Category:Wars involving Costa Rica
This category has only the following subcategory.
- ► Costa Rican Civil War (1 C, 1 P)
This category has only the following subcategory.
1. World War I – World War I, also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. More than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, were mobilised in one of the largest wars in history and it was one of the deadliest conflicts in history, and paved the way for major political changes, including revolutions in many of the nations involved. The war drew in all the worlds great powers, assembled in two opposing alliances, the Allies versus the Central Powers of Germany and Austria-Hungary. These alliances were reorganised and expanded as more nations entered the war, Italy, Japan, the trigger for the war was the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, by Yugoslav nationalist Gavrilo Princip in Sarajevo on 28 June 1914. This set off a crisis when Austria-Hungary delivered an ultimatum to the Kingdom of Serbia. Within weeks, the powers were at war and the conflict soon spread around the world. On 25 July Russia began mobilisation and on 28 July, the Austro-Hungarians declared war on Serbia, Germany presented an ultimatum to Russia to demobilise, and when this was refused, declared war on Russia on 1 August. Germany then invaded neutral Belgium and Luxembourg before moving towards France, after the German march on Paris was halted, what became known as the Western Front settled into a battle of attrition, with a trench line that changed little until 1917. On the Eastern Front, the Russian army was successful against the Austro-Hungarians, in November 1914, the Ottoman Empire joined the Central Powers, opening fronts in the Caucasus, Mesopotamia and the Sinai. In 1915, Italy joined the Allies and Bulgaria joined the Central Powers, Romania joined the Allies in 1916, after a stunning German offensive along the Western Front in the spring of 1918, the Allies rallied and drove back the Germans in a series of successful offensives. By the end of the war or soon after, the German Empire, Russian Empire, Austro-Hungarian Empire, national borders were redrawn, with several independent nations restored or created, and Germanys colonies were parceled out among the victors. During the Paris Peace Conference of 1919, the Big Four imposed their terms in a series of treaties, the League of Nations was formed with the aim of preventing any repetition of such a conflict. This effort failed, and economic depression, renewed nationalism, weakened successor states, and feelings of humiliation eventually contributed to World War II. From the time of its start until the approach of World War II, at the time, it was also sometimes called the war to end war or the war to end all wars due to its then-unparalleled scale and devastation. In Canada, Macleans magazine in October 1914 wrote, Some wars name themselves, during the interwar period, the war was most often called the World War and the Great War in English-speaking countries. Will become the first world war in the sense of the word. These began in 1815, with the Holy Alliance between Prussia, Russia, and Austria, when Germany was united in 1871, Prussia became part of the new German nation. Soon after, in October 1873, German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck negotiated the League of the Three Emperors between the monarchs of Austria-Hungary, Russia and Germany
2. World War II – World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although related conflicts began earlier. It involved the vast majority of the worlds countries—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing alliances, the Allies and the Axis. It was the most widespread war in history, and directly involved more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. Marked by mass deaths of civilians, including the Holocaust and the bombing of industrial and population centres. These made World War II the deadliest conflict in human history, from late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, and formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Poland, Finland, Romania and the Baltic states. In December 1941, Japan attacked the United States and European colonies in the Pacific Ocean, and quickly conquered much of the Western Pacific. The Axis advance halted in 1942 when Japan lost the critical Battle of Midway, near Hawaii, in 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained all of its territorial losses and invaded Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in South Central China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy, thus ended the war in Asia, cementing the total victory of the Allies. World War II altered the political alignment and social structure of the world, the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The victorious great powers—the United States, the Soviet Union, China, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union and the United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the Cold War, which lasted for the next 46 years. Meanwhile, the influence of European great powers waned, while the decolonisation of Asia, most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic recovery. Political integration, especially in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities, the start of the war in Europe is generally held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland, Britain and France declared war on Germany two days later. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or even the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred simultaneously and this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935. The British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the forces of Mongolia and the Soviet Union from May to September 1939, the exact date of the wars end is also not universally agreed upon. It was generally accepted at the time that the war ended with the armistice of 14 August 1945, rather than the formal surrender of Japan
