Angola /æŋˈɡoʊlə/, officially the Republic of Angola, is a country in Southern Africa. It is the seventh-largest country in Africa and is bordered by Namibia to the south, the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the north, Zambia to the east, and the Atlantic Ocean to west. The exclave province of Cabinda has borders with the Republic of the Congo, the capital and largest city of Angola is Luanda. In the 19th century, European settlers slowly and hesitantly began to themselves in the interior. As a Portuguese colony, Angola did not encompass its present borders until the early 20th century, following resistance by groups such as the Cuamato, the Kwanyama and the Mbunda. Independence was achieved in 1975 under a communist one-party state backed by the Soviet Union, the country soon descended into an even lengthier civil war that lasted until 2002. It has since become a relatively stable presidential republic. Angola has vast mineral and petroleum reserves, and its economy is among the fastest growing in the world, Angolas economic growth is highly uneven, with the majority of the nations wealth concentrated in a disproportionately small sector of the population.
Angola is a state of the United Nations, OPEC, African Union, the Community of Portuguese Language Countries, the Latin Union. A highly multiethnic country, Angolas 25.8 million people span various tribal groups, Angolan culture reflects centuries of Portuguese rule, namely in the predominance of the Portuguese language and the Catholic Church, combined with diverse indigenous influences. The name Angola comes from the Portuguese colonial name Reino de Angola, the toponym was derived by the Portuguese from the title ngola held by the kings of Ndongo. Ndongo was a kingdom in the highlands, between the Kwanza and Lukala Rivers, nominally tributary to the king of Kongo but which was seeking greater independence during the 16th century, modern Angola was populated predominantly by nomadic Khoi and San prior to the first Bantu migrations. The Khoi and San peoples were neither pastoralists nor cultivators, following a hunter-gatherer lifestyle and they were displaced by Bantu peoples arriving from the north, some of whom likely originated in northwestern Nigeria.
Bantu speakers introduced the cultivation of bananas and taro, as well as large herds, to Angolas central highlands. During this time, the Bantu established a number of entities in most of what today comprises Angola. To its south lay the Kingdom of Ndongo, from which the area of the Portuguese colony was known as Dongo. The region now known as Angola was reached by the Portuguese explorer Diogo Cão in 1484, the year before, the Portuguese had established relations with the Kongo, which stretched at the time from modern Gabon in the north to the Kwanza River in the south. The Portuguese established their primary trading post at Soyo, which is now the northernmost city in Angola apart from the Cabinda exclave
Animism is the worlds oldest religion. Animism teaches that objects and creatures all possess distinctive spiritual qualities, animism perceives all things—animals, rocks, weather systems, human handiwork, and perhaps even words—as animate and alive. Animism is the oldest known type of system in the world that even predates paganism. It is still practiced in a variety of forms in traditional societies. Although each culture has its own different mythologies and rituals, animism is said to describe the most common, foundational thread of indigenous peoples spiritual or supernatural perspectives. The currently accepted definition of animism was only developed in the late 19th century by Sir Edward Tylor, Animism may further attribute souls to abstract concepts such as words, true names, or metaphors in mythology. Some members of the world consider themselves animists. Earlier anthropological perspectives – since termed the old animism – were concerned with knowledge surrounding what is alive, the old animism assumed that animists were individuals who were unable to understand the difference between persons and things.
Critics of the old animism have accused it of preserving colonialist and dualist worldviews, according to Tylor, animism often includes an idea of pervading life and will in nature, i. e. a belief that natural objects other than humans have souls. This formulation was little different from that proposed by Auguste Comte as fetishism, for Tylor, animism was fundamentally seen as a mistake, a basic error from which all religion grew. The earliest known usage in English appeared in 1819, Tylors definition of animism was a part of a growing international debate on the nature of primitive society by lawyers and philologists. The debate defined the field of research of a new science – anthropology and their religion was animism – the belief that natural species and objects had souls. With the development of property, these descent groups were displaced by the emergence of the territorial state. These rituals and beliefs eventually evolved over time into the vast array of developed religions, in 1869, the Edinburgh lawyer, John Ferguson McLellan, argued that the animistic thinking evident in fetishism gave rise to a religion he named Totemism.
