Category:Women in war in Spain
Pages in category "Women in war in Spain"
The following 48 pages are in this category, out of 48 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 48 pages are in this category, out of 48 total, this list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Ana Betancourt – Ana Betancourt was a Cuban woman who took a leading role in the war of independence from Spain. She is a heroine in Cuba. The first Cuban war of independence from Spain began in 1868, Women, known as Mambisas, played a significant role in the war, as political agitators, nurses, and fighters. Ana Betancourt, was from a wealthy landholding family and was one of the first to argue for women in Cuban and she was married to the patriot Ignacio Mora de la Pera. In 1869, she addressed the Constitutional Assembly of Cuban patriots at Guáimaro in which she linked female emancipation to the abolition of slavery, although unused to hardship she lived in the forest with the revolutionaries. On July 9,1871, she and her husband were taken by surprise by the Spanish forces and she was sentenced to exile in Spain where she lived the rest of her life never seeing de la Pera again. She continued to support the cause of Cuban independence from her exile, at the age of 69 in 1901 she was about to return to her native country but contracted fulminating bronchopneumonia and died before she could begin her journey. Her remains were buried in Spain until 1968, in that year they were set in the pantheon of the Revolutionary Armed Forces, in the Cemetery Colón in Havana. Originally this was the highest award of the Federation of Cuban Women, the Cuban Ana Betancourt schools for rural girls are named in her honor. Mariano Jimenez II and Mariano G. Jiménez, orders and Medals Society of America. Archived from the original on 2011-07-19, Ana Betancourt de Mora, A history, a woman, a city. Archived from the original on 2007-06-30, Cuban and Cuban-American Women, An Annotated Bibliography. Sex and Revolution, Women in Socialist Cuba
2. Alexandrina Cantacuzino – Alexandrina Didina Cantacuzino was a Romanian political activist, philanthropist and diplomat, one of her countrys leading feminists in the 1920s and 30s. However, her feminist beliefs and international profile clashed with her national conservatism, her support for eugenics, Cantacuzino was a member of Romanian nobility, and, after her marriage to the wealthy landowner Grigore Gheorghe Cantacuzino, claimed the title of Princess. Her elitism and her feminism led her to join the upper-class charity SONFR, a wartime nurse, she became a herald of war remembrance initiatives. Cantacuzinos policies within the Association of Romanian Women were mirrored in the legislation of World War II fascist regimes, sympathetic toward the revolutionary fascist Iron Guard, of which her son Alecu was also an affiliate, Cantacuzino switched her support toward Ion Antonescus government in early 1941. Having earlier reported to the League of Nations on the damages caused by the Spanish Civil War and this was her last known public cause. Cantacuzino died, in obscurity, not long after Antonescus downfall. Alexandra Pallady, also known under the pet name Didina, was born in Ciocănești and her birth date is known to have been September 20,1876, but other sources credit it as 1877 or 1881. Through Palladys mother, Alexandrina descended from another house, the Ghicas. The marriage produced four children in all, but Alexandrina was the one to survive infancy. From an affair with a Maria Stamatiade, Theodor Pallady had a son, upon her mothers death, the five-year-old Alexandrina was raised by her aunt, Eliza Ghica, and formally adopted by Elizas husband, Vladimir M. Ghica. With Ghica money, she was able to pursue studies abroad and her full name subsequently became Alexandrina Grigore Cantacuzino, with the inclusion of her husbands name as a patronymic. The marriage propelled Cantacuzino into the society, also bringing her into contact with the Conservative Party elite. The Cantacuzino family, of Phanariote origins, had highly influential in the political affairs of Moldavia and Wallachia. Her father-in-law was the magistrate, Conservative policymaker and former Premier Gheorghe Grigore Cantacuzino and he was also one of the greatest estate-owners in the Kingdom of Romania, known to the general public as Nababul. Her brother-in-law was Mihail G. Mișu Cantacuzino, who was the Minister of Justice, the Cantacuzinos stated claim to a princely title, which, although rendered useless under Romanian law, allowed Alexandrina to style herself Princess Cantacuzino. Signs of her family wealth included one of Bucharests first privately owned automobiles, Alexandrina and Grigore had three sons, all of them born between 1900 and 1905, before both parents resumed their public careers. In 1910, Alexandrina joined a Romanian Orthodox philanthropic society, the National Orthodox Society of Romanian Women. While she is most often credited as a member, the Society might have existed under a different name as early as 1893, with Ecaterina Cantacuzino, Gheorghes wife
