An achene is a type of simple dry fruit produced by many species of flowering plants. Achenes contain a seed that nearly fills the pericarp. In many species, what is called the seed is an achene, the seed-like appearance is owed to the hardening of the wall of the seed-vessel, which encloses the solitary seed so closely as to seem like an outer coat. The fruits of buttercup and cannabis are typical achenes, the achenes of the strawberry are sometimes mistaken for seeds. The strawberry is a fruit with an aggregate of achenes. Each fruit, called a hip, holds a few achenes. A winged achene, such as in maple, is called a samara, some achenes have accessory hair-like structures that cause them to tumble in the wind in a manner similar to a tumbleweed. This type sometimes is called a fruit or diaspore. A caryopsis or grain is a type of fruit that resembles an achene. An utricle is like an achene, but the fruit is bladder-like or inflated, fruits of sedges are sometimes considered achenes although their one-locule ovary is a compound ovary.
The fruit of the family Asteraceae is so similar to an achene that it is considered to be one. A special term for the Asteraceae fruit is cypsela, for example, the white-gray husks of a sunflower seed are the walls of the cypsela fruit. Many cypselas have calyx tissue attached that functions in biological dispersal of the seed
A Doll's House
A Dolls House is a three-act play in prose by Henrik Ibsen. It premiered at the Royal Theatre in Copenhagen, Denmark, on 21 December 1879, the play is significant for its critical attitude toward 19th-century marriage norms. It aroused great controversy at the time, as it concludes with the protagonist, leaving her husband, in 2006, the centennial of Ibsens death, A Dolls House held the distinction of being the worlds most performed play for that year. UNESCO has inscribed Ibsens autographed manuscripts of A Dolls House on the Memory of the World Register in 2001, the title of the play is most commonly translated as A Dolls House, though some scholars use A Doll House. John Simon argues that the significance in the alternative translation is the difference in the way the toy is named in Britain. Egil Törnqvist argues that the alternative simply sounds more idiomatic to Americans, Nora Helmer – wife of Torvald, mother of three, is living out the ideal of the 19th-century wife, but leaves her family at the end of the play.
Torvald Helmer – Noras husband, a newly promoted bank manager, Dr. Rank – a rich family friend, he is secretly in love with Nora. He is terminally ill, and it is implied that his tuberculosis of the spine originates from a disease contracted by his father. Kristine Linde – Noras old school friend, widowed, is seeking employment and she was in a relationship with Krogstad prior to the plays setting. Nils Krogstad – an employee at Torvalds bank, single father, a supposed scoundrel, he is revealed to be a long-lost lover of Kristine. The Children – Nora and Torvalds children, Ivar and Emmy Anne Marie – Noras former nanny, helene – the Helmers maid The Porter – delivers a Christmas tree to the Helmer household at the beginning of the play. The play opens at Christmas time as Nora Helmer enters her home carrying a number of packages, Noras husband Torvald is working in his study when she arrives. He playfully rebukes her for spending so much money on Christmas gifts and he teases her about how she spent weeks making gifts and ornaments by hand last year because money was scarce.