Primitive people believed, he argued, that they were descended of the species as their totemic animal. Subsequent debate by the armchair anthropologists remained focused on totemism rather than animism, anthropologists have commonly avoided the issue of Animism and even the term itself rather than revisit this prevalent notion in light of their new and rich ethnographies. Certain indigenous religious groups such as the Australian Aboriginals are more typically totemic, stewart Guthrie saw animism – or attribution as he preferred it – as an evolutionary strategy to aid survival. He argued that humans and other animal species view inanimate objects as potentially alive as a means of being constantly on guard against potential threats
Anise, called aniseed, is a flowering plant in the family Apiaceae native to the eastern Mediterranean region and Southwest Asia. Its flavor has similarities with other spices, such as star anise, fennel. Anise is an annual plant growing to 3 ft or more tall. The leaves at the base of the plant are simple, 3⁄8–2 in long and shallowly lobed, while leaves higher on the stems are feathery pinnate, the flowers are white, approximately 1⁄8 inch in diameter, produced in dense umbels. The fruit is an oblong dry schizocarp, 1⁄8–1⁄4 in long, Anise is a food plant for the larvae of some Lepidoptera species, including the lime-speck pug and wormwood pug. Anise was first cultivated in Egypt and the Middle East, but was brought to Europe for its medicinal value, Anise plants grow best in light, well-drained soil. The seeds should be planted as soon as the ground warms up in spring, because the plants have a taproot, they do not transplant well after being established, so they should be started either in their final location or transplanted while the seedlings are still small.
Western cuisines have long used anise to flavor dishes, the word is used for both the species of herb and its licorice-like flavor. Star anise is considerably expensive to produce, and has gradually displaced P. anisum in Western markets. While formerly produced in quantities, by 1999 world production of the essential oil of anise was only 8 tons. As with all spices, the composition of anise varies considerably with origin and these are typical values for the main constituents. The yield of oil is influenced by the growing conditions and extraction process. Regardless of the method of isolation the main component of the oil is anethole, with minor components including 4-anisaldehyde and pseudoisoeugenyl-2-methylbutyrates, Anise is sweet and very aromatic, distinguished by its characteristic flavor. It is a key ingredient in Mexican atole de anís and champurrado, which is similar to hot chocolate, the Ancient Romans often served spiced cakes with aniseed called mustaceoe at the end of feasts as a digestive.
This tradition of serving cake at the end of festivities is the basis for the tradition of serving cake at weddings and these liquors are clear, but on addition of water become cloudy, a phenomenon known as the ouzo effect. It is believed to be one of the ingredients in the French liqueur Chartreuse. It is used in some beers, such as Virgils in the United States. Anise has thought a treatment for menstrual cramps and colic
They grow to 1–3 m tall, with large bipinnate leaves and large compound umbels of white or greenish-white flowers. Some species can be found in purple moor and rush pastures, Angelica species grow to 1–3 m tall, with large bipinnate leaves and large compound umbels of white or greenish-white flowers. Their large, starburst flowers are pollinated by a variety of insects, the floral scents are species-specific. The active ingredients of angelica are found in the roots and rhizomes, the most notable of these is garden angelica, which is commonly known simply as angelica. Natives of Lapland use the roots as food and the stalks as medicine. Crystallized strips of young stems and midribs are green in colour and are sold as decorative and flavoursome cake decoration material. The roots and seeds are used to flavor gin. Its presence accounts for the flavor of many liqueurs, such as Chartreuse. Among the Sami people of Lapland, the plant is used to make a musical instrument the fadno. Seacoast angelica has been eaten as a version of celery.
