William III of England
It is a coincidence that his regnal number was the same for both Orange and England. As King of Scotland, he is known as William II and he is informally known by sections of the population in Northern Ireland and Scotland as King Billy. William inherited the principality of Orange from his father, William II and his mother Mary, Princess Royal, was the daughter of King Charles I of England. In 1677, he married his fifteen-year-old first cousin, Mary, a Protestant, William participated in several wars against the powerful Catholic king of France, Louis XIV, in coalition with Protestant and Catholic powers in Europe. Many Protestants heralded him as a champion of their faith, in 1685, his Catholic father-in-law, Duke of York, became king of England and Scotland. Jamess reign was unpopular with the Protestant majority in Britain, supported by a group of influential British political and religious leaders, invaded England in what became known as the Glorious Revolution. On 5 November 1688, he landed at the southern English port of Brixham, James was deposed and William and Mary became joint sovereigns in his place.
They reigned together until her death on 28 December 1694, after which William ruled as sole monarch, Williams reputation as a staunch Protestant enabled him to take the British crowns when many were fearful of a revival of Catholicism under James. Williams victory at the Battle of the Boyne in 1690 is still commemorated by the Orange Order and his reign in Britain marked the beginning of the transition from the personal rule of the Stuarts to the more Parliament-centred rule of the House of Hanover. William III was born in The Hague in the Dutch Republic on 4 November 1650, baptised William Henry, he was the only child of stadtholder William II, Prince of Orange, and Mary, Princess Royal. Mary was the eldest daughter of King Charles I of England and Ireland, eight days before William was born, his father died of smallpox, thus William was the Sovereign Prince of Orange from the moment of his birth. Immediately, a conflict ensued between his mother the Princess Royal and William IIs mother, Amalia of Solms-Braunfels, over the name to be given to the infant.
Mary wanted to name him Charles after her brother, but her mother-in-law insisted on giving him the name William or Willem to bolster his prospects of becoming stadtholder. William II had appointed his wife as his sons guardian in his will, Williams mother showed little personal interest in her son, sometimes being absent for years, and had always deliberately kept herself apart from Dutch society. Williams education was first laid in the hands of several Dutch governesses, some of English descent, including Walburg Howard, from April 1656, the prince received daily instruction in the Reformed religion from the Calvinist preacher Cornelis Trigland, a follower of the Contra-Remonstrant theologian Gisbertus Voetius. The ideal education for William was described in Discours sur la nourriture de S. H. Monseigneur le Prince dOrange, in these lessons, the prince was taught that he was predestined to become an instrument of Divine Providence, fulfilling the historical destiny of the House of Orange.
From early 1659, William spent seven years at the University of Leiden for a formal education, under the guidance of ethics professor Hendrik Bornius. While residing in the Prinsenhof at Delft, William had a personal retinue including Hans Willem Bentinck, and a new governor, Frederick Nassau de Zuylenstein
Nassau Street (Manhattan)
Nassau Street is a street in the Financial District of New York City. It is located near Pace University and City Hall and it starts at Wall Street and runs north to Spruce Street at the foot of the Brooklyn Bridge, located one block east of Broadway and east of Park Row, in the borough of Manhattan. Nassau Street was originally called Kip Street — after an early Dutch settler family — but was named in honor of the royal family of the Netherlands. It was named some time before William of Nassau, the Dutch prince who became King William III of England, so that is not the origin of the name, Nassau Street once housed many of the citys newspapers. Late in the 20th century Nassau Street was closed to traffic during certain hours. Nassau Street borders on the Fulton-Nassau Historic District, which is bounded by Broadway and Park Row, Nassau and William Sts and Spruce Sts. and Liberty St. The original headquarters of The New York Times — the New-York Daily Times — was located at 113 Nassau Street. In 1854, the moved to 138 Nassau Street, and in 1858 it moved to Park Row.
