Bismarck, North Dakota
Bismarck is the capital of the U. S. state of North Dakota and the county seat of Burleigh County. It is the second-most populous city in North Dakota after Fargo, the citys population was 61,272 at the 2010 census, while its metropolitan population was 129,517. In 2015, Forbes magazine ranked Bismarck as the seventh fastest-growing small city in the United States, Bismarck was founded by European Americans in 1872 on the east bank of the Missouri River. It has been North Dakotas capital city since 1889, when the state was created from the Dakota Territory, Bismarck is located across the river from Mandan, named after a historic Native American tribe of the area. The two cities make up the core of the Bismarck-Mandan Metropolitan Statistical Area, the North Dakota State Capitol, the tallest building in the state, is in central Bismarck. The state government employs more than 4,000 in the city, as a hub of retail and health care, Bismarck is the economic center of south-central North Dakota and north-central South Dakota.
For thousands of years, present-day central North Dakota was inhabited by indigenous peoples, the historic Mandan Native American tribe occupied the area long before Europeans arrived. The Hidatsa name of Bismarck is mirahacii arumaaguash, the Arikara name is ituhtaáwe and it had been an area of Mandan settlement. Later the new town was called Edwinton, after Edwin Ferry Johnson and its construction of railroads in the territory attracted workers and settlers. In 1873, the Northern Pacific Railway renamed the city as Bismarck, railroad officials hoped to attract German immigrant settlers to the area and German investment in the railroad. The discovery of gold in the nearby Black Hills of South Dakota the following year was an impetus for growth. Thousands of miners came to the area, encroaching on what the Lakota considered sacred territory, Bismarck became a freight-shipping center on the Custer Route from the Black Hills. In 1883 Bismarck was designated as the capital of the Dakota Territory, Bismarck is located at 46°48′48″N 100°46′44″W.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has an area of 31.23 square miles. The city has developed around downtown Bismarck, the center of historic development and it is distinctive because the citys major shopping center, Kirkwood Mall, is located in the center city rather than in the suburbs. Several other major stores are in the vicinity of Kirkwood Mall. The two Bismarck hospitals, St. Alexius Medical Center and Sanford Health are both downtown, the streets are lined with small stores and restaurants, providing numerous amenities. Much recent commercial and residential growth has taken place in the section of the city
James G. Blaine
In the general election, he was narrowly defeated by Democrat Grover Cleveland. Blaine was one of the late 19th century’s leading Republicans and champion of the moderate reformist faction of the party known as the “Half-Breeds. ”Blaine was born in the western Pennsylvania town of West Brownsville and after moved to Maine. Nicknamed “the Magnetic Man, he was a speaker in an era that prized oratory. He began his career as an early supporter of Abraham Lincoln. In Reconstruction, Blaine was a supporter of suffrage. Initially a protectionist, he worked for a reduction in the tariff. His efforts at expanding the United States trade and influence began the shift to a more active American foreign policy, Blaine was a pioneer of tariff reciprocity and urged greater involvement in Latin American affairs. An expansionist, Blaine’s policies would lead in less than a decade to the establishment of the United States acquisition of Pacific colonies, James Gillespie Blaine was born January 31,1830 in West Brownsville, the third child of Ephraim Lyon Blaine and his wife Maria Blaine.
Blaine’s father was a western Pennsylvania businessman and landowner, and the lived in relative comfort. On his father’s side, Blaine was descended from Scotch-Irish settlers who first emigrated to Pennsylvania in 1745 and his great-grandfather, Ephraim Blaine, served as a Commissary-General under George Washington in the American Revolutionary War. Blaine’s mother and her forebears were Irish Catholics who immigrated to Pennsylvania in the 1780s, Blaine’s parents were married in 1820 in a Roman Catholic ceremony, although Blaine’s father remained a Presbyterian. Following a common compromise of the era, the Blaines agreed that their daughters would be raised in their mother’s Catholic faith while their sons would be brought up in their father’s religion, in politics, Blaine’s father supported the Whig party. Blaine’s biographers describe his childhood as “harmonious, and note that the boy took an early interest in history, at the age of thirteen, Blaine enrolled in his father’s alma mater, Washington College, in nearby Washington, Pennsylvania.