In parts of Japan, especially the Izu Islands, the shoots and leaves of ashitaba are eaten as tempura, a. sylvestris and some other species are eaten by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species, including bordered pug, grey pug, lime-speck pug and the V-pug. A. dawsonii was used by several first nations in North America for ritual purposes, a. atropurpurea is found in North America from Newfoundland west to Wisconsin and south to Maryland, and was smoked by Missouri tribes for colds and respiratory ailments. This species is similar in appearance to the poisonous water hemlock. The boiled roots of angelica were applied internally and externally to wounds by the Aleut people in Alaska to speed healing, the herb, known by the Chinese name, Bai Zhi, and Latin name, Radix Angelicae Dahurica, is used medicinally in traditional Chinese medicine. Plants Profile Angelica L. Plants Database, how to Take Care of Ashitaba Plant Angelica
An angel, especially according to Abrahamic religions and Zoroastrianism, is a spiritual being superior to humans in power and intelligence. Most of them either as intermediaries between Heaven and Earth, or as guardian spirits. They are studied in the doctrine of angelology. In Christian Science, the angel is used to refer to an inspiration from God. In fine art, angels are depicted as having the shape of human beings of extraordinary beauty, they are often identified using the symbols of bird wings, halos. The word angel in English is a blend of Old English engel, both derive from Late Latin angelus messenger, which in turn was borrowed from Late Greek ἄγγελος ángelos. According to R. S. P. Beekes, ángelos itself may be an Oriental loan, the words earliest form is Mycenaean a-ke-ro attested in Linear B syllabic script. The ángelos is the default Septuagints translation of the Biblical Hebrew term mal’ākh denoting simply messenger without specifying its nature. In the Latin Vulgate, the meaning becomes bifurcated, if the word refers to some supernatural being, the word angelus appears.
Such differentiation has been taken over by vernacular translations of the Bible, early Christian and Jewish exegetes, in Zoroastrianism there are different angel-like figures. For example, each person has one guardian angel, called Fravashi and they patronize human beings and other creatures, and manifest Gods energy. In the commentaries of Proclus on the Timaeus of Plato, Proclus uses the terminology of angelic, according to Aristotle, just as there is a First Mover, so, must there be spiritual secondary movers. The Torah uses the terms מלאך אלהים, מלאך יהוה, בני אלהים and הקודשים to refer to beings traditionally interpreted as angels, texts use other terms, such as העליונים. The term מלאך is used in books of the Tanakh. Depending on the context, the Hebrew word may refer to a messenger or to a supernatural messenger. Daniel is the first biblical figure to refer to individual angels by name, mentioning Gabriel in Daniel 9,21 and these angels are part of Daniels apocalyptic visions and are an important part of all apocalyptic literature.
One of these is hāšāṭān, a figure depicted in the Book of Job, philo of Alexandria identifies the angel with the Logos inasmuch as the angel is the immaterial voice of God. The angel is something different from God himself, but is conceived as Gods instrument, in post-Biblical Judaism, certain angels took on particular significance and developed unique personalities and roles
In Greek mythology, Andromache was the wife of Hector, daughter of Eetion, and sister to Podes. She was born and raised in the city of Cilician Thebe, the name means man battler or fighter of men or mans battle, from the Greek stem ἀνδρ- man and μάχη battle. This act was carried out by Neoptolemus who took Andromache as a concubine and Hectors brother, Helenus, by Neoptolemus, she was the mother of Molossus, and according to Pausanias, of Pielus and Pergamus. When Neoptolemus died, Andromache married Helenus and became Queen of Epirus, Pausanias implies that Helenus son, was by Andromache. Andromache eventually went to live with Pergamus in Pergamum, where she died of old age, Iliad VI, 390–470, XXII 437–515 Bibliotheca III, xii,6, Epitome V,23, VI,12. Sapphos Fragment 44 Andromache was born in Thebes, a city that Achilles sacked, killing her father Eetion, after this, her mother died of illness. She was taken from her father’s household by Hector, who had brought countless wedding-gifts, thus Priam’s household alone provides Andromache with her only familial support.
In contrast to the relationship of Paris and Helen and Andromache fit the Greek ideal of a happy and productive marriage. Once Achilles kills Hector, Andromache is utterly alone, Andromache is therefore completely alone when Troy falls and her son is killed. Notably, Andromache remains unnamed in Iliad 22, referred to only as the wife of Hector, indicating the centrality of her status as Hectors wife, the Greeks divide the Trojan women as spoils of war and permanently separate them from the ruins of Troy and from one another. Hector’s fears of her life as a woman are realized as her family is entirely stripped from her by the violence of war. Without her familial structure, Andromache is a woman who must live outside familiar. Andromache’s gradual discovery of her husband’s death and her immediate lamentation culminate the shorter lamentations of Priam, in accordance with traditional customs of mourning, Andromache responds with an immediate and impulsive outburst of grief that begins the ritual lamentation.