As early as 1915, Mekeels Weekly Stamp News contained many advertisements for dealers in Nassau Street. While the stock market did poorly during the Great Depression, stamps kept their value and were negotiable assets, the Stamp Center Building was located at 116 Nassau Street, and the Subway Stamp Shop was located at 87 Nassau Street. With the dispersal of most dealers in the 1970s, a process accelerated with internet trading. Nassau Street was the title of a written in the 1960s by Herman Herst Jr. that described the golden age of the stamp collecting industry. 63 Nassau Street Atlantic National Bank, New York City New York Songlines, Broad Street with Nassau Street, a virtual walking tour
Orange County, New York
Orange County is a county located in the U. S. state of New York. As of the 2010 census, the population was 372,813 and this county was first created in 1683 and reorganized with its present boundaries in 1798. Orange County is included in the New York-Newark-Jersey City, NY-NJ-PA Metropolitan Statistical Area and it is in the states Mid-Hudson Region of the Hudson Valley. The County Executive is Steve Neuhaus, as of the 2010 census the centre of population of New York state was located in Orange County, approximately three miles west of the hamlet of Westbrookville. Orange County was officially established on November 1,1683, when the Province of New York was divided into twelve counties. Each of these was named to honor a member of the British royal family, and Orange County took its name from the Prince of Orange, as originally defined, Orange County included only the southern part of its present-day territory, plus all of present-day Rockland County further south. The northern part of the county, beyond Moodna Creek, was a part of neighbouring Ulster County.
Due to its small population, the original Orange County was not fully independent and was administered by New York County. The first European settlers in the area of the county arrived in 1685. They were a party of around twenty-five families from Scotland, led by David Toshach, the Laird of Monzievaird, and his brother-in-law Major Patrick McGregor and they settled in the Hudson Highlands at the place where the Moodna Creek enters the Hudson River, now known as New Windsor. In 1709, a group of German Palatine refugees settled at Newburgh and they were Protestants from a part of Germany along the Rhine that had suffered during the religious wars. Queen Annes government arranged for passage from England of nearly 3,000 Palatines in ten ships, many were settled along the Hudson River in work camps on property belonging to Robert Livingston. A group of Dutch and English settlers arrived at Goshen in 1712, additional immigrants came from Ireland, they were of Scots and English descent who had been settled as planters there.
In 1798, after the American Revolutionary War, the boundaries of Orange County changed and its southern corner was used to create the new Rockland County, and in exchange, an area to the north of the Moodna Creek was added, which had previously been in Ulster County. This caused a reorganization of the administration, as the original county seat had been fixed at Orangetown in 1703. The county court was established in 1801 and it was not until 1970 that Goshen was named as the sole county seat. Due to a dispute between New York and New Jersey, the boundaries of many of the southern towns of the county were not definitively established until the 19th century. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has an area of 839 square miles
Mary, Princess Royal and Princess of Orange
Mary, Princess Royal was Princess of Orange and Countess of Nassau by marriage to Prince William II. She was the eldest daughter of King Charles I of England and her only child, William succeeded her husband as Prince of Orange-Nassau and reigned as King of England and Scotland. Mary was the first daughter of a British sovereign to hold the title Princess Royal and she was co-regent for her son during his minority as Sovereign Prince of Orange from 1651 to 1660. Princess Mary Henrietta was born at St. Jamess Palace, Charles I designated her Princess Royal in 1642, thus establishing the tradition that the eldest daughter of the British Sovereign might bear this title. The title came into being when Queen Henrietta Maria, the daughter of King Henry IV of France wished to imitate the way the eldest daughter of the French king was styled, until that time, the eldest daughters of English and Scottish kings were variously titled Lady or Princess. Her father, Charles I, wished the Princess Royal to marry a son of Philip IV of Spain, while her first cousin, Charles I Louis, Elector Palatine, was a suitor for her hand.
Both proposals fell through and she was betrothed to William, the son and heir of Frederick Henry, Prince of Orange and Stadtholder of the United Provinces, the marriage took place on 2 May 1641 at the Chapel Royal, Whitehall Palace, London. The marriage was not consummated for several years because the bride was nine years old. In March 1647, Marys husband, William II, succeeded his father as stadholder, however, in November 1650, just after his attempt to capture Amsterdam from his political opponents, he died of smallpox. The couples only child, was born a few days and they had more power over the young Princes affairs than she, as evidenced by his being christened Willem, and not Charles as she had desired. She was unpopular with the Dutch because of her sympathies with her own family and she lived in the palace of the Stadthouder at the Binnenhof in the Hague, the building complex that now houses the Senate of the Netherlands. At length, public opinion having been angered by the hospitality that she showed to her brothers, the exiled Charles II.
