The Bechuanaland Protectorate /bɛˈtʃwɑːnəˌlænd/ was a protectorate established on 31 March 1885, by the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland in southern Africa. It became the Republic of Botswana on 30 September 1966 and he campaigned for the establishment of what became the Bechuanaland Protectorate, to be ruled directly from Britain. Austral Africa, Losing It or Ruling It is Mackenzie’s account of events leading to the establishment of the protectorate, influenced by Mackenzie, in January 1885 the British cabinet decided to send a military expedition to South Africa to assert British sovereignty over the contested territory. Sir Charles Warren led a force of 4,000 imperial troops north from Cape Town, after making treaties with several African chiefs, Warren announced the establishment of the protectorate in March 1885. Mackenzie accompanied Warren, and Austral Africa contains an account of the expedition. Bechuanaland meant the country of the Tswana and for administrative purposes was divided into two political entities, the northern part was administered as the Bechuanaland Protectorate and the southern part was administered as the crown colony of British Bechuanaland.
British Bechuanaland was incorporated into the Cape Colony in 1895 and now part of South Africa. The northern part, the Bechuanaland Protectorate, had an area of 225,000 square miles, the Bechuanaland Protectorate was technically a protectorate rather than a colony. Originally the local Tswana rulers were left in power, and British administration was limited to a force to protect Bechuanalands borders against other European colonial ventures. The protectorate was administered from Mafeking, creating an unusual situation, the area of Mafeking, was called The Imperial Reserve. In 1885, when the protectorate was declared, Bechuanaland was bounded to the north by the latitude of 22° south. The northern boundary of the protectorate was formally extended northward by the British to include Ngamiland, to the east by the line that commences at the aforementioned point and follows the 20th degree of east longitude to its intersection point with the 22° south latitude. Here it descends the thalweg of the channel until it meets the Zambezi.
Great Britains sphere of influence is bounded to the west and northwest by the described line. British officials did not arrive in the Ngamiland region until 1894 and this territory forms the modern North-East District of Botswana. The most powerful ruler was King Khama III, who had support from the British government. He collaborated closely with the British military, and kept his vast, Khamas eldest son, Sekgoma II, became chief of the Bamangwato upon Khamas death in 1923. Sekgoma IIs eldest son was named Seretse, throughout his life Khama was widowed and remarried several times
Pierre-Augustin Caron de Beaumarchais was a French polymath. At various times in his life, he was a watchmaker, playwright, diplomat, publisher, arms dealer, satirist and revolutionary. Born a provincial watchmakers son, Beaumarchais rose in French society and became influential in the court of Louis XV as an inventor, an early French supporter of American independence, Beaumarchais lobbied the French government on behalf of the American rebels during the American War of Independence. Beaumarchais oversaw covert aid from the French and Spanish governments to supply arms and he struggled to recover money he had personally invested in the scheme. Beaumarchais was a participant in the stages of the French Revolution. He is probably best known, for his theatrical works, Beaumarchais was born Pierre-Augustin Caron in the Rue Saint-Denis, Paris on 24 January 1732. He was the boy among the six surviving children of André-Charles Caron. The family had previously been Huguenots, but had converted to Roman Catholicism in the wake of the revocation of the Edict of Nantes, the family was comfortably middle-class and Beaumarchais had a peaceful and happy childhood.
As the only son, he was spoiled by his parents and he took an interest in music and played several instruments. Though born a Catholic, Beaumarchais retained a sympathy for Protestants, from the age of ten, Beaumarchais had some schooling at a country school where he learned some Latin. Two years later, Beaumarchais left school at twelve to work as an apprentice under his father and he may have used his own experiences during these years as the inspiration for the character of Cherubin when he wrote the Marriage of Figaro. He generally neglected his work, and at one point was evicted by his father, at the time, pocket watches were commonly unreliable for timekeeping and were worn more as fashion accessories. In response to this, Beaumarchais spent nearly a year researching improvements, in July 1753, at the age of twenty one, he invented an escapement for watches that allowed them to be made substantially more accurate and compact. The first man to take an interest in this new invention was Jean-André Lepaute, if there was a clock chiming in the wealthy homes of Paris, you can bet Lepaute built it himself.