There, he was a member of the Washington Literary Society, Blaine succeeded academically, graduating near the top of his class and delivering the salutatory address in June 1847. After graduation, Blaine considered attending law school at Yale Law School, in 1848, Blaine was hired as a professor of mathematics and ancient languages at the Western Military Institute in Georgetown, Kentucky. Although he was eighteen years old and younger than many of his students. Blaine grew to enjoy life in his state and became an admirer of Kentucky Senator Henry Clay. He made the acquaintance of Harriet Stanwood, a teacher at the nearby Millersburg Female College, on June 30,1850, the two were married
A cantilever bridge is a bridge built using cantilevers, structures that project horizontally into space, supported on only one end. Engineers in the nineteenth century understood that a bridge that was continuous across multiple supports would distribute the loads among them and this would result in lower stresses in the girder or truss and meant that longer spans could be built. Several nineteenth century engineers patented continuous bridges with hinge points mid-span, the use of a hinge in the multi-span system presented the advantages of a statically determinate system and of a bridge that could handle differential settlement of the foundations. Engineers could more easily calculate the forces and stresses with a hinge in the girder, heinrich Gerber was one of the engineers to obtain a patent for a hinged girder and is recognized as the first to build one. The Hassfurt Bridge over the Main river in Germany with a span of 124 feet was completed in 1867 and is recognized as the first modern cantilever bridge.
The High Bridge of Kentucky by C, the Kentucky River Bridge spanned a gorge that was 275 feet deep and took full advantage of the fact that falsework, or temporary support, is not needed for the main span of a cantilever bridge. The most famous early cantilever bridge is the Forth Bridge and this bridge held the record for longest span in the world for seventeen years, until it was surpassed by the Quebec Bridge. Benjamin Baker illustrated the principles of the suspended span cantilever in the photo on the left. The suspended span, where Kaichi Watanabe sits, is seen in the center, the need to resist compression of the lower chord is seen in the use of wooden poles while the tension of the upper chord is shown by the outstretched arms. The action of the foundations as anchors for the cantilever is visible in the placement of the counterweights. A simple cantilever span is formed by two arms extending from opposite sides of an obstacle to be crossed, meeting at the center. In a common variant, the span, the cantilever arms do not meet in the center, instead.
The suspended span may be built off-site and lifted into place, thus, in a bridge built on two foundation piers, there are four cantilever arms, two which span the obstacle, and two anchor arms which extend away from the obstacle. Because of the need for strength at the balanced cantilevers supports. The Commodore Barry Bridge is an example of type of cantilever bridge. Steel truss cantilevers support loads by tension of the upper members, the structure distributes the tension via the anchor arms to the outermost supports, while the compression is carried to the foundations beneath the central towers. Many truss cantilever bridges use pinned joints and are statically determinate with no members carrying mixed loads. Prestressed concrete balanced cantilever bridges are built using segmental construction
A is the first letter and the first vowel in the ISO basic Latin alphabet. It is similar to the Ancient Greek letter alpha, from which it derives, the upper-case version consists of the two slanting sides of a triangle, crossed in the middle by a horizontal bar. The lower-case version can be written in two forms, the double-storey a and single-storey ɑ, the latter is commonly used in handwriting and fonts based on it, especially fonts intended to be read by children, and is found in italic type. The earliest certain ancestor of A is aleph, the first letter of the Phoenician alphabet, in turn, the ancestor of aleph may have been a pictogram of an ox head in proto-Sinaitic script influenced by Egyptian hieroglyphs, styled as a triangular head with two horns extended. The Phoenician alphabet letter had a form that served as the base for some forms. Its name is thought to have corresponded closely to the Hebrew or Arabic aleph, the Etruscans brought the Greek alphabet to their civilization in the Italian Peninsula and left the letter unchanged.