Her moral reputation was damaged by rumours that she was having an affair with Henry Jermyn, 1st Baron Dover, the rumours were probably untrue, but Charles II took them seriously, and tried to prevent any further contact between Jermyn and Mary. From 1654 to 1657, the princess was not in Holland. In 1657, she became regent on behalf of her son for the principality of Orange, the restoration of Charles II in England and Scotland greatly enhanced the position of the Princess of Orange and her son in Holland. In September 1660, she returned to England and she died of smallpox on 24 December 1660, at Whitehall Palace and was buried in Westminster Abbey
Elizabeth Hamilton, Countess of Orkney
Elizabeth Hamilton, Countess of Orkney was an English courtier from the Villiers family and the reputed mistress of William III & II, King of England and Scotland, from 1680 until 1695. She was a lady-in-waiting to his wife and co-monarch, Queen Mary II and she was born to Colonel Sir Edward Villiers of Richmond and Frances Howard, herself the youngest daughter of Theophilus Howard, 2nd Earl of Suffolk and Elizabeth Hume. She was the founder of Midleton College in 1696, a boarding school in County Cork. Elizabeth is reputed to have become Williams mistress some three years after his marriage to Mary, in 1685, Marys father James II exploited rumors of Williams infidelity in an attempt to cause a split between his daughter and the prince. After his ascension to the English throne, William settled a large share of the confiscated Irish estates of the late James II on Elizabeth, parliament revoked this grant in 1699. In 1694, two men had fought a duel possibly over the affections of Elizabeth Villiers, john Law, still a penniless young man, killed Edward Beau Wilson on 9 April 1694.
Wilson had challenged Law, although Law may have provoked Wilson on the instigation of Villiers, due to a conflict she had with Wilson regarding money, Law was tried and initially found guilty of murder and sentenced to death. His sentence was commuted to a fine, upon the ground that the offence only amounted to manslaughter, wilsons brother appealed and had Law imprisoned, but he managed to escape to Amsterdam. On 25 November 1695 Elizabeth was married to her cousin, Lord George Hamilton and he was gratified early in the next year with the titles Earl of Orkney, Viscount of Kirkwall, and Baron Dechmont. Elizabeth, newly Countess of Orkney, served her husbands interests with great skill, lady Orkney retained a degree of social importance in the Hanoverian era, and was hostess to George I and George II at her estate at Cliveden, Buckinghamshire. She died in London on 19 April 1733, Elizabeth Villiers was a first cousin of Barbara Villiers, a mistress of Charles II, as their fathers were brothers.
Her paternal aunt was Elizabeth Villiers, Countess of Morton, the godmother and her brother was Edward Villiers, 1st Earl of Jersey, whose great-grandson married Frances Twysden, yet another royal mistress
Bill of Rights 1689
The Bill of Rights is an Act of the Parliament of England that deals with constitutional matters and sets out certain basic civil rights. It sets out certain rights of individuals including the prohibition of cruel and unusual punishment, the Bill of Rights described and condemned several misdeeds of James II of England. These ideas reflected those of the political thinker John Locke and they became popular in England. It sets out—or, in the view of its drafters, restates—certain constitutional requirements of the Crown to seek the consent of the people, a separate but similar document, the Claim of Right Act 1689, applies in Scotland. The Bill of Rights 1689 was one of the inspirations for the United States Bill of Rights, along with the Act of Settlement 1701, the Bill of Rights is still in effect in all Commonwealth realms. Following the Perth Agreement in 2011, legislation amending both of them came into effect across the Commonwealth realms on 26 March 2015, during the early modern period, the power of the Parliament of England continually increased.
Passage of the Petition of Right in 1628 and Habeas Corpus Act in 1679 established certain liberties for subjects, the idea of a political party took form with groups debating rights to political representation during the Putney Debates of 1647. The English Civil War was fought between the King and an oligarchic but elected Parliament, in the Glorious Revolution of 1688, a group of English Parliamentarians invited the Dutch stadtholder William III of Orange-Nassau to overthrow King James II of England. Williams successful invasion with a Dutch fleet and army led to James fleeing to France and this assembly called for an English Convention Parliament to be elected, which convened on 22 January 1689. On 2 February a committee specially convened reported to the Commons 23 Heads of Grievances and it passed the Commons without division. On 13 February the clerk of the House of Lords read the Declaration of Right, William replied for his wife and himself, We thankfully accept what you have offered us.