3. Nancy Cunard – Nancy Clara Cunard was a writer, heiress and political activist. She was born into the British upper class and devoted much of her life to fighting racism and fascism, mI5 documents reveal that she was involved with Indian socialist leader VK Krishna Menon. In later years, she suffered mental illness, and her physical health deteriorated. She died at age 69, weighing only 26 kg, in the Hôpital Cochin and her father was Sir Bache Cunard, an heir to the Cunard Line shipping businesses, interested in polo and fox hunting, and a baronet. Her mother was Maud Alice Burke an American heiress, who adopted the first name Emerald, Nancy had been brought up on the family estate at Nevill Holt, Leicestershire but when her parents separated in 1911 she moved to London with her mother. Her education was at boarding schools, including time in France. Whilst in London she spent a deal of her childhood with her mothers long time admirer. Indeed, it was rumoured that Moore was her father. She would later write a memoir about her affection for GM, on 15 November 1916 she married Sydney Fairbairn, a cricketer and army officer who had been wounded at Gallipoli. After a honeymoon in Devon and Cornwall they lived in London in a given to them by Nancys mother as a wedding present. The couple separated in 1919 and divorced in 1925, at this time she was also on the edge of the influential group The Coterie, associating in particular with Iris Tree. She contributed to the anthology Wheels, edited by the Sitwells, for which she provided the title poem, Cunards lover Peter Broughton-Adderley was killed in action in France less than a month before Armistice Day. Many who knew her claimed that she never recovered from Adderleys loss. In 1920 Nancy Cunard moved to Paris, where she became involved with literary Modernism, Surrealists, much of her published poetry dates from this period. During her early years in Paris, she was close to Michael Arlen, also in 1920 she had a near-fatal hysterectomy, for reasons that are not entirely clear. She recovered however, and was able to lead a promiscuous sexual life without the inconvenience of pregnancy. A brief relationship with Aldous Huxley influenced several of his novels and she was the model for Myra Viveash in Antic Hay and for Lucy Tantamount in Point Counter Point. It has been suggested that she became dependent on alcohol at this time, Cunards style informed by her devotion to the artifacts of African culture was startlingly unconventional
4. Jeanne d'Albret – Jeanne dAlbret, also known as Jeanne III, was the queen regnant of Navarre from 1555 to 1572. She married Antoine de Bourbon, Duke of Vendôme, and was the mother of Henry of Bourbon, who became King Henry III of Navarre and IV of France and she became the Duchess of Vendôme by marriage. Jeanne was the spiritual and political leader of the French Huguenot movement. After her public conversion to Calvinism in 1560, she joined the Huguenot forces, during the first and second war she remained relatively neutral, but in the third war she fled to La Rochelle, becoming the de facto leader. After negotiating a treaty with Catherine de Medici and arranging the marriage of her son, Henry, to Catherines daughter, Marguerite. Jeanne was the last active ruler of Navarre, in 1620, Jeannes grandson Louis XIII annexed Navarre to the French crown. Her mother, the daughter of Louise of Savoy and Charles and she received an excellent education under the tutelage of humanist Nicolas Bourbon. Described as a frivolous and high-spirited princess, she also, at an early age, Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, offered to have her married to his son and heir, Philip, to settle the status of the Kingdom of Navarre. Despite having been whipped into obedience, she, nevertheless, continued to protest and had to be carried bodily to the altar by the Constable of France, before her wedding, Jeanne signed two documents which she had officers of her household sign. She remained at the royal court, after the death of Francis in 1547 and the accession of Henry II to the French throne, Jeanne married Antoine de Bourbon, first prince of the blood, at Moulins in the Bourbonnais on 20 October 1548. The marriage was intended to consolidate territorial possessions in the north and south of France, Jeannes marriage to Antoine was described by author Mark Strage as having been a romantic match. A contemporary of Jeanne said of her that she had no pleasure or occupation except in talking about or writing to and she does it in company and in private. The waters cannot quench the flame of her love, in 1554, he fathered an illegitimate son, Charles, by Louise de La Béraudière de lIsle Rouhet, a court beauty known as La belle Rouet. Antoines frequent absences left Jeanne in Béarn to rule alone, and in charge of a household which she managed with a firm. The couple had five children, of only two, Henry, king of France and king of Navarre, and Catherine, duchess of Lorraine. On 25 May 1555, Henry II of Navarre died, at which time Jeanne, on 18 August 1555 at Pau, Jeanne and Antoine were crowned in a joint ceremony according to the rites of the Roman Catholic Church. The previous month, a coin commemorating the new reign had been minted. It was inscribed in Latin with the words, Antonius et Johanna Dei gratia reges Navarrae Domini Bearni
