Category:Wives of Ottoman Sultans
Pages in category "Wives of Ottoman Sultans"
The following 108 pages are in this category, out of 108 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 108 pages are in this category, out of 108 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Devlet Hatun – Devlet Hatun (fully Devletlu İsmetlu Daulat Hātûn Hazretleri, Ottoman Turkish, دولت شاه خاتون, c. was the twelfth wife of Ottoman Sultan Bayezid I and the mother of Mehmed I. Devlet Hatun was the twelfth and last wife of Ottoman Sultan Bayezid I and her name in her vakfîyya is registered as Daulât bint-i AbdAllah. This implies that the mother of Mehmed I was of non-Turkish origin, although the sign at her tomb says that Devlet was the daughter of a Germiyanid prince, she was ethnically of non-Turkish origin. Since both Devlet Hâtun, and Devlet-Şâh Hâtun died in 1414, she is confused with Devlet-Şâh Hâtun. Devlet Hatun died in January 1414 and was buried at the Devlet Hatun Tomb in Bursa and it is well tended by the Bursa neighbourhood in which it is situated and functions as a local pilgrimage site. The sign outside her tomb gives the details, It was built by Sultan Mehmed I. Devlet Hatun was the wife of Sultan Bayezid I and the mother of Sultan Mehmed I and she was the daughter of a Germiyanid prince. Her mother was the granddaughter of Mevlâna Celâleddini Rumi, the Imperial Harem, Women and Sovereignty in the Ottoman Empire, Oxford University Press,1993, ISBN 0-19-508677-5. Yavuz Bahadıroğlu, Resimli Osmanlı Tarihi, Nesil Yayınları, 15th Ed
2. Hafsa Hatun – Hafsa Khātun was the wife of Ottoman Sultan Bayezid I of the Ottoman Empire. Hafsa Hatun was born as the daughter of Fahreddin İsa Bey and she was married to Bayezid I in 1390 upon his conquest of Aydinids. Her public works are located within her fathers territory and may have built before she married Bayezid I upon his conquest of Aydin in 1390. She was one of the two royal Muslim wives of the sultans appear to have buildings, and even these may not as Ottoman public structures. The wives of the sultans are notably absent as builders and endowers of such public monuments or institutions and she bore no children to Bayezid. She built a fountain in Tire city and a Hermitage in Bademiye, the hafsa Hatun Mosque was commissioned by Hafsa Hatun. It was built between the years 1390-1392 from the money she received in her dowry, the mosque has lodges, soup kitchens, fountains, baths. The main structure of the mosque has been destroyed only the minaret of the mosque stands. But it is also in danger to collapse, the mosque is located in the south-east of the baths and the majority are under the ground. Ottoman dynasty Ottoman Empire Peirce, Leslie P, the Imperial Harem, Women and Sovereignty in the Ottoman Empire, Oxford University Press,1993, ISBN 0-19-508677-5. Yavuz Bahadıroğlu, Resimli Osmanlı Tarihi, Nesil Yayınları, 15th Ed
3. Haseki sultan – Haseki Sultan was the imperial title used for the chief consort of an Ottoman Sultan. Haseki sultan meant chief consort or single favorite of the sultan, in later years, the meaning of the title changed to imperial consort. Hürrem Sultan, principal consort of Suleiman the Magnificent, was the first holder of this title, the title haseki sultan was only used until the 17th century. After that, Kadınefendi became the highest ranking title for imperial consorts, the word haseki comes from the Arabic and means to attribute something exclusively to. Haseki is, therefore, one who belongs exclusively to the sultan, Sultan is a word of Arabic origin, originally meaning authority or dominion. By the beginning of the 16th century, this title, carried by men and women of the Ottoman dynasty, was replacing other titles by which prominent members of the imperial family had been known. This usage underlines the Ottoman conception of power as family prerogative. Western tradition knows the Ottoman ruler as sultan, but the Ottomans themselves used padişah or hünkar to refer to their ruler, the emperor’s formal title consisted of sultan together with han. In formal address, the children were also entitled sultan, with imperial princes carrying the title before their given name. Example, Şehzade Sultan Mehmed and Mihrimah Sultan, son and daughter of Suleiman the Magnificent, the evolving usage of this title