During Roman times, there were many variant forms of the letter A, first was the monumental or lapidary style, which was used when inscribing on stone or other permanent mediums. There was a style used for everyday or utilitarian writing. Variants existed that were intermediate between the monumental and cursive styles, the known variants include the early semi-uncial, the uncial, and the semi-uncial. At the end of the Roman Empire, several variants of the cursive minuscule developed through Western Europe. By the 9th century, the Caroline script, which was similar to the present-day form, was the principal form used in book-making. This form was derived through a combining of prior forms, 15th-century Italy saw the formation of the two main variants that are known today. These variants, the Italic and Roman forms, were derived from the Caroline Script version, the Italic form, called script a, is used in most current handwriting and consists of a circle and vertical stroke. This slowly developed from the fifth-century form resembling the Greek letter tau in the hands of medieval Irish and English writers, the Roman form is used in most printed material, it consists of a small loop with an arc over it.
Both derive from the majuscule form, in Greek handwriting, it was common to join the left leg and horizontal stroke into a single loop, as demonstrated by the uncial version shown. Many fonts made the right leg vertical, in some of these, the serif that began the right leg stroke developed into an arc, resulting in the printed form, while in others it was dropped, resulting in the modern handwritten form. Italic type is used to mark emphasis or more generally to distinguish one part of a text from the rest. There are some other cases aside from italic type where script a, the double ⟨aa⟩ sequence does not occur in native English words, but is found in some words derived from foreign languages such as Aaron and aardvark
Pierre-Augustin Caron de Beaumarchais was a French polymath. At various times in his life, he was a watchmaker, playwright, diplomat, publisher, arms dealer, satirist and revolutionary. Born a provincial watchmakers son, Beaumarchais rose in French society and became influential in the court of Louis XV as an inventor, an early French supporter of American independence, Beaumarchais lobbied the French government on behalf of the American rebels during the American War of Independence. Beaumarchais oversaw covert aid from the French and Spanish governments to supply arms and he struggled to recover money he had personally invested in the scheme. Beaumarchais was a participant in the stages of the French Revolution. He is probably best known, for his theatrical works, Beaumarchais was born Pierre-Augustin Caron in the Rue Saint-Denis, Paris on 24 January 1732. He was the boy among the six surviving children of André-Charles Caron. The family had previously been Huguenots, but had converted to Roman Catholicism in the wake of the revocation of the Edict of Nantes, the family was comfortably middle-class and Beaumarchais had a peaceful and happy childhood.
As the only son, he was spoiled by his parents and he took an interest in music and played several instruments. Though born a Catholic, Beaumarchais retained a sympathy for Protestants, from the age of ten, Beaumarchais had some schooling at a country school where he learned some Latin. Two years later, Beaumarchais left school at twelve to work as an apprentice under his father and he may have used his own experiences during these years as the inspiration for the character of Cherubin when he wrote the Marriage of Figaro. He generally neglected his work, and at one point was evicted by his father, at the time, pocket watches were commonly unreliable for timekeeping and were worn more as fashion accessories. In response to this, Beaumarchais spent nearly a year researching improvements, in July 1753, at the age of twenty one, he invented an escapement for watches that allowed them to be made substantially more accurate and compact. The first man to take an interest in this new invention was Jean-André Lepaute, if there was a clock chiming in the wealthy homes of Paris, you can bet Lepaute built it himself.
Lepaute had been a mentor to Beaumarchais after discovering the talent in a chance encounter. He encouraged him as he worked on the new invention, earned his trust and you can imagine Beaumarchais’ surprise when he read in the September issue of Le Mercure de France that M. Lepaute had just invented the most wonderful mechanism for a more portable clock. “C’est normal, ” said his father, “C’est comme ca. ”It’s normal for the class to step on those beneath them. Well, Beaumarchais did not want any of that life and he wrote a strongly worded letter to that same newspaper defending the invention as his own and urging the Royal Academy of Sciences to see the proof for themselves
Battle of San Jacinto
The Battle of San Jacinto, fought on April 21,1836, in present-day Harris County, was the decisive battle of the Texas Revolution. Led by General Sam Houston, the Texian Army engaged and defeated General Antonio López de Santa Annas Mexican army in a fight that lasted just 18 minutes, Santa Anna, the President of Mexico, was captured and surrendered the following day and held as a prisoner of war. Three weeks later, he signed the treaty that dictated that the Mexican army leave the region. These treaties did not specifically recognize Texas as a sovereign nation, Sam Houston became a national celebrity, and the Texans rallying cries from events of the war, Remember the Alamo. and Remember Goliad. became etched into Texan history and legend. General Antonio López de Santa Anna was a proponent of governmental federalism when he helped oust Mexican president Anastasio Bustamante in December 1832. Upon his election as president in April 1833, Santa Anna switched his political ideology, while in Mexico City awaiting a meeting with Santa Anna, Texian empresario Stephen F.
