political figures attended the procession, including Sami Hafez Anan, Hussein Tantawi, Hamdeen Sabahi, Ahmed Shafiq, Amr Moussa and Kamal el-Ganzouri. Malaysia, Honorary Grand Commander of the Order of the Defender of the Realm The Six-Day War, A Retrospective
9. Hosni Mubarak – Muhammad Hosni El Sayed Mubarak is a former Egyptian military and political leader who served as the fourth President of Egypt from 1981 to 2011. Before he entered politics, Mubarak was an officer in the Egyptian Air Force. He served as its commander from 1972 to 1975 and rose to the rank of air marshal in 1973. Some time in the 1950s, he returned to the Air Force Academy as an instructor and he was appointed Vice-President of Egypt by President Anwar Sadat in 1975 and assumed the presidency on 14 October 1981, eight days after Sadats assassination. Mubaraks presidency lasted almost thirty years, making him Egypts longest-serving ruler since Muhammad Ali Pasha, who ruled the country from 1805 to 1848, Mubarak stepped down after 18 days of demonstrations during the Egyptian Revolution of 2011. On 11 February 2011, Vice President Omar Suleiman announced that Mubarak had resigned as president, on 13 April 2011, a prosecutor ordered Mubarak and both of his sons to be detained for 15 days of questioning about allegations of corruption and abuse of power. Mubarak was then ordered to trial on charges of negligence for failing to halt the killing of peaceful protesters during the revolution. These trials began on 3 August 2011, on 2 June 2012, an Egyptian court sentenced Mubarak to life imprisonment. After sentencing, he was reported to have suffered a series of health crises, on 13 January 2013, Egypts Court of Cassation overturned Mubaraks sentence and ordered a retrial. On retrial, Mubarak and his sons were convicted on 9 May 2015 of corruption, Mubarak is detained in a military hospital and his sons were freed 12 October 2015 by a Cairo court. He was acquitted on 2 March 2017 by Court of Cassation and he was released on 24 March 2017. Hosni Mubarak was born on 4 May 1928 in Kafr El-Meselha, Monufia Governorate, after leaving high school, he joined the Egyptian Military Academy where he received a bachelors degree in Military Sciences in 1949. Mubarak served as an Egyptian Air Force officer in various formations and units, some time in the 1950s, he returned to the Air Force Academy as an instructor, remaining there until early 1959. Mubarak undertook training on the Ilyushin Il-28 and Tupolev Tu-16 jet bombers, in 1964 he gained a place at the Frunze Military Academy in Moscow. On his return to Egypt, he served as a commander, then as a base commander. In November 1967, Mubarak became the Air Force Academys commander when he was credited with doubling the number of Air Force pilots, two years later, he became Chief of Staff for the Egyptian Air Force. In 1972, Mubarak became Commander of the Air Force and Egyptian Deputy Minister of Defense, on 6 October 1973, the Egyptian Air Force launched a surprise attack on Israeli soldiers on the east bank of the Suez Canal. Egyptian pilots hit 90% of their targets, making Mubarak a national hero, the next year he was promoted to Air Chief Marshal in recognition of service during the October War of 1973 against Israel
10. Ali Sabri – Ali Sabri was an Egyptian politician of Turkish origin. When Gamal Nasser died in 1970, Anwar Sadat was regarded as Nassers most likely successor, both Sadat and Sabri had heart attacks which they survived at Nassers funeral. Sabri was the vice-president and regarded as the no.2 figure in Sadats government, however shortly after Sadat came to power he was the most notable casualty of Sadats Corrective Revolution, and was imprisoned. Regarded as a diehard socialist, he was criticized for his upper-class background. His parents, Dewlet Shamsi and Abbas-Baligh Sabri were of Turco-Circassian descent, Ali Sabri was a grandson of nationalist Amin Shamsi Pasha a member of the General Assembly and Provincial Council who in 1881-82 was a principal financial backer of Ahmed Urabi Pasha. Following the failure of what historian term the Urabi Rebellion of 1882 and he resumed his seat at the General Assembly until his death. One of Ali Sabri’s paternal grand-uncles was Mohammed Faizi Pasha, a director-general of the Awqaf Department during the reign of Khedive Abbas Hilmi II, malaysia, Honorary Grand Commander of the Order of the Defender of the Realm