reflected power shifts among imperial women, especially during the Sultanate of Women. As the position of the chief consort eroded over the course of the 17th century, the main consort lost the title sultan, which was replaced by kadin, henceforth, the mother of the reigning sultan was the only person of non-imperial blood to carry the title sultan. Title haseki carried before or after given name, according to a genealogical website, the formal way of addressing a haseki is Devletlû İsmetlu Haseki Sultân Aliyyetüş-Şân Hazretleri. These cases happened during Hürrem Sultan and Kösem Sultans eras, later, Hürrem became the first prince’s mother to remain in the Sultan’s court for the duration of her life. Hürrem became Suleiman’s partner not only in household, but also in state affairs, thanks to her intelligence, she acted as Suleiman’s chief adviser, and she seems to have had an influence upon foreign policy and international politics. Hürrem’s great power signaled the rise of the imperial consort under the title of haseki. A mother’s political role traditionally began with the creation of a household for her son. The establishment of her public politic identity entailed her separation from the sultan, even though it became a great position, haseki was not used during reign of Mehmed III, son of Murad III. He may have followed the one mother-one son policy, since his eldest surviving son, Mahmud, the absence of a haseki and reinstution of polyconcubinage was probably influenced by two reason, Mehmed’s experiences as şehzade and strong personality of his mother Safiye
4. Turhan Hatice Sultan – Turhan Hatice Sultan, was Haseki Sultan of the Ottoman Sultan Ibrahim and Valide Sultan as mother of Mehmed IV. Turhan Hatice was prominent for the regency of her young son and she and her mother-in-law, Kösem Sultan, are the only two women in Ottoman history to be regarded as official regents and had supreme control over the Ottoman Empire. As a result, Turhan became one of the prominent figures during the era known as Sultanate of Women, Turhan Hatice, whose original name is unknown, was considered to be of East Slavic origin, either Russian or Ukrainian. She was captured during one of the raids by Tatars and sold into slavery, when she was about 12 years old, Turhan was sent to the Topkapı Palace as a gift, from the Khan of Crimea, to the mother of Sultan Ibrahim, Kösem Sultan. It was probably Kösem Sultan who gave Hatice to Ibrahim as a concubine, on January 2,1642 Turhan gave birth to a son, the future sultan Mehmed IV. Turhan Hatice was one of the eight Haseki Sultans of Ibrahim I, however, she was not his legal wife. She was ranked in the Harem as Dördüncü Haseki Sultan, which literally means fourth sultana consort, ibrahims behaviour sparked talks of deposing the sultan. On August 8,1648, Ibrahim was dethroned and several days later he was strangled, at the head of the Ottoman Empire stood the child sultan, Mehmed IV. With Mehmeds ascendancy, the position of Valide Sultan should have gone to Turhan, however, Turhan was overlooked due to her youth and inexperience. Instead, the grandmother and the previous Valide Sultan, Kösem Sultan, was reinstated to this high position. Kösem Sultan was a Valide under two sons, thus having the experience of the two women. However, Turhan turned out to be too ambitious a woman to lose such a position without a fight. In her struggle to become Valide Sultan, Turhan was supported by the black eunuch in her household. Although, Kösem’s position as Valide was seen as the best for the government, in this power struggle, Kösem planned to dethrone Mehmed and replace him with another young grandson. According to one historian, this switching had more to do with replacing an ambitious daughter-in-law with one who was easily controlled. The plan was unsuccessful as it was reported to Turhan by Meleki Hatun, whether Turhan sanctioned it or not, Kösem Sultan was murdered three years after becoming regent for her young grandson. With the death of her rival, Turhan became the Valide Sultan, as a regent, Turhan wielded great power. She accompanied her son the sultan to important meetings and on several occasions spoke from behind her curtained sitting place and she was deeply loved and respected by her son, the sultan