This year Torvald is due a promotion at the bank where he works, so Nora feels that they can let themselves go a little. The maid announces two visitors, Mrs. Kristine Linde, an old friend of Noras, who has come seeking employment, and Dr. Rank, a friend of the family. Kristine has had a few years, ever since her husband died leaving her with no money or children. Nora explains that things have not been easy for either, Torvald became sick. Kristine further explains that when her mother was ill, she had to care of her brothers
Lawrence Fraser Abbott
Lawrence Fraser Abbott was an American editor and writer, son of Lyman Abbott. He was born in Brooklyn, New York to Lyman Abbott and he graduated from Amherst College in 1881. In 1891 he became president of the Outlook Company and he was the author of an article on Theodore Roosevelt in the Encyclopœdia Britannica, and of Impressions of Theodore Roosevelt and The Story of NYLIC. Clara Whitehill Hunt Michael Ableman Adeline Pond Adams This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Gilman. Thurston, H. T. Colby, F. M. eds. article name needed, Amherst College alumni entry Books from 1930 with US copyright not renewed Works by Lawrence Fraser Abbott at Project Gutenberg Works by or about Lawrence Fraser Abbott at Internet Archive
Absalon or Axel was a Danish archbishop and statesman, who was the Bishop of Roskilde from 1158 to 1192 and Archbishop of Lund from 1178 until his death. He was the foremost politician and churchfather of Denmark in the half of the 12th century. He combined the ideals of Gregorian Reform ideals with loyal support of a strong monarchical power, Absalon was born into the powerful Hvide clan, and owned great land possessions. He endowed several church institutions, most prominently his familys Sorø Abbey and he was granted lands by the crown, and built the first fortification of the city that evolved into modern-day Copenhagen. His titles were passed on to his nephews Anders Sunesen and Peder Sunesen and he died in 1201, and was interred at Sorø Abbey. Absalon was born around 1128 near Sorø, due to a name which is unusual in Denmark, it is speculated that he was christened on the Danish Absalon name day, October 30. He was the son of Asser Rig, a magnate of the Hvide clan from Fjenneslev on Zealand and he was a kinsman of Archbishop Eskil of Lund.
He grew up at the castle of his father, and was brought up alongside his older brother Esbern Snare and the young prince Valdemar, who became King Valdemar I of Denmark. During the civil war following the death of Eric III of Denmark in 1146, Absalon travelled abroad to study theology in Paris, at Paris, he was influenced by the Gregorian Reform ideals of churchly independence from Monarchical rule. He befriended the canon William of Æbelholt at the Abbey of St Genevieve and he was a guest at following Roskilde banquet given in 1157 by Sweyn to his rivals Canute V and Valdemar. Both Absalon and Valdemar narrowly escaped assassination at the hands of Sweyn on this occasion, Absalon probably did not take part in the following battle of Grathe Heath in 1157, in which Sweyn was defeated and slain and led to Valdemar ascending the Danish throne. On Good Friday 1158, bishop Asser of Roskilde died, and Absalon was eventually elected bishop of Roskilde on Zealand with the help of Valdemar, Absalon was a close counsellor of Valdemar, and chief promoter of the Danish crusades against the Wends.
During the Danish civil war, Denmark had been open to coastal raids by the Wends and it was Absalons intention to clear the Baltic Sea of the Wendish pirates who inhabited its southern littoral zone which was called Pomerania. The pirates had raided the Danish coasts during the war of Sweyn III, Canute V. Absalon formed a fleet, built coastal defenses, and led several campaigns against the Wends. He even advocated forgiving the earlier enemies of Valdemar, which helped stabilize Denmark internally, the first expedition against the Wends that was conducted by Absalon in person, set out in 1160. These expeditions were successful, but brought no lasting victories, what started out as mere retribution, eventually evolved into full-fledged campaigns of expansion with religious motives. In 1164 began twenty years of crusades against the Wends, sometimes with the help of German duke Henry the Lion, in 1168 the chief Wendish fortress at Arkona in Rügen, containing the sanctuary of their god Svantevit, was conquered
John Quincy Adams II
John Quincy Adams II was an American lawyer and politician. Adams was the son of Charles Francis Adams and Abigail Brown Brooks, the grandson and namesake of president John Quincy Adams and he graduated from Harvard University in 1853, studied law, attained admission to the bar, and practiced in Boston. He established a model farm near Quincy, Massachusetts. Adams married Frances Cadwalader Crowninshield, daughter of George and Harriet Sears Crowninshield of the politically powerful Crowninshield family, during the Civil War he served on the staff of Governor John Andrew with the rank of Colonel. Adams served in local offices in Quincy, including town meeting moderator, school board chairman. He was elected to the Massachusetts state legislature as a Republican, in 1873 he was the unsuccessful nominee for lieutenant governor. Adams received one vote for the Democratic nomination for President of the United States at the 1868 Democratic National Convention, in 1872 the faction of Democrats that refused to support Horace Greeley nominated Charles OConor for president and John Quincy Adams II for vice-president on the straight Democratic ticket.