11. Anwar Sadat – Muhammad Anwar el-Sadat was the third President of Egypt, serving from 15 October 1970 until his assassination by fundamentalist army officers on 6 October 1981. His refusal to reconcile with them over the Palestinian issue resulted in Egypt being suspended from the Arab League from 1979 to 1989, the peace treaty was also one of the primary factors that led to his assassination. Anwar Sadat was born on 25 December 1918 in Mit Abu El Kom, Monufia, Egypt to a poor Nubian family, one of his brothers, Atef Sadat, later became a pilot and was killed in action during the October War of 1973. His father, Anwar Mohammed El Sadat was an Upper Egyptian, thus, they said his mother did not look Egyptian enough and some called him Nassers black poodle. He graduated from the Royal Military Academy in Cairo in 1938 and was appointed to the Signal Corps and he entered the army as a second lieutenant and was posted to Sudan. During the Second World War he was imprisoned by the British for his efforts to help from the Axis Powers in expelling the occupying British forces. Along with his fellow Free Officers, Sadat participated in the coup that launched the Egyptian Revolution of 1952. Sadat was assigned to announce the news of the revolution to the Egyptian people over the radio networks, during the presidency of Gamal Abdel Nasser, Sadat was appointed minister of State in 1954. He was also appointed editor of the newly founded daily Al Gomhuria, in 1959, he assumed the position of Secretary to the National Union. Sadat was the President of the National Assembly and then vice president and he was reappointed as vice president again in December 1969. Sadat succeeded Nasser as president after the death in October 1970. Sadats presidency was widely expected to be short-lived, viewing him as having been little more than a puppet of the former president, Nassers supporters in government settled on Sadat as someone they could manipulate easily. Sadat surprised everyone with a series of political moves by which he was able to retain the presidency. On 15 May 1971, Sadat announced his Corrective Revolution, purging the government, political, Sadat encouraged the emergence of an Islamist movement, which had been suppressed by Nasser. Believing Islamists to be socially conservative he gave them considerable cultural and ideological autonomy in exchange for political support and this peace initiative failed as neither Israel nor the United States of America accepted the terms as discussed then. The Egyptian and Syrian performance in the stages of the war astonished both Israel, and the Arab World. The most striking achievement was the Egyptian militarys advance approximately 15 km into the occupied Sinai Peninsula after penetrating and this line was popularly thought to have been an impregnable defensive chain. As the war progressed, three divisions of the Israeli army led by General Ariel Sharon had crossed the Suez Canal, although agreed upon, the ceasefire was immediately broken
12. Abdel Hamid al-Sarraj – Abdel Hamid Sarraj was a Syrian Army officer and political figure in the mid-20th century. Sarraj was born in Hama to a conservative Muslim family, of Kurdish descent and he joined the Homs Military Academy and was one of the first officers in the army after Syrias independence from France. Sarraj participated in the 1948 Arab-Israeli War, as a volunteer in the Arab Liberation Army and he led a detachment of six armored vehicles to surround Safad. He played a role in the 1949 coup that removed Husni al-Zaim from power, when Shishakli was ousted, Sarraj was temporarily sent to Paris as an assistant military attache. However, in March 1955, he was appointed head of the Syrian military intelligence, from this position, he was able to play a crucial role in preventing conspiracies against the government. Sarraj did not join any political parties, but cooperated with the ones in power, in September 1957, he helped negotiate the landing of 4,000 Egyptian troops in Latakia as part of defence pact made between the two countries. When the union between Egypt and Syria was declared, Sarraj, a supporter of Egyptian president Gamal Abdel Nasser, was handed a key position in the cabinet as Minister of Interior. His position was elevated when the Syrian gendarmerie, the patrol. Following the resignation of Baath party ministers from the UAR government, Sarraj was given the appointments of Minister of Social Affairs. On 20 September 1960, he was appointed President of the Syrian Executive Council, Sarraj, at age 35, became the most powerful Syrian official in the UAR. A British official visiting Damascus described him as the Viceroy of Syria, however, his use of police methods, which were seen as ruthless, and his considerable power made him unpopular in Syria. Nonetheless, he was known to be an impeccable Arab nationalist who could get things done, pressure was exerted on Nasser to remove Sarraj from power, but he refused, feeling that there was no one more fit to run Syria on his behalf. Eventually, in August 1961, Nasser decided to appoint him Vice President, relocating him to Cairo, the UARs state minister, Abdel Qadir Hatem, was sent to mediate between Sarraj and Amer, but failed and the former began mobilizing his forces on 19–20 September. Realizing an operation against Nasser was unlikely to succeed, he agreed to meet Nasser and Amer in Cairo, although Nasser condemned Sarraj for his ambition to be sole ruler of Syria, he replaced Amer as Minister of Syrian Affairs with Mahmoud Riad. Resuming his post as Syrias vice president, Sarraj also headed a committee for UAR administrative reform. However, he submitted a second resignation on 26 September and Nasser accepted it. On 28 September 1961, a coup by disaffected officers occurred in Syria, Sarraj was arrested and jailed in the Mezzeh Prison of Damascus. He escaped from the prison and left Syria for Beirut, Lebanon, in 1964 the Syrian Socialist Nationalist Party attempted to assassinate Sarraj, prompting his flight to Egypt where he made amends with Nasser