5. Hayme Hatun – Hayme Hatun, also known as Hayme Ana, was the grandmother of Osman I, founder of the Ottoman Empire and the mother of Ertuğrul Gazi, the leader of the Kayı clan of the Oghuz Turks. According to Necdet Sakaoğlu, she was a Yörük, the mother of Osman Gazi and her name appears as Haymana, Hayme Hatun, Hayme Sultan, Ayva Ana and Ayvana. The name Hayme Ana seems to be an obvious transference of the topographic term haymana, or prairie, Hayma Anas last resting place is at Çarşamba, a village near Domaniç, in a pasture area, close to a route connecting the lowlands east of Bursa with Tavşanlı. In 1892 Abdul Hamid II saw the recovery of the tomb of Hayma Ana Hatun, Abdul Hamids interest on the renovation of his ancestor resting places has clear political implications, and both recoveries may be equal fraudulent. She was of Turkish descent and the belonged to a Turkmen family
6. Theodora Kantakouzene (wife of Orhan) – Theodora Kantakouzene was a Byzantine princess, the daughter of Emperor John VI Kantakouzenos and the fifth wife of the Ottoman Sultan Orhan Gazi. After her marriage to Orhan, she became known among the Turks as Maria Hatun, Theodora was one of the three daughters of Emperor John VI Kantakouzenos by his wife Irene Asanina. The historian Nikephoros Gregoras erroneously calls her Maria in one passage, the marriage took place in the summer of the same year. Her parents and sisters escorted her to Selymbria, where Orhans representatives, including grandees of his court and a cavalry regiment, arrived on a fleet of 30 ships. A ceremony was held at Selymbria, where Orhans envoys received her and escorted her to the Ottoman lands in Bithynia, across the Marmara Sea, Theodora remained a Christian after her marriage, and was active in supporting the Christians living under Ottoman rule. In 1347 she gave birth to her son, Şehzade Halil. The Byzantine emperor John V Palaiologos was instrumental in his eventual release, later, Halil married Irene, a daughter of John V Palaiologos and Theodoras sister, Helena Kantakouzene. Except for a sojourn in Constantinople in February 1347, in the aftermath of her fathers victory in the civil war. After that, she returned to Constantinople, where she lived with her sister. She is last known to have been imprisoned at Galata during the brief reign of Andronikos IV Palaiologos there in 1379–81. The Reluctant Emperor, A Biography of John Cantacuzene, Byzantine Emperor and Monk, trapp, Erich, Walther, Rainer, Beyer, Hans-Veit, Sturm-Schnabl, Katja. Vienna, Verlag der Österreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften
7. Kera Tamara – Tamara Hejtan was the daughter of the Bulgarian Emperor Ivan Alexander and his second wife Sarah-Theodora. Kera Tamara was a sister of Ivan Shishman and Ivan Sratsimir and she was born probably around 1340 and originates from the Shishman dynasty. The first husband of Kera Tamara was despot Constantine, however, that theory has been dismissed by the historians because in 1371 Kera Tamara was already a widow while Constantine Dragash died in 1395. Therefore, despot Constantine who was depicted in the Tetraevangelia of Ivan Alexander next to the Bulgarian princess was another man. The Sultan who was familiar with the beauty of Kera Tamara. Ivan Shishman managed to divert his demand and prolonged his decision for seven years, on that occasion an anonymous Bulgarian chronicle from the 15th century records. And on the throne came Shishman, son of Alexander. Amorat sent to him men to ask for his sister, but he did not want to give his sister, however, in 1378 when his attempts to stop the Turks failed, Ivan Shishman reluctantly sent Kera Tamara in the harem of the Sultan in the Ottoman capital Bursa. And she, when she arrived there, kept her True faith, freed her people, lived well and pious and died in peace, may her memory live forever. The grave of Kera Tamara remains today in Bursa in the tomb of the Ottoman dynasty next to the grave of Murad I. According to Kera Tamaras will, her tomb remained uncovered and barley was sowed on her grave, queens of Tarnovo, Plamen Pavlov,2006