Lepaute had been a mentor to Beaumarchais after discovering the talent in a chance encounter. He encouraged him as he worked on the new invention, earned his trust and you can imagine Beaumarchais’ surprise when he read in the September issue of Le Mercure de France that M. Lepaute had just invented the most wonderful mechanism for a more portable clock. “C’est normal, ” said his father, “C’est comme ca. ”It’s normal for the class to step on those beneath them. Well, Beaumarchais did not want any of that life and he wrote a strongly worded letter to that same newspaper defending the invention as his own and urging the Royal Academy of Sciences to see the proof for themselves
Burgundy is a historical territory and a former administrative region of east-central France, entities that trace their name from the Burgundians, a Germanic people. Historically, Burgundy has referred to political entities, including kingdoms. The first known inhabitants of the area that became Burgundy were Celts, during the 4th century, the Burgundians, a Germanic people, who may have originated in Bornholm, settled in the western Alps. They founded the Kingdom of the Burgundians, which was conquered in the 6th century by another Germanic tribe, under Frankish dominion, the Kingdom of Burgundy continued for several centuries. Later, the region was divided between the Duchy of Burgundy and the Free County of Burgundy, burgundys modern existence is rooted in the dissolution of the Frankish Empire. In the 880s, there were four Burgundies, which were the Kingdom of Upper and Lower Burgundy, the duchy, during the Middle Ages, Burgundy was the seat of some of the most important Western churches and monasteries, among them Cluny, Cîteaux, and Vézelay.
During the Hundred Years War, King John II of France gave the duchy to his youngest son, the duchy soon became a major rival to the crown. The court in Dijon outshone the French court both economically and culturally, in 1477, at the battle of Nancy during the Burgundian Wars, the last duke Charles the Bold was killed in battle, and the Duchy itself was annexed by France and became a province. However the northern part of the empire was taken by the Austrian Habsburgs, with the French Revolution in the end of the 18th century, the administrative units of the provinces disappeared, but were reconstituted as regions during the Fifth Republic in the 1970s. The modern-day administrative region comprises most of the former duchy, as of he region of Burgundy is both larger than the old Duchy of Burgundy and smaller than the area ruled by the Dukes of Burgundy, from the modern Netherlands to the border of Auvergne. Today, Burgundy is made up of the old provinces, Burgundy, Côte-dOr, Saône-et-Loire and this corresponds to the old duchy of Burgundy.
However, the old county of Burgundy is not included inside the Burgundy region, also, a small part of the duchy of Burgundy is now inside the Champagne-Ardenne region. Nivernais, now the department of Nièvre, the climate of this region is essentially oceanic, with a continental influence. The regional council of Burgundy is the legislative assembly, the council has been chaired by the Socialist François Patriat since 2004. The councils seat is in the capital city Dijon, at 17 boulevard de la Trémouille, Burgundy is one of Frances main wine producing areas. The region is divided into the Côte-dOr, where the most expensive and prized Burgundies are found, and Beaujolais, with regard to cuisine, the region is famous for the Burgundian dishes coq au vin, beef bourguignon, and époisses de Bourgogne cheese. Earlier, the part of Burgundy was heavily industrial, with coal mines near Montceau-les-Mines and iron foundries. These industries declined in the half of the twentieth century
Boston University is a private research university located in Boston, Massachusetts. The university is nonsectarian, and is affiliated with the United Methodist Church. The university has more than 3,900 faculty members and nearly 33,000 students and it offers bachelors degrees, masters degrees, and doctorates, and medical, dental and law degrees through 17 schools and colleges on two urban campuses. The main campus is situated along the Charles River in Bostons Fenway-Kenmore and Allston neighborhoods, BU is categorized as an R1, Doctoral University in the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education. BU is a member of the Boston Consortium for Higher Education, the University was ranked 39th among undergraduate programs at national universities, and 32nd among global universities by U. S. News & World Report in its 2017 rankings. In 1876, BU professor Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone in a BU lab, American Civil Rights Movement leader and 1964 Nobel Peace Prize winner Dr.