They declined, but their names remained on the ballot in some states, after losing an election for lieutenant governor in 1876, Adams refused most further involvement in politics, though he was considered by Grover Cleveland for a cabinet position in 1893. In 1877 he was made a member of the Harvard Corporation, Adams died at age 60 in Quincy on August 24,1894. He was buried at Mount Wollaston Cemetery in Quincy, George Caspar Adams Charles Francis Adams III, United States Secretary of the Navy Frances C. Adams Arthur Adams Abigail Adams Adams, John Quincy, 2d
Academic Legion (Vienna)
The Academic Legion was a military organization formed by university students in Vienna during the Revolutions of 1848. It played a key role in toppling the government of Clemens Metternich, the Legion dissolved in October 1848 when the Vienna Uprising was crushed. The Legion, formed in 1848, was composed of about 6,000 university students, the students successfully fended off various attempts of the government to dissolve their organization. So independent and so comprehensive a power was confided to it that in several important respects it was the equal of the ministry, without its consent, for instance, no military force should be employed in the city. Thus it might have been said without exaggeration that for a certain time the students of Vienna governed Austria. In his Reminiscences, Carl Schurz describes the uniforms of the Academic Legion worn by the Viennese representatives at the Eisenach Student Conference of 25 September -4 October 1848 and they looked like a troop of knights of old.
News of events which would develop into the end of the Legions domination of Austrian politics came during the course of this conference, in the face of the reports they received, the Viennese representatives returned home. The imperial government had dispatched troops to Hungary to quell disturbances there, in response, the Viennese revolutionaries took to the streets. They lynched the imperial minister of war, Theodor Franz, Count Baillet von Latour and this article incorporates text from a work in the public domain, Carl, Chapter VI Resisting the Reaction, Reminiscences,1, New York, The McClure Company Academic Legion
William Adams (author)
William Adams, Church of England clergyman and author of Christian allegories popular in Britain in the 19th century. Adams was a member of an old Warwickshire family, being the son of Mr. Serjeant Adams, by his marriage with Miss Eliza Nation. He obtained a postmastership at Merton, and in 1836 took a double first-class degree, with his immediate predecessor at St. Peters, Walter Kerr Hamilton, and his immediate successor, Edmund Hobhouse, Mr. Adams was very intimate. It was hoped that a few months of residence in a warm climate would restore his health, but the disease had gained too firm a hold to be checked, and he resigned his living, settling at Bonchurch, Isle of Wight. Here he passed the last few years of his life, busily engaged with his pen and he was at Bonchurch acquainted with Elizabeth Missing Sewell. All Adamss allegories were published when he was virtually a dying man, the Shadow of the Cross, written at Arborne Cottage, near Chertsey, in the summer of 1842, was followed by the Distant Hills in 1844.
The design of both was to show the privileges of the baptised Christian and the danger of forfeiting those privileges and it is simply an English version of the story of Herodotus, with a Christian colouring. But his next production, the Old Mans Home, was the most successful of all his works. The DNB speculates that its success rests on the fact that the scene of it was laid in the Undercliff, which Adams knew well and loved, and this story was a special favourite with the poet Wordsworth. The Kings Messengers was written during the very last months of Adamss life, henry Cadwallader Adams, a well-known author, and Silvio, an allegory written before any of the others, and revised and published with a modest preface by another brother in 1862. The circumstances of their composition, no doubt, give a tinge of romantic interest to them—an interest which extends to the career of their pious. But apart from this, according to the DNB, there is a fascination about them which carries the reader along.
