Category:War crimes in Lebanon
This category has only the following subcategory.
- ► Massacres of the Lebanese Civil War (13 P)
This category has only the following subcategory.
1. Battle of the Hotels – The Battle of the Hotels, also known as the “Hotel front”, was a subconflict within the 1975–77 phase of the Lebanese Civil War which occurred in the Minet-el-Hosn hotel district of downtown Beirut. This area was one of the first fronts of the war began in April 1975. The battle was fought for the possession of a hotel complex adjacent to the gilded Corniche seafront area on the Mediterranean. It quickly spread to areas of central Beirut. The often fierce battles that ensued were fought with heavy exchanges of rocket and artillery fire from the various hotel rooftops, situated between the Jounblatt and Minet el-Hosn quarters, the complex grouped a number of modern hotels, comprising the Holiday Inn, St. This district had been spared the effects of the ongoing conflict, during the battle, the Al-Mourabitoun reportedly committed some 200–300 fighters, even though other sources cite a higher number of 500. The majority of the buildings were defended by an even smaller number of fighters. On October 26, the fighting in Kantari between the Muslim-leftist Lebanese National Movement and Christian-rightist Lebanese Front militias spread to the Hotel district, the first hotel/restaurant to be burned down was the Austrian Myrtom House, located next to the Haigazian College in the Rue du Mexique. Customers, including three foreign diplomats, and staff were held hostage and then released, though two employees are still on the missing list. The Phalangists attempted – with little success – to silence and reduce the Murr Tower by directing small-arms fire at it from the Rizk Tower and Achrafieh. The situation deteriorated further on October 28, when an incident occurred on the steps of the Parliament House at Nejmeh Square in Christian-controlled territory. Two men were killed, one being a bodyguard of Phalange Leader Pierre Gemayel and he had been standing nearby at that moment, but was not harmed. Another ceasefire was arranged on October 31 to enable the evacuees to return to collect their belongings, a new ceasefire came into effect on November 3. Although another ceasefire was called on November 8, it began to break down ten days later as sporadic, there was, however, little activity in the Hotel district until the following month. Units of the Lebanese Army moved into the Parliament House and central post office areas, however, fighting continued on the Hotel district, as the Al-Mourabitoun, with assorted LNM allies and in conjunction with As-Saiqa, attacked the buildings occupied by the Christian militias. In this round of assaults Soviet-made RPG-7 anti-tank rocket launchers and vehicle-mounted 106mm recoilless rifles were employed in the fire support role for the first time in Lebanon. However, when the St Georges fell, the NLP Tigers simply withdrew from the seafront district, leaving the fighting to the Phalangists, pressured by the joint Army-Christian militias’ counter-offensive, Kulaylat called the PLO for help and received it. The Phoenicia and St Georges Hotels changed hands several times during the night, while the Christian militiamen repulsed the attacks on their own positions, the Gendarmes’ avoided confrontation and withdrew to the unfinished Beirut Hilton Hotel
2. Sabra and Shatila massacre – From approximately 18,00 on 16 September to 08,00 on 18 September 1982, a widespread massacre was carried out by the militia virtually under the eyes of their Israeli allies. The IDF received reports of some of the Phalanges atrocities in Sabra and Shatila, the massacre was presented as retaliation for the assassination of newly elected Lebanese president Bachir Gemayel, the leader of the Lebanese Kataeb Party. It was wrongly assumed that Palestinian militants had carried out the assassination, in June 1982, the Israel Defense Forces had invaded Lebanon with the intention of rooting out the PLO. By mid-1982, under the supervision of the Multinational Force, the PLO withdrew from Lebanon following weeks of battles in West Beirut and shortly before the massacre took place. The Israeli advance over West Beirut in the wake of the PLO withdrawal, the Israeli Army surrounded Sabra and Shatila and stationed troops at the exits of the area to prevent camp residents from leaving and, at the Phalangists request, fired illuminating flares at night. The killings are believed to have taken place under Hobeikas direct orders. Hobeika later became a long-serving Member of the Parliament of Lebanon, other Phalangist commanders involved were Joseph Edde from South Lebanon, Dib Anasta, head of the Phalangist Military Police, Michael Zouein, and Maroun Mischalani from East Beirut. In all 300–400 militiamen were involved, including some from Saad Haddads South Lebanon Army, the commission also concluded that the massacre was a form of genocide. The commission deemed Israel indirectly responsible, and Ariel Sharon, then Defense Minister, bore personal responsibility for ignoring the danger of bloodshed and revenge, from 1975 to 1990, groups in competing alliances with neighboring countries fought against each other in the Lebanese Civil War. Infighting and massacres between these groups claimed several thousand victims, the total death toll in Lebanon for the whole civil war period was around 150,000 victims. The PLO had been attacking Israel from southern Lebanon and Israel had been bombing PLO positions in southern Lebanon since the early 1970s till early 1980s. The casus belli cited by the Israeli side to declare war, however, was an attempt, on 3 June 1982. The attempt was the work of the Iraq-based Abu Nidal, possibly with Syrian or Iraqi involvement, the PLO also issued a condemnation of the attempted assassination of the Israeli ambassador. Nonetheless Israel used the event as a justification to break the ceasefire with the PLO, after the war, Israel presented its actions as a response to terrorism being carried out by the PLO from several fronts, including from the border with Lebanon. During that ceasefire, which lasted 8 months, UNIFIL — the UN peacekeeping forces in Lebanon — reported that not an act of provocation against Israel had been launched by the PLO. All such justifications, before the assassination of the ambassador, had been shot down by its ally. On 6 June 1982, Israel invaded Lebanon moving northwards to surround the capital, following an extended siege of the city, the fighting was brought to an end with a U. S. The subsequent Israeli inquiry estimated the strength of militias in West Beirut, excluding Palestinians and they estimated the Phalange to be 5,000 when fully mobilized of whom 2,000 were full-time