Martin Luther King, Jr. received his PhD in Theology from BU in 1955. The Boston University Terriers compete in the NCAAs Division I, BU athletic teams compete in the Patriot League, and Hockey East conferences, and their mascot is Rhett the Boston Terrier. Boston University is well known for hockey, in which it has won five national championships. The University organized formal Centennial observances both in 1939 and 1969, on April 24–25,1839 a group of Methodist ministers and laymen at the Old Bromfield Street Church in Boston elected to establish a Methodist theological school. Set up in Newbury, the school was named the Newbury Biblical Institute, in 1847, the Congregational Society in Concord, New Hampshire, invited the Institute to relocate to Concord and offered a disused Congregational church building with a capacity of 1200 people. Other citizens of Concord covered the remodeling costs, one stipulation of the invitation was that the Institute remain in Concord for at least 20 years.
The charter issued by New Hampshire designated the school the Methodist General Biblical Institute, with the agreed twenty years coming to a close, the Trustees of the Concord Biblical Institute purchased 30 acres on Aspinwall Hill in Brookline, Massachusetts, as a possible relocation site. The institute moved in 1867 to 23 Pinkney Street in Boston, in 1869, three Trustees of the Boston Theological Institute obtained from the Massachusetts Legislature a charter for a university by name of Boston University. These three were successful Boston businessmen and Methodist laymen, with a history of involvement in educational enterprises and they were Isaac Rich, Lee Claflin, and Jacob Sleeper, for whom Boston Universitys three West Campus dormitories are named. Lee Claflins son, was Governor of Massachusetts, on account of the religious opinions he may entertain, nonetheless, that this section shall not apply to the theological department of said University. Every department of the new university was open to all on an equal footing regardless of sex, race.
The Boston Theological Institute was absorbed into Boston University in 1871 as the BU School of Theology, in January 1872 Isaac Rich died, leaving the vast bulk of his estate to a trust that would go to Boston University after ten years of growth while the University was organized. Most of this bequest consisted of real estate throughout the core of the city of Boston and was appraised at more than $1.5 million, Kilgore describes this as the largest single donation to an American college or university to that time
Charles XII of Sweden
Charles XII, Latinized to Carolus Rex, was the King of Sweden from 1697 to 1718. He belonged to the House of Palatinate-Zweibrücken, a line of the House of Wittelsbach. Charles was the surviving son of Charles XI and Ulrika Eleonora the Elder. He assumed power, after a caretaker government, at the age of fifteen. Leading the Swedish army against the alliance Charles won multiple victories despite being usually significantly outnumbered, a major victory over a Russian army some three times the size in 1700 at the Battle of Narva compelled Peter the Great to sue for peace which Charles rejected. Russia was now the remaining hostile power. The defeat was followed by Surrender at Perevolochna, two campaigns met with frustration and ultimate failure, concluding with his death at the Siege of Fredriksten in 1718. At the time, most of the Swedish Empire was under military occupation. This situation was formalized, albeit moderated in the subsequent Treaty of Nystad, Charles was an exceptionally skilled military leader and tactician as well as an able politician, credited with introducing important tax and legal reforms.
With the war consuming more than half his life and nearly all his reign, like all kings, was styled by a royal title, which combined all his titles into one single phrase. The fact that Charles was crowned as Charles XII does not mean that he was the 12th king of Sweden by that name, Swedish kings Erik XIV and Charles IX gave themselves numerals after studying a mythological history of Sweden. He was actually the 6th King Charles, the non-mathematic numbering tradition continues with the current King of Sweden, Carl XVI Gustaf, being counted as the equivalent of Charles XVI. In late 1699 Charles sent a detachment to reinforce his brother-in-law Duke Frederick IV of Holstein-Gottorp. A Saxon army simultaneously invaded Swedish Livonia and in February 1700 invested Riga, Russia declared war, but stopped short of an attack on Swedish Ingria until September 1700. Leading a force of 8,000 and 43 ships in an invasion of Zealand, Charles rapidly compelled the Danes to submit to the Peace of Travendal in August 1700, Russia had opened their part of the war by invading the Swedish-held territories of Livonia and Estonia.
