The Galatian War was a war between the Galatian Gauls and the Roman Republic supported by their allies Pergamum in 189 BC. The war was fought in Galatia in central Asia Minor, in present-day Turkey, the Romans had just defeated the Seleucids in the Roman-Syrian War and had forced them to thereby sue for peace. Gnaeus Manlius Vulso, the consul, excused the invasion by saying that it was in retaliation for the Galatians supplying troops to the Seleucids during the war, Vulso embarked on this campaign without the permission of the Roman Senate. Joined by Pergamum, the Romans marched inland and attacked the Galatians and they defeated the Galatians in a battle on Mount Olympus and followed up the victory by defeating a larger army near Ankara. These defeats forced the Galatians to sue for peace and the Romans returned to the coast of Asia Minor, when Manlius Vulso returned to Rome, he was charged with threatening the peace between the Seleucids and Rome. He was cleared and was granted a triumph by the Senate, in 191 BC, Antiochus the Great, the Emperor of the Seleucid Empire of Asia invaded Greece.
The Romans decided to intervene and they defeated the Seleucids at the Battle of Thermopylae, the defeat by Rome forced the Seleucids to retreat back to Asia Minor. The Romans followed them across the Aegean Sea and together with their allies, the Seleucids sued for peace and began settling it with Scipio Asiaticus. In spring, the new consul, Gnaeus Manlius Vulso arrived to control of the army from Scipio Asiaticus. He was sent to conclude the treaty that Scipio was arranging, however, he was not content with the task given to him and he started to plan a new war. He addressed the soldiers and congratulated them on their victory and proposed a new war, the pretext he used for the invasion was that the Galatians had supplied soldiers to the Seleucid army at the Battle of Magnesia. The principal reason for the invasion was Manlius desire to seize the wealth of the Galatians who had become rich from plundering their neighbours and this war was the first occasion that a Roman general had started a war without the permission of the senate or the people.
This was a precedent and this became an example for the future. Manlius started his war preparation by summoning the Pergamese to help, the King of Pergamum, Eumenes II was in Rome so his brother, Attalus who was the regent took command of the Pergamese army. He joined the Roman army a few with 1,000 infantry and 500 cavalry. The combined Roman-Pergamese army started their march from Ephesus and they advanced inland passing Magnesia on the Maeander and into the territory of Alabanda where they were met by 1,000 infantry and 300 cavalry led by Attalus brother. They marched to Antiochia where they were met by Antiochus son, as they marched inland through the upper Maeander valley and Pamphylia gathering levies from local princes and tyrants without much opposition. However, they advanced into the territory of Cibrya, ruled by the tyrant Moagetes, when the Roman envoys reached the city, the tyrant begged them not to ravage the territory because he was a Roman ally and promised to give them fifteen talents
The Cimbrian War was the first time since the Second Punic War that Italia and Rome itself had been seriously threatened. The timing of the war had an effect on the internal politics of Rome. The war contributed greatly to the career of Gaius Marius, whose consulships and political conflicts challenged many of the Roman republics political institutions. The Cimbrian threat, along with the Jugurthine War, inspired the landmark Marian reforms of the Roman legions, some of the surviving captives are reported to have been among the rebelling Gladiators in the Third Servile War. For reasons unknown, sometime around 120–115 BC, the Cimbri left their lands around the Baltic sea in the Jutland peninsula. They journeyed to the southeast and were joined by their neighbors. Together they defeated the Scordisci, along with the Boii, many of whom apparently joined them, in 113 BC they arrived on the Danube, in Noricum, home to the Roman-allied Taurisci. Unable to hold back these new, powerful invaders on their own, the Cimbri initially set about complying peacefully with Romes demands, but soon discovered that Carbo had laid an ambush against them.
Infuriated by this treachery, they attacked and, at the Battle of Noreia, annihilated Carbos army, Italy was now open to invasion, yet for some reason, the Cimbri and their allies moved west over the Alps and into Gaul. In 109 BC, they invaded the Roman province of Gallia Narbonensis and that same year, they defeated another Roman army at the Battle of Burdigala and killed its commander, the consul Lucius Cassius Longinus Ravalla. In 107 BC, the Romans were defeated again, this time by the Tigurini, the force consisted of over 80,000 men, along with tens of thousands of support personnel and camp followers in two armies, one led by each consul. The overconfident Caepio foolishly attacked without support from Maximus, his legions were wiped out, the now isolated and demoralized troops of Maximus were easily defeated. Thousands more were slain trying desperately to rally and defend his poorly positioned camp, only Caepio, and a few hundred Romans escaped with their lives across the carnage-choked river.