They went in procession to the gate at Whitehall. The Garter King at Arms proclaimed them King and Queen of England and Ireland, whereupon they adjourned to the Chapel Royal and they were crowned on 11 April, swearing an oath to uphold the laws made by Parliament. They were to maintain the laws of God, the profession of the Gospel. This replaced an oath which had deferred more to the monarch, the previous oath required the monarch to rule based on the laws and customs. Granted by the Kings of England, the Declaration of Right was enacted in an Act of Parliament, the Bill of Rights 1689, in December 1689. The Act declared James flight from England following the Glorious Revolution to be an abdication of the throne and it listed twelve of Jamess policies by which James designed to endeavour to subvert and extirpate the protestant religion, and the laws and liberties of this kingdom. The Bill of Rights is commonly dated in legal contexts to 1688 and this convention arises from the legal fiction that an Act of Parliament came into force on the first day of the session in which it was passed
Royal Succession Bills and Acts
Royal Succession Bills and Acts are pieces of legislation to determine the legal line of succession to the Monarchy of the United Kingdom. The Crown is a sole that represents the legal embodiment of executive, legislative. It evolved as a separation of the crown and property of the nation state from the person. In this context it should not be confused with any physical crown, a bill is a proposed law under consideration by a legislature. A bill is not law until passed by the legislature and, in most cases, approved by the executive, Privy Council, once a bill is enacted into law it is called an act or statute. Historically and presently, legislation to amend laws of succession generally argue for amendments to several historic acts, pre-legislative Scrutiny, Joint committee of both houses review bill and vote on amendments that government can accept or reject. Reports are influential in stages as rejected committee recommendations are revived to be voted on, Bill is presented, and in private members bills, a Second Reading date is set.
Second Reading, A debate on the principles of the bill is followed by a vote. Committee Stage, A committee considers each clause of the bill, report Stage, An opportunity to amend the bill. The House consider clauses to which amendments have been tabled, third Reading, A debate on final text as amended. In the Lords, further amendments may be tabled at this stage, The bill is sent to the other House which may amend it. Pre-legislative Scrutiny to consider all amendments, the bill is processed for Royal Assent, if accepted, the bill becomes an Act. The Succession to the Crown Act 2013 is a piece of legislation in the United Kingdom which alters the laws of succession to the British throne and it was published on 13 December 2012 and received Royal Assent on 25 April 2013. The Succession to the Crown Bill is to effect in the United Kingdom to the agreement between heads of government. The argument for changing the law on succession can be stated simply, the Government has said that it opposes discrimination in all forms, including against Catholics.
Historical precedence of prior succession acts usually determines succession issues, there are several events in the history of royal successions showing why succession acts were necessary at the time of their creation. The Bill of Rights limited royal power and established the supremacy of Parliament and this rights bill established the frequency of parliaments, freedom of speech in parliament, debates or proceedings not to be questioned out of parliament. This Bill especially established that, without parliamentary consent the king could not, suspend or create laws, raise taxes by prerogative and this established a new coronation oath to be taken by future monarchs
Kensington Palace is a royal residence set in Kensington Gardens, in the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea in London, England. Today, the State Rooms are open to the public and managed by the independent charity Historic Royal Palaces, the offices and private accommodation areas of the Palace remain the responsibility of the Royal Household and are maintained by the Royal Household Property Section. The palace displays paintings and other objects from the Royal Collection. Kensington Palace was originally a two-storey Jacobean mansion built by Sir George Coppin in 1605 in the village of Kensington, the mansion was purchased in 1619 by Heneage Finch, 1st Earl of Nottingham and was known as Nottingham House. In the summer of 1689, William and Mary bought Nottingham House from Secretary of State Daniel Finch and they instructed Sir Christopher Wren, Surveyor of the Kings Works to begin an immediate expansion of the house. In order to time and money, Wren kept the structure intact and added a three-story pavilion at each of the four corners, providing more accommodation for the King and Queen.