Charles countered this by attacking the Russian besiegers at the Battle of Narva, the Russians outnumbered the Swedish army of ten thousand men by almost four to one. Charles attacked under cover of a blizzard, effectively split the Russian army in two and won the battle, many of Peters troops who fled the battlefield drowned in the Narva River. The total number of Russian fatalities reached about 10,000 at the end of the battle, while the Swedish forces lost 667 men, Charles did not pursue the Russian army
Bridgeton, New Jersey
Bridgeton is a city in Cumberland County, New Jersey, United States, in the southern part of the state, on the Cohansey River, near Delaware Bay. It is the county seat of Cumberland County, similar to other areas near rivers and the bay, this area was inhabited for thousands of years by indigenous peoples. At the time of European contact, Lenni-Lenape Native Americans lived in the area, following a pattern of cultivation. The state-recognized Nanticoke Lenni-Lenape Indians of New Jersey maintain a cultural center here, serving a community of 12,000 in Cumberland, the first recorded European settlement in what is now Bridgeton was made by 1686 when Richard Hancock established a sawmill here. Settlers established a pioneer iron-works in 1814, Bridgeton was incorporated as a township by an act of the New Jersey Legislature on March 3,1845, from portions of Deerfield Township. Bridgeton city was incorporated on March 1,1865, replacing both Bridgeton Township and Cohansey Township, the city was named for its location at a bridge on the Cohansey River and is said to be a corruption of bridge town.
Bridgeton was home to factories, sewing factories and machine works. Bridgeton Historic District covers a quarter of the city and includes more than 2,000 properties and these range from the early Federal architecture to the 1920s, including many structures eligible for individual listing and some documented by the Historic American Buildings Survey during the 1930s. The district was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1982 and is the largest such district of any municipality in New Jersey. One of these is Potters Tavern, said to have built in the 1750s. A second is Brearley Lodge, founded by General James Giles in 1795, a third is the so-called Nail House, administrative home of the Cumberland Nail & Iron Works that established Bridgetons industrial prowess in the early nineteenth century. The first Cumberland National Bank building, which was only the bank chartered in New Jersey, is now part of the Bridgeton Library. There is the David Sheppard House, recently restored with assistance from the Garden State Historic Trust, Bridgeton straddles the tidal Cohansey River and is located near the center of the Delaware Bay lowlands.
It derives its name from the movable bridge that offered the option of regular overland travel on the Kings Highway across the Cohansey watershed region for the first time in 1716. It is said that its name went from Bridge-towne to Bridgeton in 1816-1817 owing to an error on documents published by the Cumberland Bank. Bridgeton is home to large municipal parks. It includes three lakes, Mary Elmer Lake, Sunset Lake, and East Lake. Bridgeton Park encompasses about 1,500 acres and it now includes the Cohanzick Zoo, New Jerseys oldest zoo, which is free to the public
Battle of Bosworth Field
Fought on 22 August 1485, the battle was won by the Lancastrians. Their leader Henry Tudor, Earl of Richmond, by his victory became the first English monarch of the Tudor dynasty and his opponent, Richard III, the last king of the House of York, was killed in the battle. Historians consider Bosworth Field to mark the end of the Plantagenet dynasty, at the request of his brother Edward IV, Richard was acting as Lord Protector for his son Edward V. Richard had Parliament declare Edward V illegitimate and ineligible for the throne, across the English Channel in Brittany, Henry Tudor, a descendant of the greatly diminished House of Lancaster, seized on Richards difficulties so that he could challenge his claim to the throne. Henrys first attempt to invade England was frustrated by a storm in 1483, marching inland, Henry gathered support as he made for London. Richard mustered his troops and intercepted Henrys army south of Market Bosworth in Leicestershire, Lord Stanley, and Sir William Stanley brought a force to the battlefield, but held back while they decided which side it would be more advantageous to support.