5. Elisabeth Eidenbenz – Elizabeth Eidenbenz, was a teacher and nurse and founder of the Mothers of Elne. Between 1939 and 1944, she saved some 600 children who were mostly the children of Spanish Republicans, elisbeth was a young teacher from Switzerland, teaching in Switzerland and Denmark until she decided to join the Asociación de Ayuda a los Niños en Guerra. After the fall of the Spanish Republic many Republican exiles sought refuge in France, many died of malnutrition, disease and other afflictions. Many pregnant woman were destined to lose their children, or worse. Elisabeth had arrived in Madrid on April 24,1937 as a volunteer as part of an aid team but had relocated to the South of France. Appalled by the situation of mothers and children amongst the refugees, the group initially relied on voluntary donations from Europe, but after the start of World War II, funds dried up while refugees began to arrive from France and the rest of Europe. These were mainly Jewish women fleeing the Nazi occupation, therefore, the group was forced to associate themselves with the Red Cross, and to abide by the policy of neutrality. This would have prevented them from sheltering political refugees, mostly Jews and it was therefore decided that the identity of most of the refugees would be hidden in order to circumvent these laws. They were harassed by the Gestapo and on one occasion detained, some 400 Spanish children and 200 Jews from Europe were save throughout this period. She later in life retired Rekawinkel,30 km from Vienna and she subsequently was awarded the status of Righteous among the Nations by the Government of Israel in 2002
6. Martha Gellhorn – Martha Ellis Gellhorn was an American novelist, travel writer, and journalist, who is now considered one of the greatest war correspondents of the 20th century. She reported on every major world conflict that took place during her 60-year career. Gellhorn was also the wife of American novelist Ernest Hemingway. At the age of 89, ill and almost completely blind, the Martha Gellhorn Prize for Journalism is named after her. Gellhorn was born in St. Louis, Missouri, the daughter of Edna Fischel Gellhorn, a suffragist, and George Gellhorn and her father and maternal grandfather were of Jewish origin, and her maternal grandmother came from a Protestant family. Her brother, Walter Gellhorn, became a law professor at Columbia University. Her younger brother, Alfred Gellhorn, was an oncologist, and former dean of the University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine, Gellhorn graduated in 1926 from John Burroughs School in St. Louis, and enrolled in Bryn Mawr College in Philadelphia. In 1927, she left before graduating to pursue a career as a journalist and her first published articles appeared in The New Republic. In 1930, determined to become a correspondent, she went to France for two years, where she worked at the United Press bureau in Paris. While in Europe, she became active in the pacifist movement, roosevelt to aid in the war on the Great Depression. Gellhorn traveled around the United States for FERA to report on the impact of the Depression on the country and she first went to Gastonia, North Carolina, where she used her observation and communication skills to report on how the people of that town were affected by the Depression. Later, she worked with Dorothea Lange, a photographer, to document the lives of the hungry. Their reports later became part of the government files for the Great Depression. They were able to investigate topics that were not usually open to women of the 1930s and her findings were the basis of a collection of short stories, The Trouble Ive Seen. Gellhorn first met Hemingway during a 1936 Christmas family trip to Key West and they agreed to travel to Spain together to cover the Spanish Civil War, where Gellhorn had been hired to report for Colliers Weekly. The pair celebrated Christmas of 1937 together in Barcelona, later, from Germany, she reported on the rise of Adolf Hitler, and in 1938 was in Czechoslovakia. After the outbreak of World War II, she described these events in the novel A Stricken Field and she later reported the war from Finland, Hong Kong, Burma, Singapore, and England. She was the woman to land at Normandy on D-Day on June 6,1944
7. Emma Goldman – Emma Goldman was an anarchist political activist and writer. She played a role in the development of anarchist political philosophy in North America. Born in Kovno, Russian Empire to a Jewish family, Goldman emigrated to the United States in 1885, attracted to anarchism after the Haymarket affair, Goldman became a writer and a renowned lecturer on anarchist philosophy, womens rights, and social issues, attracting crowds of thousands. She and anarchist writer Alexander Berkman, her lover and lifelong friend, planned to assassinate industrialist, Frick survived the attempt on his life in 1892 and Berkman was sentenced to 22 years in prison. Goldman was imprisoned several times in the years followed, for inciting to riot. In 1906, Goldman founded the anarchist journal Mother Earth, in 1917, Goldman and Berkman were sentenced to two years in jail for conspiring to induce persons not to register for the newly instated draft. After their release from prison, they were arrested—along with hundreds of others—and deported to Russia, in 1923, she published a book about her experiences, My Disillusionment in Russia. While living in England, Canada, and France, she wrote an autobiography called Living My Life, after the outbreak