8. Mahidevran – Mahidevran was a chief consort of Suleiman the Magnificent of the Ottoman Empire before Hürrem Sultan, and the mother of Şehzade Mustafa. Mahidevrans name means one who is beautiful, one whose beauty never fades or beauty of the times. Another meaning of her name is Moon of Fortune, some sources name her Gülbahar, with gül meaning rose and bahar meaning spring in Turkish and Persian. She is often referred to as Mahidevran Sultan in popular books, TV series and touristic literature. However she is referred to as Mahidevran Kadin by popular authors. Some historians have referred to her as Mahidevran Hatun, According to Leslie P. Peirce, prior to the creation of the title Haseki Sultan for Hürrem Sultan, all the Ottoman consorts carried an alternative royal title, Hatun. Also according to Peirce, during the 16th century, the title Hatun for a Valide, hence it is possible that Mahidevran also carried the title Sultan. Though Mahidevran may not have been a Haseki, she was the mother of Şehzade Mustafa, the eldest surviving son of the reigning Sultan, hence it can be asserted that she held an influential position in Suleimans harem, according to Ottoman traditions, she was Suleimans Baş Kadin. As a Baş Kadin, she was second in ranking in the Harem after Valide sultan, however, she was supplanted as a favourite by Hürrem Sultan, when Suleiman stopped paying attention to Mahidevran and dedicated his full affection towards Hürrem in 1526. While Hürrem became Suleimans new favorite and later his wife, Mahidevran retained the status of the mother of Suleimans eldest son. Little is known of Mahidevrans early life and her ethnic background is a matter of controversy. She was either an Albanian or Circassian, theories of her origins are, According to some contemporary Venetian sources, she was of Circassian origin. The name of Mahidevrans father, given in documents as Abdullah, Abdürrahman or Abdülmennan. By some other accounts, she was of Montenegrin origin and she possibly bore her husband another son, Şehzade Abdullah. When Selim I died in 1520, Suleiman moved to Constantinople, in 1521, Suleiman lost his two other sons, nine-year-old Mahmud and the toddler Murad, Mustafa became the eldest of his princely generation. In the Istanbul harem, Mahidevran had an influential rival, Hürrem Sultan. Hürrem gave birth to her first son Mehmed in 1521 and then Selim in 1524, the rivalry between the two women was partially suppressed by Hafsa, Suleimans mother. According to Navageros report, as a result of the rivalry a fight between the two women broke out, with Mahidevran beating Hürrem, which angered Suleiman
9. Malhun Hatun – Malhun Hatun was the first wife of Osman I, the leader of the Ottoman Turks and the founder of the dynasty that established and ruled the Ottoman Empire. She was the mother of the next and second ruler of the Ottoman State and it has been recognized by many historians that she was the daughter of the Anatolian Turkish Bey, Ömer Bey, although there had been some speculations that she was the daughter of Sheikh Edebali. Other sources say that she was the daughter of Ömer Abdülaziz Bey, the title bey, used by the princely dynasties of Anatolia, suggests that Mal Hatuns father was a person of some status and authority. One possibility is that he was the ruler of an Amouri principality. The Amouri are described by the Byzantine historian George Pachymeres, who says that a son of Umar fought with Osman in one of his first raids against local Byzantine lords. The Ottomans, according to Pachymeres, went on to assume the role played by Amouri until their demise as the aggressor against the Byzantines in the northwest Anatolia. If Pachymeress report is correct, the timing and the context are appropriate for a marriage between Osman and Umar Beys daughter. Mal Hatun has a role in the legendary Osmans Dream, depicting Osmans great love for her. The account is, however, considered to have been composed centuries later, the Imperial Harem, Women and Sovereignty in the Ottoman Empire, Oxford University Press,1993, ISBN 0-19-508677-5. Bahadıroğlu, Yavuz, Resimli Osmanlı Tarihi, Nesil Yayınları, 15th Ed