3. Dominican Civil War – The Dominican Civil War took place between April 24,1965, and September 3,1965, in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. It started when civilian and military supporters of constitutionally elected former President Juan Bosch overthrew acting President Donald Reid Cabral, allegations of foreign support for the rebels led to a US military intervention in the conflict, which later transformed into an Organization of American States occupation of the country. Elections were held in 1966, in the aftermath of which Joaquín Balaguer was elected into the presidential seat, later in the same year international troops departed from the country. On 19 November 1911, General Luis Tejera led a group of conspirators in an ambush on the carriage of Dominican President Ramón Cáceres. During the shootout, Cáceres was killed and Tejera wounded in the leg, in the ensuing power vacuum, General Alfredo Victoria, commander of the army, seized control and forced the Congress to elect his uncle, Eladio Victoria, as the new president. The general was widely suspected of bribing the Congress, and his uncle, the former president Horacio Vásquez soon returned from exile to lead his followers, the horacistas, in a popular uprising against the new government. The result was several years of political instability and civil war. U. S. mediation by the William Howard Taft and Woodrow Wilson administrations achieved only a short respite each time, a political deadlock in 1914 was broken after an ultimatum by Wilson telling Dominicans to choose a president or see the U. S. impose one. A provisional president was chosen, and later the same year relatively free elections put former president Juan Isidro Jimenes Pereyra back in power, to achieve a more broadly supported government, Jimenes named opposition individuals to his Cabinet. But this brought no peace and, with his former Secretary of War Desiderio Arias maneuvering to depose him and despite a U. S. offer of military aid against Arias, Wilson thus ordered the U. S. occupation of the Dominican Republic. Marines landed on May 16,1916, and had control of the two months later. The occupation regime kept most Dominican laws and institutions and largely pacified the general population, vigorous opposition to the occupation continued, nevertheless, and after World War I it increased in the U. S. as well. There, President Warren G. Harding, Wilsons successor, worked to put an end to the occupation, the U. S. governments rule ended in October 1922, and elections were held in March 1924. The victor was former president Horacio Vásquez Lajara, who had cooperated with the U. S and he was inaugurated on July 13, and the last U. S. forces left in September. Vásquez gave the six years of stable governance, in which political and civil rights were respected. A rebellion against President Horacio Vásquez broke out in February 1930 in Santiago, Rafael Trujillo secretly cut a deal with rebel leader Rafael Estrella Ureña, in return for Trujillo letting Estrella take power, Estrella would allow Trujillo to run for president in new elections. As the rebels marched toward Santo Domingo, Vásquez ordered Trujillo to suppress them, however, feigning neutrality, Trujillo kept his men in barracks, allowing Estrellas rebels to take the capital virtually unopposed. On March 3, Estrella was proclaimed acting president, with Trujillo confirmed as head of the police, as per their agreement, Trujillo became the presidential nominee of the newly formed Patriotic Coalition of Citizens, with Estrella as his running mate
4. Costa Rican Civil War – The Costa Rican Civil War was the bloodiest event in 20th-century Costa Rican history. It lasted for 44 days, during which approximately 2,000 people are believed to have died and this caused a rebel army under commander José Figueres to rise up against the government of President Teodoro Picado, the government was quickly defeated. The junta then stepped down and handed power to Ulate, Costa Rica has not experienced any significant political violence since. In the 1940s, the Costa Rican political scene came to be dominated by Rafael Ángel Calderón, as the violence grew, supporters of the opposition began to carry guns, and the police began to threaten the use of firearms rather than just beating demonstrators. Disgust with the violent reprisals against the opposition led to the Huelga de Brazos Caídos. José Figueres, a Costa Rican businessman, had forced into exile in Mexico on April 12,1942 as a consequence of a radio broadcast in which he strongly criticized the Calderón regime. Figueres had returned to Costa Rica after the election of Picado, before the elections of 1948, Figueres had already been planning for a war. Hoping to use Costa Rica as a base, the Legion planned to move against other authoritarian governments in Middle America, shots rang out, and Valverde fell dead on his doorstep. His hatred for Calderón, combined with his idealism, fueled his desire for war, on March 11, Figueres made the call that brought in the arms and military leaders Figueres needed for a successful campaign. Moras communist militias provided important armed support for the government, both during the years of Picados administration and during the Civil War itself. After their victory this alliance fell apart. The right-wing faction, led by the juntas Minister of Public Safety, Édgar Cardona, Figueres himself became closely identified with the social democrat faction, which later dominated his own National Liberation Party. The economically conservative groups under Ulate ended up allying themselves in the 1950s with Calderóns supporters to form a broad anti-PLN coalition. The National Liberation Army, as the army called itself, slowly worked their way up the Pan American Highway, capturing small but important cities. The official army, which was led by Picados brother, was unable to organize an effective resistance to Figueres National Liberation Army. Figueres also contended against the communist militias commanded by congressman Carlos Luis Fallas, Costa Rican President Picado, realizing that defeat was inevitable, sent notice to Figueres that he was willing to come to a compromise. Picados long-time political ally, Manuel Mora of the communist Popular Vanguard Party, had no intention of negotiating with Figueres, moras forces had sealed themselves up inside the capital of San José, and were determined not to capitulate as quickly as Picado. As the target of many of Figueres criticisms about Costa Rica, Mora, arévalos help proved to be indispensable