of the Spanish Civil War, she traveled to Spain to support the anarchist revolution there. She died in Toronto on May 14,1940, aged 70, during her life, Goldman was lionized as a free-thinking rebel woman by admirers, and denounced by detractors as an advocate of politically motivated murder and violent revolution. Her writing and lectures spanned a variety of issues, including prisons, atheism, freedom of speech, militarism, capitalism, marriage, free love. Although she distanced herself from first-wave feminism and its efforts toward womens suffrage, after decades of obscurity, Goldman gained iconic status by a revival of interest in her life in the 1970s, when feminist and anarchist scholars rekindled popular interest. Emma Goldmans Orthodox Jewish family lived in the Lithuanian city of Kaunas, Goldmans mother Taube Bienowitch had been married before, to a man with whom she had two daughters—Helena in 1860 and Lena in 1862. When her first husband died of tuberculosis, Taube was devastated, Goldman later wrote, Whatever love she had had died with the young man to whom she had been married at the age of fifteen. Taubes second marriage was arranged by her family and, as Goldman puts it and her second husband, Abraham Goldman, invested Taubes inheritance in a business that quickly failed. The ensuing hardship combined with the distance of husband and wife to make the household a tense place for the children. When Taube became pregnant, Abraham hoped desperately for a son and they eventually had three sons, but their first child was Emma. Emma Goldman was born on June 27,1869 and her father used violence to punish his children, beating them when they disobeyed him. He used a whip on Emma, the most rebellious of them and her mother provided scarce comfort, rarely calling on Abraham to tone down his beatings
8. Gerda Grepp – Gerda Johanne Helland Grepp was a Norwegian translator and journalist. She was the daughter of chairman of the Norwegian Labour Party Kyrre Grepp. Grepp covered the Spanish Civil War as a reporter for the Labour Party newspaper Arbeiderbladet from 1936 and she arrived in Barcelona in October 1936, as the first female reporter from Scandinavia. She travelled to Madrid, where she experienced bombing attacks on the city, with Ludwig Renn she drove to the Toledo front. During her travels she was accompanied by her friend André Malraux. While in Spain, Grepp served as an interpreter for other Norwegians, both Grepp and the other Norwegian correspondents in Spain, like Nordahl Grieg and Nini Gleditsch, sympathized with the Republican cause in the war. Gleditsch and Grepp helped organize a large-scale aid effort for Spain, according to professor Rune Ottosen, Grepp and Birgit Nissen were marked with sharp pens against the growing fascism. In January and February 1937 she visited Málaga, together with Hungarian journalist and reporter for the British daily newspaper News Chronicle, during the battle of Málaga she barely escaped the attacking Nationalist forces. Grepp left Málaga on 6 February, while Koestler was still in the city, on 7 February Italian troops occupied the city. Koestler was arrested, sentenced to death as a spy, however, after considerable international pressure he was released from custody. From May 1937 Grepp spent several weeks in the Basque Country and she visited the Republican Basque Army defensive line called the Iron Belt, and experienced the Battle of Bilbao. Grepp frequently found herself in dangerous situations while in Spain, during her time in Spain Grepp was suffering from tuberculosis. Eventually she was compelled by her ill health to leave the war zone, gerda Grepp died of tuberculosis in German-occupied Norway on 29 August 1940,33 years old. She was buried in Vestre gravlund in Oslo, grepps work has since been largely forgotten, her fellow journalist Lise Lindbæk instead being commonly seen as Norways first female war correspondent
9. Salaria Kea – Salaria Kea OReilly was an American nurse and desegregation activist who volunteered in both the Spanish Civil War and the Second World War. During the Spanish Civil War she was the only African American nurse working in the Abraham Lincoln Battalion, Kea was born on 13 July 1917 in Milledgeville, Georgia. Her father was a gardener at the Ohio State Hospital for the Insane in Columbus and he was stabbed to death by a patient when Salaria was a baby. After his death Keas family moved to Akron, due the racial segregation Kea was forced to move New York City in 1930 where she graduated the Harlem Hospital School of Nursing. As a student she managed to end the segregation in the Harlem Hospitals staff dining room and was able to improve the working conditions of African American nurses. After her graduation Kea stayed in New York and became the nurse of Seaview Hospital. During the Second Italo-Ethiopian War in 1935 Kea and her fellow nurses started raising money to send supplies to Ethiopian troops. She was also anxious to work as a nurse in Ethiopia, about the same time Kea is said to have joined the Communist Party of America although she never admitted it in her later years. Kea also lectured across the United States to raise funds for the Second Spanish Republic, in 1936 she applied to join the American Red Cross to assist Midwest flood victims, but was rejected because of her