10. Nigar Hatun – Nigar Hatun was the Empress consort of Sultan Bayezid II of the Ottoman Empire. Little is known of Nigar’s early life, the Ottoman inscription describes her as Hātun binti Abdullah Vehbi. On her tomb in Antalya she is described as Hātun binti Abdullah which means that her father was possibly a Christian who converted to Islam. When Bayezid was still a şehzade and the governor of Amasya sanjak when she gave birth to Fatma Sultan, followed by the birth of Ayşe Sultan in 1465 and Şehzade Korkut in 1467. When Mehmed the Conqueror died in 1481, Bayezid moved to Constantinople, according to Turkish tradition, all princes were expected to work as provincial governors as a part of their training. Mothers of princes were responsible for the behaviour of their sons in their provincial posts. In 1481 Korkut, Selims principal rival, was sent to Manisa sanjak and then to Anatolia and back to Manisa, after the death of Şehzade Korkut, Nigar Hatun came to Antalya in 1513 when her son was executed by Selim. In retirement she occupied herself with pious works, in 1502, just a year before her death, she built a mausoleum for herself at Yivliminare Mosque, Antalya. The style of the mausoleum is reminiscent of the Seljuk vault and it was constructed of aggregate and brick dust and lime mortar on a hexagonal base. The walls are covered in miscellaneous materials. Repairs were carried out on the mausoleum in 1961
11. Nurbanu Sultan – Afife Nurbanu Sultan was Haseki Sultan of Ottoman as principal consort and legal wife of Sultan Selim II and Valide Sultan of Ottoman as mother of Sultan Murad III. Conflicting theories ascribe her a Venetian, Jewish or Greek origin and her birth name may have been Cecilia Venier-Baffo, Rachel or Kalē Kartanou. Nurbanu was one of the prominent figure during the era known as Sultanate of Women, the Venetian claimed she was a daughter of Nicolò Venier and Violanta Baffo, abducted in Paros island when it was captured by Hayreddin Barbarossa. In 1992, B. Arbel challenged the view that she was really of Venetian descent, for him the most plausible theory is that she was a Greek from Corfou named Kale Kartanou. Nurbanu became the most favored consort of Ottoman Sultan Selim II, who was put on the throne in 1566, while her spouse Selim still a şehzade, Nurbanu had been the head of his princely harem at Manisa. However, when Selim ascended to the throne, she was not head of the imperial harem, even after Selim as a sultan began to take other concubines, she persisted as a favorite for her beauty and intelligence. As mother of the heir-apparent, she acted as an advisor to her husband, although it was far from normal at the time, Selim II would often ask Nurbanu for her advice on various subjects because of his respect for her good judgment. Jacopo Soranzo, Venetian Ambassador reported, The Haseki is said to be well loved and honored by His Majesty both for her great beauty and for being unusually intelligent. She was a wife and a very loyal mother as later events would prove. The Ottoman Empire was far from being very stable at the top and it was also not uncommon for the loser to have his entire family massacred along with him to prevent any future challenge. Nurbanu Sultan was determined, however, that when the time came for her son to succeed his father, nothing would interfere with that. At the end of Selim IIs reign, the haseki Nurbanu received 1,000 aspers a day, while Selims other consorts, each the mother of son, received only 40 aspers. Şehzade Murad had been sent to serve as Governor of Manisa on the Aegean coast and was there when Sultan Selim II died in 1574 and this would have been the perfect opportunity for someone to seize power with the Sultan dead and his son away from the capital. Nurbanu realized this as much, if not more, than anyone, security and privacy in the harem were the most strict anywhere and no one knew when Selim II had actually died. Nurbanu told no one and hid the body of her husband in an icebox. All the while no one was the wiser that Sultan Selim II had actually departed this life and it was not made known publicly until twelve days later when Murad arrived and Nurbanu delivered up the body of her late husband. Her son became Sultan Murad III and Nurbanu became Valide Sultan, unlike her predecessor Hürrem Sultan, Nurbanu outlived her husband and enjoyed absolute power between 1574 and 1583, although she was apparently not resident in the Palace after Selim IIs death. Nurbanu had ultimate power, and she became a figure with far-reaching influence