Austin wrote to the Béxar ayuntamiento urging a break-away state. In response, the Mexican government kept him imprisoned for most of 1834, Colonel Juan Almonte was appointed Director of Colonization in Texas, ostensibly to ease relations with the colonists and mitigate their anxieties about Austins imprisonment. He delivered promises of self-governance, and conveyed regrets that the Mexican congress deemed it impossible for Texas to be a separate state. In consolidating his power base, Santa Anna installed General Martín Perfecto de Cos as the military authority over Texas in 1835. Cos established headquarters in San Antonio on October 9, triggering what became known as the Siege of Béxar, after two months of trying to repel the Texian forces, Cos raised a white flag on December 9, and signed surrender terms two days later. The surrender of Cos effectively removed the occupying Mexican army from Texas, many believed the war was over, and volunteers began returning home. In compliance with orders from Santa Anna, Mexicos Minister of War José María Tornel issued his December 30 Circular No,5, often referred to as the Tornel Decree, aimed at dealing with United States intervention in the uprising in Texas.
It declared that foreigners who entered Mexico for the purpose of joining the rebellion were to be treated as pirates, to be put to death if captured. In adding since they are not subjects of any nation at war with the republic nor do they militate under any recognized flag, the Mexican Army of Operations numbered 6,019 soldiers and was spread out over 300 miles on its march to Béxar. General Joaquín Ramírez y Sesma was put in command of the Vanguard of the Advance that crossed into Texas. Santa Anna and his aide-de-camp Almonte forded the Rio Grande at Guerrero, Coahuila on February 16,1836, Béxar was captured on February 23 and when the assault commenced, attempts at negotiation for surrender were initiated from inside the fortress. Travis sent Albert Martin to request a meeting with Almonte, who replied that he did not have the authority to speak for Santa Anna. Bowie dispatched Green B. Jameson with a letter, translated into Spanish by Juan Seguín, requesting a meeting with Santa Anna, Santa Anna did, extend an offer of amnesty to Tejanos inside the fortress
It was primarily meant as a research library, and its books did not circulate. It opened to the public in 1854, and in 1895 consolidated with the Lenox Library, during this time, its building was expanded twice, in 1859 and 1881. In 1837, ill health had obligated Joseph Cogswell to abandon his career and enter the family of Samuel Ward. Three of Wards sons had been pupils at Round Hill School which Cogswell had administered, Ward introduced Cogswell to John Jacob Astor, who by was in his 70s and had been retired for about 10 years. As the richest citizen of the United States, German-born Astor was considering what sort of testimonial he should leave to his adopted country. Early in January 1838, Astor consulted Cogswell about the use of some $300, 000–$400,000, Cogswell urged him to use it for a library, which Astor agreed to. A public announcement of Astors plan for the establishment of a public library appeared in New York in July 1838, at that point, the sum named was $350,000, and included a lot of land for the necessary building.