The Queen’s Apartments were in the north-west pavilion and the King’s in the south-east, Wren re-oriented the house to face west, building north and south wings to flank the approach, made into a proper cour dhonneur that was entered through an archway surmounted by a clock tower. The palace was surrounded by straight cut solitary lawns, and formal gardens, laid out with paths and flower beds at right angles. Jamess Palace, which has not been the royal residence in London since the 17th century. William had constructed the South Front, to the design of Nicholas Hawksmoor, after William IIIs death, the palace became the residence of Queen Anne. These were primarily used by the Queen to give access between the apartments and gardens. Queen Annes most notable contribution to the palace were the gardens and she commissioned the Hawksmoor designed Orangery, modified by John Vanbrugh, that was built for her in 1704. The level of decoration of the interior, including carved detail by Grinling Gibbons, reflects its use, not just as a greenhouse.
Also, a magnificent 30 acre baroque parterre, with sections of clipped scrolling designs punctuated by trees formally clipped into cones, was out by Henry Wise. Kensington Palace was the setting of the argument between Sarah, Duchess of Marlborough and Queen Anne. The Duchess, who was known for being outspoken and manipulative, was jealous of the attention the Queen was giving to Abigail Masham, Queen Anne died at Kensington Palace on 1 August 1714. George I spent lavishly on new royal apartments, creating three new state known as the Privy Chamber, the Cupola Room and the Withdrawing Room. He hired the unknown William Kent in 1722 to decorate the state rooms, the Cupola Room was Kents first commission for the King
Act of Seclusion
This meeting was convened after the death of stadtholder William II on November 6,1650, when the States of Holland decided to leave the office of Stadtholder vacant in their province. Ironically, William III would drive out the Stuart King James II during the Glorious Revolution, as the other provinces would have refused to sign the treaty if they had known of the secret clause, De Witt arranged that this clause would bind only the States of Holland. The States-General of the Netherlands were completely left in the dark, as was the Frisian plenipotentiary at the negotiations, only the two Holland representatives were in on the secret. Consequently, the States-General ratified the treaty on April 22,1654, the prime movers behind the Act of Seclusion, in which William III, Prince of Orange was excluded from the office of Stadtholder, were De Witt and his uncle Cornelis de Graeff. Then, the States of Holland debated the Act and passed it on May 4,1654, over the opposition of the Holland ridderschap, only did Oliver Cromwell, the English signatory to the treaty, ratify the treaty, as had been agreed beforehand.
According to Grand Pensionary De Witt, it was Oliver Cromwell who demanded the secret annex, the Deputated States of Friesland even demanded investigating conduct of the Dutch plenipotentiaries. When the Act of Seclusion shortly afterward was leaked by De Witts, clerk Van Messem, in the 19th century, investigation of his secret correspondence appeared to show otherwise. Nowadays, different positions are taken in this matter stemming from the suspicion that De Witt may have manipulated the writings out of fear that they fall into the wrong hands. In 1667, De Witt and his partisans permanently barred the House of Orange from influence by the Perpetual Edict, however, in 1672, the States of Holland revoked the Edict and made William of Orange Stadtholder
Nine Years' War
It was fought on the European continent and the surrounding seas, and in North America. Louis XIV of France had emerged from the Franco-Dutch War in 1678 as the most powerful monarch in Europe, Louis XIVs decision to cross the Rhine in September 1688 was designed to extend his influence and pressure the Holy Roman Empire into accepting his territorial and dynastic claims. The main fighting took place around Frances borders, in the Spanish Netherlands, the Rhineland, Duchy of Savoy, the fighting generally favoured Louis XIVs armies, but by 1696 his country was in the grip of an economic crisis. The Maritime Powers were exhausted, and when Savoy defected from the Alliance all parties were keen for a negotiated settlement. By the terms of the Treaty of Ryswick Louis XIV retained the whole of Alsace, Louis XIV accepted William III as the rightful King of England, while the Dutch acquired their Barrier fortress system in the Spanish Netherlands to help secure their own borders. In the years following the Franco-Dutch War Louis XIV of France – now at the height of his powers – sought to impose religious unity in France, and to solidify and expand his frontiers.
Louis XIV, along with his chief advisor Louvois, his foreign minister Colbert de Croissy, Vauban had advocated a system of impregnable fortresses along the frontier that would keep Frances enemies out. To construct a system, the King needed to acquire more land from his neighbours to form a solid forward line. The King grabbed the necessary territory through what is known as the Réunions, a strategy that combined legalism, the Treaty of Nijmegen and the earlier Treaty of Westphalia provided Louis XIV with the justification for the Reunions. These treaties had awarded France territorial gains, but because of the vagaries of the language they were notoriously imprecise and self-contradictory, these courts usually found in Louis XIVs favour. By 1680 the disputed County of Montbéliard had been separated from the Duchy of Württemberg, the Chamber of Reunion of Metz soon laid claims to land around the Three Bishoprics of Metz and Verdun, and most of the Spanish Duchy of Luxembourg. The fortress of Luxembourg itself was blockaded with the intention of it becoming part of Louis XIVs defensible frontier.