12. Pertevniyal Sultan – Pertevniyal Sultan, sometimes called Besime and Hasna was a consort of Sultan Mahmud II, and Valide Sultan to their son Abdülaziz of the Ottoman Empire. Her sister, Hoşyar Kadın, was the mother of Ismail Pasha, Khedive of Egypt, the final illness of Abdülmecid I in 1861 started a spate of rumors that there was a group in the palace who wanted Murad to succeed to the throne instead of Abdülaziz. There seems to have no truth in these allegations, but they nevertheless worried Abdülaziz and especially his mother. Pertevniyal, to reassure herself, followed him there, mother of Abdülaziz, who made an official visit to France, United Kingdom and Prussia in 1867. The visit of the Empress, however, did leave a lasting effect by making Western fashion popular among the harem women, Pertevniyal exerted some influence over her son. When Abdülaziz took his trip to Europe, Pertevniyal was anxious about him the time he was away. On his way home he stopped at Ruse, Bulgaria, where Midhat was governor, with the intention of a month, but Pertevniyal, a possessive and short-sighted woman, wrote him to come home immediately. Sultan of Turkey though he was, he obeyed his mothers command, Pertevniyal contributed to the instability of her sons rule by meddling in affairs of state. Especially unwise was her alliance with Mahmud Nedim Pasha, the grand vizier whose recklessness. There was such an outcry against Mahmud Nedim that he fell from power in 1876 and was succeeded by Midhat Pasha. There was sum of 100,000 Turkish lira unaccounted for in the budget, privately Mahmud Nedim disclosed that the money had not been spent by him but had gone to the palace, presumably to the valide sultan. Mahmud Nedim was exiled from the capital for a while, midhats efforts at financial reform were blocked, and he was replaced by Mahmud Nedim. Finally, when talk of Abdülazizs deposition was in the air, Midhat carefully composed such a document which was approved by the valide, but neither she nor anyone else had the courage at this point, with the sultan in a highly nervous state, to submit to him. She founded a Pertevniyal Anatolian High School as well as Pertevniyal Valide Sultan Mosque in 1872, in the days when the Hejaz was part of the Empire, the Porte tried to improve the health situation there. Pertevniyal, built hospitals in the Harem-i Sherif, and young Turkish doctors went out from Istanbul to man them, after the death of her son, Sultan Abdülaziz, Pertevniyal Sultan was despondent. Her only pleasure and distraction lay in passing time by training young and lovely children, gathering them about her and finding consolation in the things they did, Pertevniyal Sultan had another habit between the dusk and the night time prayer. She would prostrate herself in worship, weeping loudly as she cried out, I forgive everything, afterwards in her room she would have the Quran recited and then have the children say Amen. She died on 5 February 1883 at Beşiktaş, Istanbul, and was buried at the Pertevniyal Valide Sultan Mosque in Aksaray, Istanbul
13. Rabia Bala Hatun – Râbia Bâlâ Hâtun was the wife of Ottoman Sultan Osman I. She was the daughter of the famous Sheikh Edebali and the mother of Alaeddin Pasha of the Ottoman Empire and her identity is being frequently confused with the mother of Orhan Bey, Malhun Hatun. Edebalis daughter is called by different names in the sources, Rabia and Bala, Sheikh Edebalis daughter is referred to as Rabia in the history of Uruc, and as Malhun in those of Aşıkpaşazade and Neşri. The latter tradition has proved dominant, and Orhans mother Mal Hatun, the marriage of Osman and Rabia Bala Hatun occurred in 1289. Edebali was a religious leader in the Ottoman territories. Although, she preceded her husband, Osman, she was buried with her father in Belicik, Ottoman Empire Ottoman dynasty Peirce, Leslie P. The Imperial Harem, Women and Sovereignty in the Ottoman Empire, Oxford University Press,1993, bahadıroğlu, Yavuz, Resimli Osmanlı Tarihi, Nesil Yayınları, 15th Ed