Cogswell developed such a strategy, and Astor assented to it on the condition that Cogswell be in charge of buying books, the necessary detail extended to a catalog that must necessarily belong to the collection. By May 1839, Astor had set aside a sum of $400,000 for a public library. For books, $120,000 was allocated, and trustees were to be Washington Irving, Daniel Lord, Jr. James G. King, Joseph G. Cogswell, Fitz-Greene Halleck, Henry Brevoort, Jr. Samuel B. Ruggles, Samuel Ward, Jr. and the Mayor of New York City, in December 1842, $75,000 was fixed as the amount to be expended for the building, and Charles Astor Bristed was added to the list of trustees. By November 1840, Samuel Ward had died, and Cogswell began residing with Astor, sometimes he had a downtown office at his disposal. Thus matters stood until Astors death in 1848, Cogswell lived with or near Astor, the first meeting of the trustees came on May 20,1848. Cogswell was appointed superintendent of the library, with authority to convene the trustees, the name of “The Astor Library” was chosen for the institution at the second meeting on June 1.
On September 28, a location was finalized for the building, what is now the East Village, there it was judged to be tranquil enough to be suitable for study. The lot was valued at $25,000, which sum was deducted from the $400,000 of the endowment, in January 1849 the library was incorporated and received a paragraph in the annual message of Governor Hamilton Fish. In April 1849, the trustees hired a house at 32 Bond Street for temporary custody and exhibition of the books they had purchased. The trustees stated that “all persons desirous of resorting to the library and of examining books, may do so all the convenience which it is in the power of the trustees to afford. ”At this time
Bay of Biscay
The Bay of Biscay /ˈbɪskeɪ, -ki/ is a gulf of the northeast Atlantic Ocean located south of the Celtic Sea. It lies along the western coast of France from Point Penmarch to the Spanish border, the average depth is 1,744 metres and the greatest depth is 4,735 metres. The Bay of Biscay is named after Biscay on the northern Spanish coast, the Bay of Biscay is home to some of the Atlantic Oceans fiercest weather. Large storms occur in the bay, especially during the winter months, up until recent years it was a regular occurrence for merchant vessels to founder in Biscay storms. The International Hydrographic Organization defines the limits of the Bay of Biscay as a line joining Cap Ortegal to Penmarch Point, the southernmost portion is the Cantabrian Sea. The phenomenon of June Gloom is common, in late spring and early summer a large fog triangle fills the southwestern half of the bay, covering just a few kilometres inland. As winter begins, weather becomes severe and these depressions cause severe weather at sea and bring light though very constant rain to its shores.
The Gulf Stream enters the bay following the continental shelfs border anti-clockwise, the main cities on the shores of the Bay of Biscay are Bordeaux, Biarritz, Nantes, La Rochelle, Donostia-San Sebastián, Santander, Gijón and Avilés. The southern end of the gulf is called in Spanish Mar Cantábrico, from the Estaca de Bares, as far as the mouth of Adour river. It was named by Romans in the 1st century BC as Sinus Cantabrorum and also, on some medieval maps, the Bay of Biscay is marked as El Mar del los Vascos. The Bay of Biscay has been the site of famous naval engagements over the centuries. In 1592 the Spanish defeated an English fleet during the eponymous Battle of the Bay of Biscay, the USS Californian sank here after striking a naval mine on June 22,1918. On December 28,1943, the Battle of the Bay of Biscay was fought between HMS Glasgow and HMS Enterprise and a group of German destroyers as part of Operation Stonewall during World War II. U-667 sank on 25 August 1944 in position 46°00′N 01°30′W, when she struck a mine, often specialist groups take the ferries to hear more information.