Richard divided his army, which outnumbered Henrys, into three groups, one was assigned to the Duke of Norfolk and another to the Earl of Northumberland. Henry kept most of his force together and placed it under the command of the experienced Earl of Oxford, Richards vanguard, commanded by Norfolk, attacked but struggled against Oxfords men, and some of Norfolks troops fled the field. Northumberland took no action when signalled to assist his king, so Richard gambled everything on a charge across the battlefield to kill Henry, seeing the kings knights separated from his army, the Stanleys intervened, Sir William led his men to Henrys aid and killing Richard. After the battle Henry was crowned king below an oak tree in nearby Stoke Golding, Henry hired chroniclers to portray his reign favourably, the Battle of Bosworth was popularised to represent the Tudor dynasty as the start of a new age. From the 15th to the 18th centuries the battle was glamorised as a victory of good over evil, the climax of William Shakespeares play Richard III provides a focal point for critics in film adaptations.
The exact site of the battle is disputed because of the lack of conclusive data, in 1974 the Bosworth Battlefield Heritage Centre was built on a site that has since been challenged by several scholars and historians. In October 2009 a team of researchers, who had performed geological surveys and archaeological digs in the area from 2003, during the 15th century civil war raged across England as the Houses of York and Lancaster fought each other for the English throne. In 1471 the Yorkists defeated their rivals in the battles of Barnet, the Lancastrian King Henry VI and his only son, Edward of Lancaster, died in the aftermath of the Battle of Tewkesbury. Their deaths left the House of Lancaster with no direct claimants to the throne, the Yorkist king, Edward IV, was in complete control of England. He attainted those who refused to submit to his rule, such as Jasper Tudor and his nephew Henry, naming them traitors and confiscating their lands. The Tudors tried to flee to France but strong winds forced them to land in Brittany, a semi-independent duchy, Henrys mother, Lady Margaret Beaufort, was a great-granddaughter of John of Gaunt, uncle of King Richard II and father of King Henry IV.
The Beauforts were originally bastards, but Henry IV legitimised them on the condition that their descendants were not eligible to inherit the throne
Bisbee is a city in Cochise County, United States,92 miles southeast of Tucson. According to the 2010 census, the population of the city was 5,575, the city is the county seat of Cochise County. Bisbee was founded as a copper and silver mining town in 1880, in 1929, the county seat was moved from Tombstone to Bisbee, where it remains. Mining in the Mule Mountains proved quite successful, in the early 20th century the population of Bisbee soared, in 1917, open-pit mining was successfully introduced to meet the copper demand during World War I. A high quality turquoise promoted as Bisbee Blue was a by-product of the copper mining, many high-quality mineral specimens have come from Bisbee area mines and are to be found in museum collections worldwide. Some of these include, aragonite, malachite, azurite. Miners attempted to organize to gain better working conditions and wages, earlier that year, industry police conducted the Jerome Deportation, a similar event to expel striking miners. Continued underground work enabled the town to survive changes in mining, neighboring towns had mines that closed, with a resulting dramatic loss of population.
But, by 1950, the population of Bisbee had dropped to less than 6,000, in 1975 the Phelps Dodge Corporation halted its Bisbee copper-mining operations. They worked to compensate for the loss due to the end of the mining industry in the area. Community volunteers cleared tons of rock and re-timbered the old workings. Eventually, this effort came to the attention of the federal Economic Development Administration. It approved a grant to the City of Bisbee to help the mine tour project and other improvements in downtown Bisbee. The Queen Mine Tour was officially opened to visitors on February 1,1976, more than a million visitors, from all 50 states and more than 30 countries, have taken the underground mine tour train. From 1950 to 1960, the population decline changed and the number of residents of Bisbee increased by nearly 160 percent when open-pit mining was undertaken. The peak population was in 1960, at 9,914, in the following decade, there was a decline in jobs and population, although not as severe as from 1930 to 1950.