14. Hurrem Sultan – She was one of the most powerful and influential women in Ottoman history and a prominent and controversial figure during the era known as the Sultanate of Women. She was Haseki Sultan when her husband, Suleiman I, reigned as the Ottoman sultan and she achieved power and influenced the politics of the Ottoman Empire through her husband and played an active role in state affairs of the Empire. According to some historians, Roxelana was born as Aleksandra Ruslana Lisowska, or Anastasja Lisowska while her childhood nickname was Nastia. Among the Ottomans, she was mainly as Haseki Hürrem Sultan or Hürrem Haseki Sultan, also known as Roxolena, Roxolana, Roxelane, Rossa, Ružica, in Turkish as Hürrem. Roxelana might be not a name but a nickname, referring to her Rusyn heritage, Roxolany or Roxelany was one of the names of Rusyns, up to the 15th century. Thus her nickname would literally mean The Ruthenian One, Hürrem Sultan was a native of Polish Ruthenia and was of either Western Slavic or Eastern Slavic ancestry. She was born in the town of Rohatyn,68 km south-east of Lwów, in the 1520s Crimean Tatars captured her during one of their frequent raids into this region, took her as a slave and selected her for Suleimans harem. Roxelana probably entered the harem around fifteen years of age, sometime between 1517 and 1520, but certainly before Suleiman became sultan in 1520 and she quickly came to the attention of her master and attracted the jealousy of rivals. She soon became Suleimans most prominent consort beside Gülfem and Mahidevran and her joyful spirit and playful temperament earned her a new name, Hürrem, from Persian Khorram, the cheerful one. In the Istanbul harem, Hürrem became a rival to Mahidevran and she was to bear the majority of Suleimans children. Hürrem gave birth to her first son Mehmed in 1521 and then to four more sons, Suleimans mother, Hafsa, partially suppressed the rivalry between the two women. As a result of the rivalry a fight between the two women broke out, with Mahidevran beating Hürrem, which angered Suleiman. Never before was a former slave elevated to the status of the sultans lawful spouse, much to the astonishment of observers in the palace, Hürrem also received the title Haseki Sultan and became the first consort to hold this title. Hürrems salary was 2,000 aspers a day, making her one of the highest paid haseki, later, Hürrem became the first woman to remain in the Sultans court for the duration of her life. This tradition was called Sanjak Beyliği, the consorts were never to return to Istanbul unless their sons succeeded to the throne. In defiance of this custom, Hürrem stayed behind in the harem with her hunchback son Cihangir. Moreover, she moved out of the located in the Old Palace to Suleimans quarters located in the New Palace after a fire destroyed the old palace. Under his pen name, Muhibbi, Sultan Suleiman composed this poem for Hürrem Sultan, Throne of my lonely niche, my wealth, my love and my most sincere friend, my confidant, my very existence, my Sultan, my one and only love
15. Safiye Sultan – Safiye Sultan, was the consort of Murad III and Valide Sultan of the Ottoman Empire as mother of Mehmed III. Safiye was also one of the eminent figures during the era known as the Sultanate of Women. She lived in the Ottoman Empire during the reigns of seven sultans, Suleiman the Magnificent, Selim II, Murad III, Mehmed III, Ahmed I, Mustafa I, and Osman II. The identity of Safiye has often confused with that of her Venetian mother-in-law, Nurbanu. However, Safiye was of Albanian origin, born in the Dukagjin highlands, in 1563, at the age of 13, she was presented as a slave to the future Murad III by Hümaşah Sultan, daughter of Şehzade Mehmed, son of Suleiman the Magnificent and Hürrem Sultan. Given the name Safiye, she became a concubine of Murad, in 26 May 1566, she gave birth to Murads son, the future Mehmed III, same year when Suleiman the Magnificent died. Safiye had been Murads only concubine prior to his accession, and his mother Nurbanu advised him to take other concubines for the good of the dynasty, which by 1581 had only one surviving heir, Murad and Safiyes son Mehmed. In 1583, Nurbanu accused Safiye of using witches and sorcerers to render Murad impotent and prevent him from taking new concubines and this resulted in the imprisonment and torture of Safiyes servants. Murads sister Esmehan presented him with two beautiful concubines, which he accepted, cured of his impotence, he went on to father twenty sons and twenty-seven daughters. Venetian reports state that after an initial bitterness, Safiye kept her dignity and she even procured more for him, earning the gratitude of the Sultan, who continued to value her and consult her on political matters, especially after the death of Nurbanu. During