This article incorporates text from a now in the public domain, Adams. Works by Adams at the Internet Archive, Warnings of the Holy week,1847 Sacred allegories, The shadow of the cross, The distant hills, The old mans home, the Kings Messengers,1849 Adams, William
Academy of Natural Sciences of Drexel University
The Academy of Natural Sciences of Drexel University, formerly the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia, is the oldest natural science research institution and museum in the New World. It was founded in 1812, by many of the naturalists of the young American republic with an expressed mission of the encouragement. The Academy has a tradition of public exhibits and educational programs for both schools and the general public. During the first decades of the United States, Philadelphia was the cultural capital, two of the citys institutions, the Library Company and the American Philosophical Society, were centers of enlightened thought and scientific inquiry. The academy was meant to foster a gathering of fellow naturalists and they frequently looked to their European counterparts for inspiration and expertise and longed to be regarded as equals. On 25 April 1817 they were incorporated into the society under the title of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia by the legislature of Pennsylvania, by 1 January 1818, eight members were published.
Within a decade of its founding, the Academy became the center of natural sciences in the United States. Academy members were enlisted to participate in national surveys of the western territories. Corresponding members included such luminaries as Charles Darwin, Asa Gray, for much of its history, new members had to be nominated by two current members and elected by the remaining members. These requirements were dropped in 1924, notable 20th-century scientists include James Böhlke, James Bond, Henry Weed Fowler, Ruth Patrick, Henry Pilsbry, and Witmer Stone. In 2011, the Academy became affiliated with nearby Drexel University, collections are the hallmark of museums and those at The Academy of Natural Sciences are among the more important of their kind. The size and scope of its collections have grown substantially since the early years, there are over 17 million biological specimens, and hundreds of thousands of volumes, illustrations and archival items in its library. Sometimes the Academy is enlisted to house and care for collections originally gathered by other institutions, for example, a number of the natural history collections at the American Philosophical Society were relocated to the Academy by the end of the 19th century.
But these collections are not maintained just to collect dust and they provide a library of biodiversity. In recent decades, research has shifted in emphasis to the science of systematics, either way, the collections are invaluable. They provide the type specimens, the material that helps establish a species identity. They provide raw materials with which scientists can investigate the nature of species, their relationships with other species, their evolutionary history. New questions and new technology illustrate the importance of these collections, titian Peale may not have been interested in the conservation biology of the butterflies he collected while Henry Pilsbry probably did not consider comparing the DNA of his snails
Alvin Adams was the founder of Adams and Company, a forerunner to Adams Express, one of the first companies to act as a carrier for express shipments by rail in the United States. Alvin Adams was born on June 16,1804 in Andover, a produce merchant ruined by the Panic of 1837, in 1839, Adams began carrying letters, small packages and valuables for patrons between Boston and Worcester, Massachusetts. On May 4,1840 he established his first express route between Boston and New York under the name Adams and Company. The company established offices in Boston and New York, and soon added express routes to Baltimore, Norwich, Worcester, Washington, Pennsylvania, Ohio, Kentucky, and St. Louis, Missouri. The company was capitalized with $1,200,000. He was succeeded in 1855 by George Washington Cass, alvin Adams died September 1,1877 in Watertown, Massachusetts. The company that he formed still exists, headquartered in Baltimore, one Hundred Years of American Commerce. Massachusetts of Today, A Memorial of the State and Biographical, John H.
Jr. Americas most noteworthy railroaders. Alvin Adams, The Expressman, The Business Success That Made Him, death of George W. Cass, The Long and Honorable Career of a Son of Ohio. The Adams Express Company,150 Years, archived from the original on 2005-01-17
John Couch Adams
John Couch Adams FRS was a British mathematician and astronomer. Adams was born in Laneast, near Launceston, the Cornish name Couch is pronounced cooch. His most famous achievement was predicting the existence and position of Neptune, the calculations were made to explain discrepancies with Uranuss orbit and the laws of Kepler and Newton. At the same time, but unknown to other, the same calculations were made by Urbain Le Verrier. He was Lowndean Professor in the University of Cambridge from 1859 until his death and he won the Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society in 1866. In 1884, he attended the International Meridian Conference as a delegate for Britain, a crater on the Moon is jointly named after him, Walter Sydney Adams and Charles Hitchcock Adams. Neptunes outermost known ring and the asteroid 1996 Adams are named after him, the Adams Prize, presented by the University of Cambridge, commemorates his prediction of the position of Neptune. His personal library is held at Cambridge University Library, Adams was born at Lidcot, a farm at Laneast, near Launceston, the eldest of seven children.