She casts away her various pieces of headdress and leads the Trojan women in ritual mourning, the final stage of the mourning process occurs in Iliad 24 in the formal, communal grieving upon the return of Hector’s body. In Iliad 22, Andromache is portrayed as the wife, weaving a cloak for her husband in the innermost chambers of the house. Here she is carrying out an action Hector had ordered her to perform during their conversation in Iliad 6, Andromache is seen in Iliad 6 in an unusual place for the traditional housewife, standing before the ramparts of Troy. Traditional gender roles are breached as well, as Andromache gives Hector military advice, although her behavior may seem nontraditional, hard times disrupts the separate spheres of men and women, requiring a shared civic response to the defense of the city as a whole. Andromache’s sudden tactical lecture is a way to keep Hector close, Andromache’s role as a mother, a fundamental element of her position in marriage, is emphasized within this same conversation
The American badger is a North American badger, somewhat similar in appearance to the European badger. It is found in the western and central United States, northern Mexico, American badgers habitat is typefied by open grasslands with available prey. The species prefers areas such as regions with sandy loam soils where it can dig more easily for its prey. The American badger is a member of the Mustelidae, a family of carnivorous mammals that includes the weasel, ferret. The American badger belongs to the Taxidiinae, one of three subfamilies of badgers – the other two being the Melinae and the Mellivorinae, the American badgers closest relative is the prehistoric Chamitataxus. Ranges of subspecies overlap considerably, with intermediate forms occurring in the areas of overlap, in Mexico, this animal is sometimes called tlalcoyote. The Spanish word for badger is tejón, but in Mexico this word is used to describe the coati. This can lead to confusion, as both coatis and badgers are found in Mexico, measuring generally between 60 and 75 cm in length, males of the species are slightly larger than females.
Northern subspecies such as T. t. jeffersonii are heavier than the southern subspecies, in the fall, when food is plentiful, adult male badgers can exceed 11.5 kg. Except for the head, the American badger is covered with a grizzled, brown and white coat of hair or fur. The coat aids in camouflage in grassland habitat and its triangular face shows a distinctive black and white pattern, with brown or blackish badges marking the cheeks and a white stripe extending from the nose to the base of the head. In the subspecies T. t. berlandieri, the white stripe extends the full length of the body. The American badger is a fossorial carnivore, the American badger is a significant predator of snakes including rattlesnakes, and is considered the most important predator of rattlesnakes in South Dakota. American badgers are nocturnal, however, in remote areas with no human encroachment they are routinely observed foraging during the day. Seasonally, a badger observed during daylight hours in the Spring months of late March to early May often represents a female foraging during daylight, badgers do not hibernate, but may become less active in winter. A badger may spend much of the winter in cycles of torpor that last around 29 hours and they do emerge from their burrows when the temperature is above freezing. A widely held misconception is that badgers and coyotes hunt together, badgers are solitary foragers, coyotes will observe badgers in the process of foraging and position themselves in proximity in order to attempt to capture any prey seeking to escape.
Badgers are normally solitary animals, but are thought to expand their territories in the season to seek out mates
Andromeda is one of the 48 constellations listed by the 2nd-century Greco-Roman astronomer Ptolemy and remains one of the 88 modern constellations. Located north of the equator, it is named for Andromeda, daughter of Cassiopeia, in the Greek myth. Andromeda is most prominent during autumn evenings in the Northern Hemisphere, because of its northern declination, Andromeda is visible only north of 40° south latitude, for observers farther south it lies below the horizon. It is one of the largest constellations, with an area of 722 square degrees. This is over 1,400 times the size of the moon, 55% of the size of the largest constellation, Hydra. Its brightest star, Alpha Andromedae, is a star that has been counted as a part of Pegasus, while Gamma Andromedae is a colorful binary. Only marginally dimmer than Alpha, Beta Andromedae is a red giant, the constellations most obvious deep-sky object is the naked-eye Andromeda Galaxy, the closest spiral galaxy to the Milky Way and one of the brightest Messier objects.
Several fainter galaxies, including M31s companions M110 and M32, as well as the more distant NGC891, the Blue Snowball Nebula, a planetary nebula, is visible in a telescope as a blue circular object. Andromeda is the location of the radiant for the Andromedids, a meteor shower that occurs in November. The uranography of Andromeda has its roots most firmly in the Greek tradition, the stars that make up Pisces and the middle portion of modern Andromeda formed a constellation representing a fertility goddess, sometimes named as Anunitum or the Lady of the Heavens. Andromeda is known as the Chained Lady or the Chained Woman in English and it was known as Mulier Catenata in Latin and al-Marat al Musalsalah in Arabic. Offended at her remark, the nymphs petitioned Poseidon to punish Cassiopeia for her insolence, Andromedas panicked father, was told by the Oracle of Ammon that the only way to save his kingdom was to sacrifice his daughter to Cetus. Perseus and Andromeda married, the myth recounts that the couple had nine children together – seven sons, after Andromedas death Athena placed her in the sky as a constellation, to honor her.