Volunteers and employees of Biscay Dolphin Research regularly observe and monitor cetacean activity from the bridge of the ships on the P&O Ferries Portsmouth to Bilbao route, many species of whales and dolphins can be seen in this area. Most importantly, it is one of the few places where the beaked whales and this is the best study area in the world for beaked whales. Other records in the late 20th century include one off Galicia at 43°00′N 10°30′W in September 1977 reported by a whaling company and another one seen off the Iberian Peninsula. The best areas to see the larger cetaceans lie in the deep waters beyond the shelf, particularly over the Santander Canyon
Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor
Charles V was ruler of both the Spanish Empire from 1516 and the Holy Roman Empire from 1519, as well as of the Habsburg Netherlands from 1506. He voluntarily stepped down from these and other positions by a series of abdications between 1554 and 1556, through inheritance, he brought together under his rule extensive territories in western and southern Europe, and the Spanish colonies in the Americas and Asia. As a result, his domains spanned nearly four square kilometers and were the first to be described as the empire on which the sun never sets. Charles was the heir of three of Europes leading dynasties, the Houses of Valois-Burgundy and Trastámara and he inherited the Burgundian Netherlands and the Franche-Comté as heir of the House of Valois-Burgundy. From his own dynasty, the Habsburgs, he inherited Austria and he was elected to succeed his Habsburg grandfather, Maximilian I, as Holy Roman Emperor, a title held by the Habsburgs since 1440. Charles was the first king to rule Castile and Aragon simultaneously in his own right, the personal union, under Charles, of the Holy Roman Empire with the Spanish Empire resulted in the closest Europe would come to a universal monarchy since the death of Louis the Pious.
France recovered and the wars continued for the remainder of Charless reign, enormously expensive, they led to the development of the first modern professional army in Europe, the Tercios. The struggle with the Ottoman Empire was fought in Hungary and the Mediterranean, after seizing most of eastern and central Hungary in 1526, the Ottomans’ advance was halted at their failed Siege of Vienna in 1529. A lengthy war of attrition, conducted on his behalf by his younger brother Ferdinand, in the Mediterranean, although there were some successes, Charles was unable to prevent the Ottomans’ increasing naval dominance and the piratical activity of the Barbary Corsairs. Charles opposed the Reformation and in Germany he was in conflict with the Protestant Princes of the Schmalkaldic League who were motivated by religious and political opposition to him. Once the rebellions were quelled the essential Castilian and Burgundian territories remained mostly loyal to Charles throughout his rule, Charles’s Spanish dominions were the chief source of his power and wealth, and they became increasingly important as his reign progressed.
In the Americas, Charles sanctioned the conquest by Castillian conquistadors of the Aztec, Castillian control was extended across much of South and Central America. The resulting vast expansion of territory and the flows of South American silver to Castile had profound long term effects on Spain. Charles was only 56 when he abdicated, but after 34 years of rule he was physically exhausted and sought the peace of a monastery. Upon Charles’s abdications, the Holy Roman Empire was inherited by his younger brother Ferdinand, the Spanish Empire, including the possessions in the Netherlands and Italy, was inherited by Charles’s son Philip II. The two empires would remain allies until the 18th century, Charles was born in 1500 as the eldest son of Philip the Handsome and Joanna of Castile in the Flemish city of Ghent, which was part of the Habsburg Netherlands. The culture and courtly life of the Burgundian Low Countries were an important influence in his early life and he was tutored by William de Croÿ, and by Adrian of Utrecht.
He gained a decent command of German, though he never spoke it as well as French, a witticism sometimes attributed to Charles is, I speak Spanish to God, Italian to women, French to men and German to my horse
Elizabeth Blackwell was a British-born physician, notable as the first woman to receive a medical degree in the United States, as well as the first woman on the UK Medical Register. Her sister Emily was the woman in the US to get a medical degree. Elizabeth was born in a house on Dicksons Street in Bristol, England, to Samuel Blackwell, a sugar refiner, and his wife Hannah Blackwell. She had two siblings and Marian, and would eventually have six younger siblings, Henry, Sarah Ellen, John. Four maiden aunts, Ann and Mary, Blackwells earliest memories were of her time living at a house on 1 Wilson Street, off Portland Square, Bristol. Her childhood at Wilson Street was a happy one, Blackwell especially remembered the positive and loving influence of her father. Samuel Blackwell was somewhat liberal in his attitudes towards, not only child rearing, for example, rather than beating his children for bad behavior, Barbara Blackwell recorded their trespasses in a black book. If the offences accumulated, the children might be exiled to the attic during dinner, Blackwells father was by no means lax in the education of his children.