The Battle of Arausio was the costliest defeat Rome had suffered since Cannae and, in fact, for the Cimbri and Teutones it was a great triumph. Instead of immediately gathering their allies and marching on Rome, the Cimbri proceeded to Hispania, why they again failed to invade Italy remains a mystery. They were not destitute of cavalry, but the Romans were superior to them in that arm, following the devastation of the Arausio, fear shook the Roman Republic to its foundations. The terror cimbricus became a watchword, as Rome expected the Cimbri at its gates at any time, in this atmosphere of panic and desperation, an emergency was declared. The constitution was ignored and Gaius Marius, the victor over Jugurtha of Numidia was elected consul for an unprecedented, and arguably illegal, five years in a row, starting in 104 BC
Third Servile War
The concentrated military effort of a single commander, Marcus Licinius Crassus, finally crushed the rebellion, though the war continued to have indirect effects on Roman politics for years to come. The Third Servile War had significance in the history of ancient Rome in its effect on the careers of Pompey. Their actions as Consuls greatly furthered the subversion of Roman political institutions, to varying degrees throughout Roman history, the existence of a pool of inexpensive labor in the form of slaves was an important factor in the economy. Slaves were acquired for the Roman workforce through a variety of means, including purchase from foreign merchants and the enslavement of foreign populations through military conquest. While there was limited use for slaves as servants, for the most part, slaves were treated harshly and oppressively during the Roman republican period. Under Republican law, a slave was not considered a person, owners could abuse, injure or even kill their own slaves without legal consequence.
While there were many grades and types of slaves, the lowest—and most numerous—grades who worked in the fields and this high concentration and oppressive treatment of the slave population led to rebellions. While these were considered serious civil disturbances by the Roman Senate, taking years and direct intervention to quell. The Roman heartland had never seen a slave uprising, nor had ever been seen as a potential threat to the city of Rome. This would all change with the Third Servile War, in the Roman Republic of the 1st century, gladiatorial games were one of the more popular forms of entertainment. In order to supply gladiators for the contests, several training schools, in these schools, prisoners of war and condemned criminals—who were considered slaves—were taught the skills required to fight in gladiatorial games. In 73 BC, a group of some 200 gladiators in the Capuan school owned by Lentulus Batiatus plotted an escape. When their plot was betrayed, a force of about 70 men seized kitchen implements, fought their way free from the school, and seized several wagons of gladiatorial weapons and armor.
These escaped slaves were able to defeat a force of troops sent after them from Capua. They initially viewed the revolt as more a major crime wave than an armed rebellion, that year, Rome dispatched a military force under praetorian authority to put down the rebellion. Glabers forces besieged the slaves on Mount Vesuvius, blocking the only way down the mountain. With the slaves thus contained, Glaber was content to wait until starvation forced the slaves to surrender and they moved around the base of Vesuvius, outflanked the army, and annihilated Glabers men. A second expedition, under the praetor Publius Varinius, was dispatched against Spartacus
The Gallic Wars were a series of military campaigns waged by the Roman proconsul Julius Caesar against several Gallic tribes. The wars paved the way for Julius Caesar to become the ruler of the Roman Republic. Still, Gaul was of significant military importance to the Romans, conquering Gaul allowed Rome to secure the natural border of the river Rhine. The Gallic Wars are described by Julius Caesar in his book Commentarii de Bello Gallico, as a result of the financial burdens of his consulship in 59 BC, Caesar incurred significant debt. When the Governor of Transalpine Gaul, Metellus Celer, died unexpectedly, Caesars governorships were extended to a five-year period, a new idea at the time. Caesar had initially four veteran legions under his command, Legio VII, Legio VIII, Legio IX Hispana. As he had been Governor of Hispania Ulterior in 61 BC and had campaigned successfully with them against the Lusitanians, Caesar had the legal authority to levy additional legions and auxiliary units as he saw fit.
His ambition was to conquer and plunder some territories to get out of debt. It is more likely that he was planning a campaign against the Kingdom of Dacia, the countries of Gaul were civilized and wealthy. Most had contact with Roman merchants and some, particularly those that were governed by such as the Aedui. The Romans respected and feared the Gallic tribes, only fifty years before, in 109 BC, Italy had been invaded from the north and saved only after several bloody and costly battles by Gaius Marius. Around 62 BC, when a Roman client state, the Arverni, conspired with the Sequani and the Suebi nations east of the Rhine, to attack the Aedui, the Sequani and Arverni sought Ariovistus’ aid and defeated the Aedui in 63 BC at the Battle of Magetobriga. The Sequani rewarded Ariovistus with land following his victory, Ariovistus settled the land with 120,000 of his people. When 24,000 Harudes joined his cause, Ariovistus demanded that the Sequani give him land to accommodate the Harudes people.
This demand concerned Rome because if the Sequani conceded, Ariovistus would be in a position to all of the Sequani land. They did not appear to be concerned about a conflict between non-client and allied states, by the end of the campaign, the non-client Suebi under the leadership of the belligerent Ariovistus, stood triumphant over both the Aedui and their coconspirators. Fearing another mass migration akin to the devastating Cimbrian War, the Helvetii was a confederation of about five related Gallic tribes that lived on the Swiss plateau, hemmed in by the mountains, and the Rhine and Rhone rivers. They began to come under increased pressure from German tribes to the north, by 58 BC, the Helvetii were well on their way in the planning and provisioning for a mass migration under the leadership of Orgetorix