By forcibly taking the Imperial city the French now controlled two of the three bridgeheads over the Rhine, on the same day that Strasbourg fell French forces marched into Casale in northern Italy. Thus, the Reunions were carving territory from the frontiers of Germany, since Leopold Is intervention in the Franco-Dutch War Louis XIV had considered the Emperor his most dangerous enemy, yet the French king had little reason to fear him. Leopold I was weak in Germany, and was in danger along his Hungarian borders where the Ottoman Turks were threatening to overrun all central Europe from the south. Louis had encouraged and assisted the Ottoman drive against Leopold Is Habsburg lands, when the Turks besieged Vienna in the spring of 1683 Louis did nothing to help the defenders. Taking advantage of the Ottoman threat in the east Louis XIV invaded the Spanish Netherlands on 1 September 1683 and renewed the siege of Luxembourg, spains military options were highly limited, yet the Ottoman defeat before Vienna on 12 September had emboldened them.
In the hope that Leopold I would now make peace in the east and come to their assistance, the Emperor had decided to continue the Turkish war in the Balkans and, for the time being, compromise in the west
The Loyal Orange Institution, more commonly known as the Orange Order, is a Protestant fraternal organisation based primarily in Northern Ireland. It has a significant presence in the Scottish Lowlands and lodges throughout the Commonwealth, the Orange Order was founded in County Armagh in 1795, during a period of Protestant–Catholic sectarian conflict, as a Masonic-style brotherhood sworn to maintain the Protestant Ascendancy. It is headed by the Grand Orange Lodge of Ireland, which was established in 1798 and its name is a tribute to the Dutch-born Protestant king William of Orange, who defeated the army of Catholic king James VII & II in the Williamite War in Ireland. Its members wear orange sashes and are referred to as Orangemen, the Order is best known for its yearly marches, the biggest of which are held on or around 12 July. Politically, the Orange Order is a conservative British unionist organisation with links to Ulster loyalism and it campaigned against Scottish independence in 2014.
The Order sees itself as defending Protestant civil and religious liberties, whilst critics accuse the Order of being sectarian and it has been criticised for associating with loyalist paramilitary groups. As a Protestant society, it does not accept non-Protestants as members unless they convert and adhere to the principles of Orangeism, Orange marches through mainly Catholic and nationalist neighbourhoods in Northern Ireland are controversial and have often led to violence. In particular, the Institution remembers the victories of William III and his forces in Ireland in the early 1690s and these followed a tradition started in Elizabethan England of celebrating key events in the Protestant calendar. By the 1740s there were organisations holding parades in Dublin such as the Boyne Club, throughout the 1780s, sectarian tension had been building in County Armagh, largely due to the relaxation of the Penal Laws. Here the number of Protestants and Catholics were of equal number. Drunken brawls between rival gangs had by 1786 become openly sectarian, in September 1795, at a crossroads known as The Diamond near Loughgall and Protestant Peep o Day Boys gathered to fight each other.
When a contingent of Defenders from County Tyrone arrived on 21 September, the Peep o Day Boys quickly regrouped and opened fire on the Defenders. According to William Blacker, the battle was short and the Defenders suffered not less than thirty deaths. After the battle had ended, the Peep o Days marched into Loughgall, and in the house of James Sloan they founded the Orange Order, the principal pledge of these lodges was to defend the King and his heirs so long as he or they support the Protestant Ascendancy. At the start the Orange Order was an organisation to the Defenders in that it was a secret oath-bound society that used passwords. One of the few landed gentry that joined the Orange Order at the outset. He says that a determination was expressed to driving from this quarter of the county the entire of its Roman Catholic population, with notices posted warning them to Hell or Connaught. Other people were warned by notices not to inform on local Orangemen or I will Blow your Soul to the Low hils of Hell And Burn the House you are in, within two months,7,000 Catholics had been driven out of County Armagh