Samuel Blackwell was a Congregationalist, and exerted an influence over the religious. He believed that child, including his girls, should be given the opportunity for unlimited development of their talents and gifts. Blackwell had not only a governess, but private tutors to supplement her intellectual development, as a result, she was rather socially isolated from all but her family as she grew up. The Blackwells financial situation was unfortunate, the school was not terribly innovative in its education methods – it was merely a source of income for the Blackwell sisters. Blackwells abolition work took a seat during these years, most likely due to the Academy. Blackwell converted to Episcopalianism, probably due to her sister Annas influence, in December 1838, William Henry Channings arrival in 1839 to Cincinnati changed her mind. Channing, a charismatic Unitarian minister, introduced the ideas of transcendentalism to Blackwell, a conservative backlash from the Cincinnati community ensued, and as a result, the Academy lost many pupils and was abandoned in 1842.
Channings arrival renewed Blackwells interests in education and reform and she worked at intellectual self-improvement, studying art, attending various lectures, writing short stories and attending various religious services in all denominations. In the early 1840s, she began to articulate thoughts about womens rights in her diaries and letters, in 1844, with the help of her sister Anna, Blackwell procured a teaching job that paid $400 per year in Henderson, Kentucky. Although she was pleased with her class, she found the accommodations, what disturbed her most was that this was her first real encounter with the realities of slavery
University of California, Berkeley
The University of California, Berkeley, is a public research university located in Berkeley, California. In 1960s, UC Berkeley was particularly noted for the Free Speech Movement as well as the Anti-Vietnam War Movement led by its students. S, Department of Energy, and is home to many world-renowned research institutes and organizations including Mathematical Sciences Research Institute and Space Sciences Laboratory. Faculty member J. R. Oppenheimer, the father of the atomic bomb, Lawrence Livermore Lab discovered or co-discovered six chemical elements. The Academic Ranking of World Universities ranks the University of California, third in the world overall, in 1866, the private College of California purchased the land comprising the current Berkeley campus. Ten faculty members and almost 40 students made up the new University of California when it opened in Oakland in 1869, billings was a trustee of the College of California and suggested that the college be named in honor of the Anglo-Irish philosopher George Berkeley.
In 1870, Henry Durant, the founder of the College of California, with the completion of North and South Halls in 1873, the university relocated to its Berkeley location with 167 male and 22 female students and held its first classes. In 1905, the University Farm was established near Sacramento, ultimately becoming the University of California, by the 1920s, the number of campus buildings had grown substantially, and included twenty structures designed by architect John Galen Howard. Robert Gordon Sproul served as president from 1930 to 1958, by 1942, the American Council on Education ranked UC Berkeley second only to Harvard University in the number of distinguished departments. During World War II, following Glenn Seaborgs then-secret discovery of plutonium, UC Berkeley physics professor J. Robert Oppenheimer was named scientific head of the Manhattan Project in 1942. Along with the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley is now a partner in managing two other labs, Los Alamos National Laboratory and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, military training was compulsory for male undergraduates, and Berkeley housed an armory for that purpose.
In 1917, Berkeleys ROTC program was established, and its School of Military Aeronautics trained future pilots, including Jimmy Doolittle, both Robert McNamara and Frederick C. Weyand graduated from UC Berkeleys ROTC program, earning B. A. degrees in 1937 and 1938, in 1926, future fleet admiral Chester W. Nimitz established the first Naval Reserve Officers Training Corps unit at Berkeley. The Board of Regents ended compulsory military training at Berkeley in 1962, during the McCarthy era in 1949, the Board of Regents adopted an anti-communist loyalty oath. A number of faculty members objected and were dismissed, ten years passed before they were reinstated with back pay, in 1952, the University of California became an entity separate from the Berkeley campus. Each campus was given autonomy and its own Chancellor. Then-president Sproul assumed presidency of the entire University of California system, Berkeley gained a reputation for student activism in the 1960s with the Free Speech Movement of 1964 and opposition to the Vietnam War.
In the highly publicized Peoples Park protest in 1969, students and the school conflicted over use of a plot of land, governor of California Ronald Reagan called the Berkeley campus a haven for communist sympathizers and sex deviants. Modern students at Berkeley are less active, with a greater percentage of moderates and conservatives