But, the economic volatility resulted in a crash in housing prices, coupled with an attractive climate and picturesque scenery, Bisbee became a destination in the 1960s for artists and hippies of the counter culture. Artist Stephen Hutchison and his wife Marcia purchased the Copper Queen Hotel, the company had tried to find a local buyer, offering the deed to any local resident for the sum of $1, but there were no takers
Charleston, West Virginia
Charleston is the capital and largest city of the U. S. state of West Virginia. It is located at the confluence of the Elk and Kanawha Rivers in Kanawha County, as of the 2013 Census Estimate, it had a population of 50,821, while its metropolitan area had 224,743. It is a center of government and industry, early industries important to Charleston included salt and the first natural gas well. Later, coal became central to economic prosperity in the city, trade, government and education play central roles in the citys economy. The first permanent settlement, Ft. Lee, was built in 1788, in 1791, Daniel Boone was a member of the Kanawha County Assembly. Charleston is the home of the West Virginia Power minor league team, the West Virginia Wild minor league basketball team. Yeager Airport and the University of Charleston are located in the city, West Virginia University and the WVU Institute of Technology, Marshall University, and West Virginia State University have higher education campuses in the area.
Charleston is home to McLaughlin Air National Guard Base of the West Virginia Air National Guard, after the American Revolutionary War, pioneers began making their way out from the early settlements. Many slowly migrated into the part of Virginia. Capitalizing on its resources made Charleston an important part of Virginia. Today, Charleston is the largest city in the state and the state capital, Charlestons history goes back to the 18th century. Thomas Bullitt was deeded 1,250 acres of land near the mouth of the Elk River in 1773 and it was inherited by his brother, Cuthbert Bullitt, upon his death in 1778, and sold to Col. George Clendenin in 1786. The first permanent settlement, Fort Lee, was built in 1787 by Col. Savannah Clendenin and this structure occupied the area that is now the intersection of Brooks Street and Kanawha Boulevard. Historical conjecture indicates that Charleston is named after Col. Clendenins father, Charles Town was shortened to Charleston to avoid confusion with another Charles Town in eastern West Virginia, which was named after George Washingtons brother Charles.
Six years later, the Virginia General Assembly officially established Charleston, on the 40 acres that made up the town in 1794,35 people inhabited seven houses. Charleston is part of Kanawha County, the origin of the word Kanawha, derives from the regions Iroquois dialects meaning water way or Canoe Way implying the metaphor, transport way, in the local language. It was and is the name of the river flows through Charleston. The grammar of the hard H sound soon dropped out as new arrivals of various European languages developed West Virginia, the phrase has been a matter of Register
Brattleboro, originally Brattleborough, is a town in Windham County, United States. The town is located in the southeast corner of the state along the line with New Hampshire. The population is 11,765 according to the U. S. Census Bureaus 2014 estimates and it is the most populous municipality along Vermonts eastern border and is situated on the west bank of the Connecticut River at the point where Vermonts West River flows into it. Marlboro College Center for Graduate and Professional Studies and SIT Graduate Institute are located in the town, there are satellite campuses of three colleges as well, Community College of Vermont, Union Institute and University, and Vermont Technical College. The town is home to the New England Center for Circus Arts, the Brattleboro Retreat, a not-for-profit mental health and addictions psychiatric hospital, is located in the town. The Abenaki would transit this area annually between Missisquoi in northwestern Vermont, and Squakheag near what is now Northfield, the specific Abenaki band who lived here and traversed this place were called Sokoki, meaning people who go their own way or people of the lonely way.