Several of the neighboring constellations represent characters in the Perseus myth and it is connected with the constellation Pegasus. Andromeda was one of the original 48 constellations formulated by Ptolemy in his 2nd-century Almagest, in which it was defined as a specific pattern of stars. She is typically depicted with α Andromedae as her head, ο and λ Andromedae as her chains, and δ, π, μ, Β, there is no universal depiction of Andromeda and the stars used to represent her body and chains. Arab astronomers were aware of Ptolemys constellations, but they included a second constellation representing a fish at Andromedas feet, several stars from Andromeda and most of the stars in Lacerta were combined in 1787 by German astronomer Johann Bode to form Frederici Honores. It was designed to honor King Frederick II of Prussia, in 1922, the IAU defined its recommended three-letter abbreviation, And
The ancient boroughs were a historic unit of lower-tier local government in England and Wales. The ancient boroughs covered only important towns and were established by charters granted at different times by the monarchy and their history is largely concerned with the origin of such towns and how they gained the right of self-government. Ancient boroughs were reformed by the Municipal Corporations Act 1835, which introduced directly elected corporations, Municipal boroughs ceased to be used for the purposes of local government in 1974, with borough status retained as an honorific title granted by the Crown. Throughout western Europe, the effect of the Germanic invasions which completed the decline of the Roman Empire was to destroy the Roman municipal organisation, after the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain, the ruins of Roman colonies and camps were used by the early English to form tribal strongholds. Despite their location, burhs on the sites of Roman colonies show no continuity with Roman municipal organisation, the resettlement of the Roman Durovernum under the name burh of the men of Kent, Cant-wara-byrig or Canterbury, illustrates this point.
The burh of the men of West Kent was Hrofesceaster, the tribal burh was protected by an earthen wall, and a general obligation to build and maintain burhs at the royal command was enforced by Anglo-Saxon law. Offences in disturbance of the peace of the burh were punished by higher fines than breaches of the peace of the hām or ordinary dwelling. Some of the royal vills eventually entered the class of boroughs, but by another route, and for the present the private stronghold and it was the public stronghold and the administrative centre of a dependent district which was the source of the main features peculiar to the borough. Many causes tended to create conditions in the boroughs built for national defence. Typically, the fortification of a burh consisted of earth faced with timber. The concept of a network of burhs as a defence in depth is usually attributed to Alfred, the solution that Alfred devised for this apparently intractable predicament was nothing short of a revolution and that revolution began now in the 880s.
If the Vikings could attack anywhere at any time, the West Saxons had to be able to defend all the time. To make this possible Alfred ordered the construction of a network of defended centres across his kingdom, some built on refortified Roman and Iron Age sites, some built completely from scratch. These burhs were to be distributed so that no West Saxon was more than twenty or so miles – a days march – from one of them. This network is described in a document which has survived in iterations, named by scholars the Burghal Hidage. Most of these survived into the post Norman Conquest era and are the core of Parliamentary Boroughs, the burhs drew commerce by every channel, the camp and the palace, the administrative centre, the ecclesiastical centre, all looked to the market for their maintenance. The burh was provided by law with a mint and royal moneyers and exchangers, with a scale for weights. At least from the 10th century the burh had a moot or court, at these great meetings the borough reeve presided, declaring the law and guiding the judgments given by the suitors of the court
Albrecht von Graefe
Friedrich Wilhelm Ernst Albrecht von Gräfe, often Anglicized to Graefe, was a Prussian pioneer of German ophthalmology. Graefe was born in Finkenheerd, the son of Karl Ferdinand von Graefe and he was the father of the far right politician Albrecht von Graefe. Graefe studied philosophy, natural sciences and anatomy in Berlin and he continued his studies at Prague, Paris and London, and having devoted special attention to ophthalmology, in 1850, he began to practice as an oculist in Berlin. Here, he founded an institution for the treatment of eyes. During the same year, he received his habiltation with the thesis Über die Wirkung der Augenmuskeln, in 1858 he became an associate professor of ophthalmology in Berlin, where in 1866 he was appointed a full professor. In 1870, he was elected a member of the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. In 1862 he married Anna Knuth, the couple had three children, two of whom died in infancy. Graefe died in Berlin from pulmonary tuberculosis on July 20,1870 and his grave is preserved in the Protestant Friedhof II der Jerusalems- und Neuen Kirchengemeinde in Berlin-Kreuzberg, south of Hallesches Tor.