His parents were Thomas Adams, a tenant farmer, and his wife. Tabitha was a daughter but had received a rudimentary education from John Couch, her uncle. John was intrigued by the books from an early age. John attended the Laneast village school where he acquired some Greek, from there, he went, at the age of twelve, to Devonport, where his mothers cousin, the Rev. John Couch Grylls, kept a private school. There he learned classics but was largely self-taught in mathematics, studying in the Library of Devonport Mechanics Institute and reading Reess Cyclopædia and Samuel Vinces Fluxions. In 1836, his mother inherited an estate at Badharlick. In October 1839 he entered as a sizar at St Johns College, graduating B. A. in 1843 as senior wrangler and first Smiths prizeman of his year. In 1821, Alexis Bouvard had published astronomical tables of the orbit of Uranus, subsequent observations revealed substantial deviations from the tables, leading Bouvard to hypothesize some perturbing body. Adams learnt of the irregularities while still an undergraduate and became convinced of the perturbation theory, on 3 July 1841, he noted his intention to work on the problem.
After his final examinations in 1843, Adams was elected fellow of his college, while he worked on the problem back in Cambridge, he tutored undergraduates, sending money home to educate his brothers, and even taught his bedmaker to read
Acts of the Apostles
The Acts of the Apostles, often referred to simply as Acts, is the fifth book of the New Testament, it tells of the founding of the Christian church and the spread of its message to the Roman Empire. Acts and the Gospel of Luke make up a work, Luke–Acts, by the same anonymous author. The first part, the Gospel of Luke, tells how God fulfilled his plan for the salvation through the life and resurrection of Jesus of Nazareth. Acts continues the story of Christianity in the 1st century, beginning with Jesuss Ascension to Heaven, the early chapters, set in Jerusalem, describe the Day of Pentecost and the growth of the church in Jerusalem. Initially the Jews are receptive to the Christian message, but soon turn against the followers of Jesus. Rejected by the Jews, under the guidance of the Apostle Peter the message is taken to the Gentiles. The chapters tell of Pauls conversion, his mission in Asia Minor and the Aegean, and finally his imprisonment in Rome, the title Acts of the Apostles was first used by Irenaeus in the late 2nd century.
It is not known whether this was a title or one invented by Irenaeus, it does seem clear, however. The Gospel of Luke and Acts make up a work which scholars call Luke–Acts. The author is not named in either volume. )He admired Paul, the earliest possible date for the composition of Acts is set by the events with which it ends, Pauls imprisonment in Rome c.63 AD, but an early date is now rarely put forward. In either case there is evidence that it was still being revised well into the 2nd century. Luke aligned his work, Luke–Acts, to the narratives which many others had written, the second part, is widely thought of as a history, but it lacks exact analogies in Hellenistic or Jewish literature. The title Acts of the Apostles would seem to identify it with the telling of the deeds and achievements of great men. By and large the sources for Acts can only be guessed at, but Luke would have had access to the Septuagint, the gospel of Mark and the collection of sayings of Jesus called the Q source.
)There are points of contacts with 1 Peter, the Letter to the Hebrews, and 1 Clement. Other sources can only be inferred from internal evidence—the traditional explanation of the three we passages, for example, is that they represent eye-witness accounts, the search for such inferred sources was popular in the 19th century, but by the mid-20th it had largely been abandoned. Acts was read as a history of the early church well into the post-Reformation era. The mid-19th century scholar Ferdinand Baur suggested that Luke had re-written history to present a united Peter and Paul, Baur continues to have enormous influence, but today there is less interest in determining Lukes historical accuracy than in understanding his theological program. Luke was written to be read aloud to a group of Jesus-followers gathered in a house to share the Lords supper, the author assumes an educated Greek-speaking audience, but directs his attention to specifically Christian concerns rather than to the Greco-Roman world at large