13. Hussein el-Shafei – Born in Tanta in 1918, el-Shafei graduated from the Egyptian Military Academy in 1938. El-Shafei was appointed minister of war in 1954 and served as Egypts minister of labor and he served as vice-president under Gamal Abdel Nasser in 1961. During his tenure as minister of social affairs, el-Shafei introduced social insurance reforms considered radical at the time and his Winter Charity campaign provided Egypts poor with basic necessities. Some Egyptian celebrities took part in the trains which delivered the goods. Anwar Sadat appointed el-Shafei as vice-president of Egypts new government in 1971, el-Shafei died on 18 November 2005. Mubarak was among the officials at el-Shafeis state funeral. Malaysia, Honorary Grand Commander of the Order of the Defender of the Realm 1952 Revolution
14. Omar Suleiman – Omar Mahmoud Suleiman was an Egyptian army general, politician, diplomat, and intelligence officer. A leading figure in Egypts intelligence system beginning in 1986, Suleiman was appointed to the long-vacant Vice Presidency by President Hosni Mubarak on 29 January 2011. On 11 February 2011, Suleiman announced Mubaraks resignation and ceased being Vice President, governing power was transferred to the Armed Forces Supreme Council, a new head of intelligence services was appointed by the ruling Supreme Council. Suleiman withdrew from the scene and did not appear in public after announcing Mubaraks resignation. Millions of Egyptian citizens involved in the Egyptian Revolution of 2011 opposed Suleiman or Mubarak remaining in power without elections taking place, Human rights groups tied Suleiman’s career to a regime marked by widespread human rights abuses, and asserted that many Egyptians see Suleiman as Mubarak II. In response to the 2011 protests, Suleiman blamed foreign influence, on 19 July 2012, it was announced that Suleiman had died at Cleveland Clinic at the age of 76. Suleiman was born in Qena in Upper Egypt, in 1954 at the age of 18, he moved to Cairo to enroll in Egypts prestigious Military Academy. He received additional training in the Soviet Union at Moscows Frunze Military Academy. He participated in both the Six-Day and October wars, in the mid-1980s, Suleiman earned additional degrees, including a bachelors degree from Ain Shams University and a masters degree from Cairo University, both in political science. A fluent English speaker, Suleiman was transferred to military intelligence, Suleiman became deputy head of military intelligence in 1986, and its director in 1991. In 1993, he became the chief of the Egyptian General Intelligence Service, in 1995, he was said to have insisted that President Mubarak ride in an armored car during a visit to Ethiopia. A would-be assassin fired on the vehicle, but Mubarak escaped without injury due to the added precautions and his name only became known in later years, breaking the tradition of keeping the name of the Egyptian head of Intelligence a secret known only to senior government officials. It was released in the media around 2000, in his role as Director of EGID, the British newspaper the Daily Telegraph called him one of the worlds most powerful spy chiefs. In 2009, Foreign Policy magazine ranked him as the Middle Easts most powerful intelligence chief, according to diplomatic cables leaked to Wikileaks, Suleiman pledged in 2007 to Yuval Diskin of the Israeli Security Agency to cleanse Sinai of Palestinian arms smugglers. Suleiman promised Israel in 2005 that he would prevent Hamas from gaining control over Gaza in the 2006 Palestinian elections, amos Gilad, head of the Israeli Defense Ministrys Diplomatic-Security Bureau, and Suleiman discussed their common fear of Hamas winning the Palestinian elections set for January 2006. Suleiman asserted to Gilad that there will be no elections in January, Suleiman did not elaborate as to how Egypt would stop the Palestinian elections from taking place. Suleiman was separately quoted as saying Gaza could go hungry, the U. S. Embassy in Tel Aviv wrote that Suleiman feared Hamas rule in Gaza would bolster the Muslim Brotherhood in Egypt. Suleiman was directly implicated in the controversial CIA rendition program, Suleiman was accused of complicity in the torture of Al-Qaeda suspects in Egypt, particularly the case of Ibn al-Shaykh al-Libi, who was captured and handed over to Suleiman