Graefe made many contributions to science, being considered one of the more important figures in 19th century ophthalmology. Among his achievements were a method of treating glaucoma and a new operation for cataract and he introduced iridectomy for glaucoma, identified retardation of the eyelid in Basedows disease, and described the combination of retinitis pigmentosa and perceptive deafness in Ushers syndrome. Also, he provided descriptions of optic neuritis, chronic progressive external ophthalmoplegia. In addition, he is credited with design of a specialized knife and this knife was used till the 1960s. The eponymous Gräfes sign is associated with Graves-Basedow disease, in 1855 he founded the Archiv für Ophthalmologie, in which Carl Ferdinand von Arlt and Franciscus Donders collaborated. In 1863 he founded the Deutsche Ophtalmologische Gesellschaft, Albrecht von Graefe, founder of scientific ophthalmology. Albrecht von Graefe—an outstanding German ophthalmologist, the ASCRS honouring of Albrecht von Graefe.
American Society of Cataract and Refractive Surgery, Graefes Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology. Journal of Neurology and Psychiatry, on the occasion of the 125th anniversary of his death. Graefes Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology, verdaguer, J. Albrecht von Graefe, The man and his time
John Julius Angerstein
John Julius Angerstein a London businessman and Lloyds under-writer, was a patron of the fine arts and a collector. It was the prospect that his collection of paintings was about to be sold by his estate in 1824 that galvanised the founding of the British National Gallery, John Julius Angerstein was born in 1732 in St Petersburg, Russia. It has wrongly been suggested that he was a son of empress Catherine II or of Elizabeth. In 1771 Angerstein married Anna Crockett at St Peter-le-Poer, Old Broad Street and they had two children - Juliana, who married General Nikolai Sablukov of the Russian service, and John Angerstein. Anna died in 1783, and in 1785 John Julius Angerstein married Eliza Lucas, a portrait of Angerstein and his second wife, Eliza, by Thomas Lawrence was exhibited at the Royal Academy in 1792. In his role as a merchant Angerstein was said to own a share in slave estates in Grenada. Angerstein was chairman of Lloyds from 1790 to 1796 and counted king George III, British Prime Minister William Pitt the Younger, although a slave owner, he was on the Committee for the Relief of the Black Poor an organisation with strong abolitionist connections.
After a number of attacks on women by the so-called London Monster. Among his earliest art purchases was The Rape of the Sabines by Rubens, acquisitions included works by Rembrandt, Velázquez, Raphael and Hogarth, plus early drawings by J. M. W. From the sale in London of the French Orleans Collection he bought The Raising of Lazarus by Sebastiano del Piombo and other works. After his death, thirty-eight of his finest paintings were bought by the British government for £60,000 to form the nucleus of the collection of the British National Gallery. Until the National Gallery was built in Trafalgar Square in London and he lived for some years in Greenwich in south-east London, leasing a 54-acre estate from Sir Gregory Page in 1774 and over the next two years building a house, Woodlands. This area is now known as Westcombe Park, part of an area on the north-eastern fringes of Blackheath that he sought to enclose in 1801. The house fell empty in 1870 when Johns grandson William Angerstein relinquished the lease, as an active church-goer, he worshipped at St Alfeges Church, where he was churchwarden.
His familys connections with Greenwich are still commemorated, Angerstein Lane, near the heath at Blackheath, bears the family name. A public house, The Angerstein Hotel, is on Woolwich Road, John Julius Angerstein, Encyclopædia Britannica, 9th ed. Vol. II, New York, Charles Scribners Sons,1878, p.29. John Julius Angerstein, Encyclopædia Britannica, 11th ed. Vol. II, Cambridge University Press,1911, biography and Collection from the National Gallery