Murads latter years, Safiye returned to being his only companion, however, it is unlikely that Safiye ever became Murads wife—though the Ottoman historian Mustafa Ali refers to her as such, he is contradicted by reports from the Venetian and English ambassadors. She was influential as a Haseki, a rank bestowed on her less than a year after Murad ascended the throne. When Murad died in 1595, Safiye arranged for her son Mehmed to succeed as sultan, until her sons death in 1603, Ottoman politics were determined by a party headed by herself and Gazanfer Ağa, chief of the white eunuchs and head of the enderun. Safiye eventually enjoyed an enormous stipend of 3,000 aspers a day during the part of her sons reign. When Mehmed III went on the Eger campaign in Hungary in 1596, he gave his great power over the empire. During her interim rule she persuaded her son to revoke a political appointment of the judgeship of Istanbul and to reassign to the grand vizierate to Damat Ibrahim Pasha, her son-in-law. During this period, the secretary of the English ambassador reported that while in the palace, the Queen Mother sent to enquire of the matter was told that the Vizier did justice upon certain chabies, that is, whores. The greatest crisis Safiye endured as valide sultan stemmed from her reliance on her kira, a kira was a non-Muslim woman who acted as an intermediary between a secluded woman of the harem and the outside world, serving as a business agent and secretary
16. Valide sultan – Valide sultan was the title held by the legal mother of a ruling Sultan of the Ottoman Empire. The title was first used in the 16th century for Hafsa Sultan, consort of Selim I and mother of Suleiman the Magnificent, normally, this title was held by the living mother of a reigning sultan. The mothers who died before their sons accession to the throne were never bestowed with the title of valide sultan, in special cases, there were grandmothers and stepmothers of a reigning sultan who assumed the title valide sultan. The word valide literally means mother in Ottoman Turkish, the Turkish pronunciation of the word valide is. Sultan is an Arabic word originally meaning authority or dominion, by the beginning of the 16th century, this title, carried by both men and women of the Ottoman dynasty, was replacing other titles by which prominent members of the imperial family had been known. Consequently, the title valide hatun also turned into valide sultan and this usage underlines the Ottoman conception of sovereign power as family prerogative. Western tradition knows the Ottoman ruler as sultan, but the Ottomans themselves used padişah or hünkar to refer to their ruler, the emperor’s formal title consisted of sultan together with khan. In formal address, the children were also entitled sultan, with imperial princes carrying the title before their given name. Example, Şehzade Sultan Mehmed and Mihrimah Sultan, son and daughter of Suleiman the Magnificent, henceforth, the mother of the reigning sultan was the only person of non imperial blood to carry the title sultan. Title valide carried before or after given name, according to a genealogical website, the formal way of addressing a valide is Devletlû İsmetlu Vâlide Sultân Aliyyetüş-Şân Hazretleri. Valide sultan was perhaps the most important position in the Ottoman Empire after the sultan himself, as the mother to the sultan, by Islamic tradition, the valide sultan would have a significant influence on the affairs of the empire. She had great power in the court and her own rooms, Valide sultan also traditionally had access to considerable economic resources and often funded major architectural projects. In particular during the 17th century, in a known as the Sultanate of Women. The most powerful and well-known of all sultans in the history of the Ottoman Empire were Nurbanu Sultan, Safiye Sultan. Most harem women who were slaves were never married to the sultans. Nevertheless, their children were considered legitimate under Islamic law if recognized by the father. The list does not include the complete list of mothers of the Ottoman sultans, most who held the title of valide sultan were the biological mothers of the reigning sultans. In special cases, there were grandmothers and stepmothers of the sultans who assumed the title of valide sultan, like Kösem Sultan