Lieutenant-governor William Dummer signed the measure, and construction of Fort Dummer began on February 3,1724, on October 11 of that year, the French attacked the fort and killed some soldiers. By 1728, and in subsequent peaceful periods, the served as a trading post for commerce among the colonial settlers. But violence flared up from time to time throughout the first half of the 18th century, in 1744, what became known as King Georges War broke out, lasting until 1748. During this period a body of British colonial troops were posted at the fort. Although the area was part of the Equivalent Lands, the township became one of the New Hampshire grants. It was named Brattleborough, after Colonel William Brattle, Jr. of Boston, hostilities having ceased, Brattleboro developed quickly in peacetime, and soon was second to none in the state for business and wealth. In 1771, Stephen Greenleaf opened Vermonts first store in the east village, and in 1784, a bridge was built across the Connecticut River to Hinsdale, New Hampshire in 1804.
In 1834, the Brattleboro Retreat, called the Vermont Asylum for the Insane, was established through a generous bequest by Hinsdale, until the Water Cure closed in 1871, the town was widely known as a curative health resort. Whetstone Falls, very close to where Brattleboros Whetstone Brook flows into the Connecticut River, was a source of water power for watermills, initially a sawmill. In 1888, the spelling of the name was shortened to Brattleboro. The Estey Organ company, the largest organ manufacturer in the United States, the companys main factory was located southwest of downtown Brattleboro, on the south side of Whetstone Brook between Birge and Organ Streets. At its height, the complex had more than 20 buildings, many of which were interconnected by raised walkways, one of the buildings now houses the Estey Organ Museum
James G. Blaine
In the general election, he was narrowly defeated by Democrat Grover Cleveland. Blaine was one of the late 19th century’s leading Republicans and champion of the moderate reformist faction of the party known as the “Half-Breeds. ”Blaine was born in the western Pennsylvania town of West Brownsville and after moved to Maine. Nicknamed “the Magnetic Man, he was a speaker in an era that prized oratory. He began his career as an early supporter of Abraham Lincoln. In Reconstruction, Blaine was a supporter of suffrage. Initially a protectionist, he worked for a reduction in the tariff. His efforts at expanding the United States trade and influence began the shift to a more active American foreign policy, Blaine was a pioneer of tariff reciprocity and urged greater involvement in Latin American affairs. An expansionist, Blaine’s policies would lead in less than a decade to the establishment of the United States acquisition of Pacific colonies, James Gillespie Blaine was born January 31,1830 in West Brownsville, the third child of Ephraim Lyon Blaine and his wife Maria Blaine.
Blaine’s father was a western Pennsylvania businessman and landowner, and the lived in relative comfort. On his father’s side, Blaine was descended from Scotch-Irish settlers who first emigrated to Pennsylvania in 1745 and his great-grandfather, Ephraim Blaine, served as a Commissary-General under George Washington in the American Revolutionary War. Blaine’s mother and her forebears were Irish Catholics who immigrated to Pennsylvania in the 1780s, Blaine’s parents were married in 1820 in a Roman Catholic ceremony, although Blaine’s father remained a Presbyterian. Following a common compromise of the era, the Blaines agreed that their daughters would be raised in their mother’s Catholic faith while their sons would be brought up in their father’s religion, in politics, Blaine’s father supported the Whig party. Blaine’s biographers describe his childhood as “harmonious, and note that the boy took an early interest in history, at the age of thirteen, Blaine enrolled in his father’s alma mater, Washington College, in nearby Washington, Pennsylvania.
There, he was a member of the Washington Literary Society, Blaine succeeded academically, graduating near the top of his class and delivering the salutatory address in June 1847. After graduation, Blaine considered attending law school at Yale Law School, in 1848, Blaine was hired as a professor of mathematics and ancient languages at the Western Military Institute in Georgetown, Kentucky. Although he was eighteen years old and younger than many of his students. Blaine grew to enjoy life in his state and became an admirer of Kentucky Senator Henry Clay. He made the acquaintance of Harriet Stanwood, a teacher at the nearby Millersburg Female College, on June 30,1850, the two were married