The Colt Model 1900 was a short-recoil operated self-loading, or semi-automatic.38 caliber handgun introduced by Colts Manufacturing Company at the turn of the 20th century. It marked the introduction of.38 ACP, the round for which it is chambered and it was developed from John M. Brownings earlier prototypes in the late 1890s. The United States military tested the design against other semiautomatic pistols by European makers, the M1900 and variants were offered commercially. Variants included the Model 1902 Sporting, Model 1902 Military, Model 1903 Pocket, and the Model 1905, the designs of 1909 and did away with the front barrel link, replaced with a simple bushing, and would become the related, and famed, M1911 pistol. In the Browning design, the slide fitted into rails in the frame, the barrel rode in locking grooves machined into the interior of the slide, but attached to swinging links secured to the frame, one at the front and one at the rear. When the slide is forward, the length of the holds the barrel up.
The barrel stops moving, while the slide continues rearwards and ejecting the fired case and returns forward. The barrel is caught, and moved forward with the slide, the M1911, and most other pistols since, found that it was only necessary to use a single rear link and locking grooves in the rear. This approach was found to work well, and saved in complexity, cost of manufacture. The new design featured a new cartridge, the.38 Automatic Colt Pistol. This was a larger caliber bullet than used by other contemporary designs, the.38 ACP was a much faster cartridge than the.38 Long Colt revolver cartridge in service at the time, which fired a 130 grain bullet at 770 ft/s. Colt was experimenting with a.41 caliber cartridge for use in the Model 1900, like the.41 Long Colt, this probably used a.400 inch bullet. The prototype.41 caliber Colt automatic cartridge was never produced in production quantity, Colt did produce a few Model 1903.41 cal. pistols, conversions of Model 1902 Military Models, for the cartridge before the development of the cartridge ended.
When pushed down the safety blocked the firing pin, when pushed up it performed as the rear sight and this gave an immediate visual indicator of whether the safety was on or off when one went to aim the pistol, without resorting to feeling for the safety lever. The first 1900s were equipped with rear milled slide grooves but when it was found that this could interfere with the safety the milled slide grooves were moved to the front. This safety was used in about the first 3,000 production pistols, Colt installed a conventional rear sight and eliminated the sight safety although the cut in the slide remained but was plugged. The grooves, remained in the front of the slide, there are earlier sight safety M1900s that were factory retrofitted with the new fixed sight. Although Colt considered a new firing pin safety mounted on the side of the slide with one prototype
The Pistole Parabellum 1908—or Parabellum-Pistole —is a toggle-locked recoil-operated semi-automatic pistol. The design was patented by Georg J, the first Parabellum pistol was adopted by the Swiss army in May 1900. In German Army service, it was succeeded and partly replaced by the Walther P38 in caliber 9×19mm Parabellum, the Luger is well known from its use by Germans during World War I and World War II, along with the interwar Weimar Republic and the postwar East German Volkspolizei. Although the P.08 was introduced in 7. 65mm Parabellum, because of its association with Nazi Germany, the pistol has been used in fictional works by many villainous characters over the past several decades. After a round is fired, the barrel and toggle assembly travel rearward due to recoil, after moving roughly 13 mm rearward, the toggle strikes a cam built into the frame, causing the knee joint to hinge and the toggle and breech assembly to unlock. At this point the barrel impacts the frame and stops its rearward movement, the toggle and breech assembly subsequently travel forward under spring tension and the next round from the magazine is loaded into the chamber.
The entire sequence occurs in a fraction of a second and this results in either the breech block not clearing the top cartridge of the magazine, or becoming jammed open on the cartridges base. In World War I, as guns were found to be effective in trench warfare. The Luger pistol was manufactured to exacting standards and had a service life. Bill Ruger praised the Lugers 145° grip angle and duplicated it in his.22 LR pistol, the Swiss Army evaluated the Luger pistol in 7. 65×21 mm Parabellum and adopted it in 1900 as its standard side arm, designated Pistole 1900, in 1901. This model uses a 120 mm barrel, the Luger pistol was accepted by the Imperial German Navy in 1904. The Navy model had a 150 mm barrel and a rear sight. This version is known as Pistole 04, in 1908, the German Army adopted the Luger to replace the Reichsrevolver in front-line service. The Pistole 08 had a 100 mm barrel and was chambered in 9×19mm Parabellum, the P.08 was the usual side arm for German Army personnel in both world wars, though it was being replaced by the Walther P38 starting in 1938.
In 1930, Mauser took over manufacture of the P.08. 65×53mm, only the first batch wore crests and the Legend Ejercito Boliviano stamped in the receiver. The Lange Pistole 08 or Artillery Luger was a carbine for use by German Army artillerymen as a sort of early Personal Defense Weapon. It had a 200 mm barrel, an 8-position tangent rear sight, when set for long range use the rear sight element visibly moves to the left to compensate for spin drift. It was sometimes used with a 32-round drum magazine, early issue LP08s had micrometer adjustable front and rear sights which required a 2-pin tool for adjustment
The.38 ACP known as the.38 Auto was introduced at the turn of the 20th century for the John Browning-designed Colt M1900. It was first used in Colts Model 1897 prototype, which he did not produce, the metric designation for the round is 9×23mmSR. Initial loadings of this cartridge were quite powerful, reported ballistics for the first commercial loads were a 130-grain bullet at 1,260 ft/s, and some experimental loads ran as high as 1,350 ft/s. However, these proved too violent for the Colt Model 1900 pistol. Subsequent commercial loadings varied considerably in power, U. S. commercial loads in this caliber had factory standard ballistics of a 130-grain bullet at 1,040 ft/s from the 4. 5-inch barrel of the Colt 1903 Pocket Model. With Army Ordnance favoring a return to a.45 caliber sidearm by the time the Colt autos in.38 ACP were introduced, the caliber never gained much popularity. However, they did see small but steady sales up until the introduction of the more powerful.38 Super, sales of.38 ACP was semi-rimmed and slightly shorter than the rimless 9 mm Largo.
Some Astra 400 pistols were stamped 9M/M&38 on the barrel, denoting that the barrel was designed to chamber both 9mm Largo and.38 ACP. Europe would eventually favor the 9×19mm Parabellum cartridge, the Luger was ballistically similar to the.38 ACP but utilized a smaller case and higher pressures. Browning himself was not done with 9mm cartridges and would introduce the 9mm Browning Long in 1903. Even though.38 ACP and.38 Super are the size, it is dangerous to use the more powerful.38 Super ammunition in a firearm intended for.38 ACP. In the interest of safety, American ammunition companies always loaded.38 ACP loads in brass cases, while.38 Super ammunition was loaded in nickeled cases