ethnicity. During this time Kea developed strong anti-fascist views, Kea decided to volunteer to serve in the International Brigades in the Spanish Civil War and joined the American Medical Bureau working with the Abraham Lincoln Battalion in March 1937. After her arrival in Spain, Kea helped establish a hospital at Villa Paz near the Spanish capital Madrid. She was captured by the Spanish Nationalist Army but managed to escape with the help of International Brigade soldiers after being held for six weeks, in Villa Paz, Kea met an injured Irish soldier, John Patrick O’Reilly, whom she later married. In early 1938, Kea was transferred to different units in Aragon, Lerida and her wounds were so severe that she was sent back to the United States in May 1938. The same year, Kea wrote her Spanish memoirs While Passing Through and they were published as a pamphlet named Salaria Kea, A Negro Nurse in Republican Spain. In 1940 John O’Reilly was allowed to immigrate the United States and he was soon drafted to serve in the military during World War II. In the beginning of 1944 Kea started working as a nurse for the United States Army. After the war the OReilly family lived in New York and Kea worked in several hospitals coordinating staff desegregation, in 1973 the couple retired to Akron where Kea died on 18 May 1990. In the United States Kea and O’Reilly experienced strong racism, in Akron they experienced personal threats and property damage, and Kea often referred to her time in the International Brigades as the best days of her life since they were free from discrimination
10. Tina Modotti – Tina Modotti was an Italian photographer, model, actress, and revolutionary political activist for the Comintern. Modotti was born Assunta Adelaide Luigia Modotti Mondini in Udine, Friuli and her mother, Assunta, was a seamstress and her father, Giuseppe, was a mason. In 1913, at the age of 16, she immigrated to the United States to join her father in San Francisco, attracted to the performing arts supported by the Italian émigré community in the San Francisco Bay Area, Modotti experimented with acting. She appeared in plays, operas, and silent movies in the late 1910s and early 1920s. In 1917, she met Roubaix Robo de lAbrie Richey, originally a farm boy from Oregon named Ruby Ritchie, the artist and poet assumed the more bohemian name Roubaix. In 1918, Modotti began a relationship with him and moved with him to Los Angeles in order to pursue a career in the motion picture industry. Although the couple cohabitated and lived as a couple, they were not married. Often playing the femme fatale, Modottis movie career culminated in the 1920 film The Tigers Coat and she had minor parts in two other films. The couple entered into a circle of friends. One of these fellow bohemians was Ricardo Gómez Robelo, another was the photographer, Edward Weston. It is supposed that Modotti was introduced to photography as a girl in Italy. Later in the U. S. her father ran a similar studio in San Francisco. While in Los Angeles, she met the photographer Edward Weston and it was through her relationship with Edward Weston that Modotti developed as an important fine art photographer and documentarian. By 1921, Modotti was Westons lover, Ricardo Gómez Robelo became the head of Mexicos Ministry of Educations Fine Arts Department, and persuaded Robo to come to Mexico with a promise of a job and a studio. Robo left for Mexico in December 1921, perhaps unaware of his affair with Modotti, Robo took with him prints of Weston, hoping to mount an exhibition of his and Westons work in Mexico. While she was on her way to be with Robo, Modotti received word of his death from smallpox on February 9,1922, devastated, Modotti arrived two days after his death. In March 1922, determined to see Robos vision realized, she mounted an exhibition of Robos. She sustained a loss with the death of her father which forced her return to San Francisco later in March 1922
11. Federica Montseny – Federica Montseny Mañé was a Spanish anarchist, intellectual and Minister of Health during the social revolution that occurred in Spain parallel to the Civil War. She is also known as a novelist and essayist, Federica Montseny Mañé was born on 12 February 1905 in Madrid, Spain. Her parents were the co-editors of the journal, La Revista Blanca. In 1912 her parents returned to their native Catalonia and later established a publishing company specialized in libertarian literature. Montseny joined the anarchist labor union CNT and wrote for anarchist journals such as Solidaridad Obrera, Tierra y Libertad, in 1927 Montseny joined the Federación Anarquista Ibérica. With Josep Esgleas Jaume, she had three children, Vida, Germinal and Blanca, during the Spanish Civil War, Montseny supported the republican government. She rejected the violence in the republican held territory, a lust for blood inconceivable in honest man before, in November 1936 Francisco Largo Caballero appointed Montseny as Minister of Health. In doing so, she became the first woman in Spanish history to be a cabinet minister and she was one of the first female ministers in Western Europe, and as minister she aimed to transform public health to meet the needs of the poor and working class. To that end, she supported decentralized, locally responsive and preventative health programs that mobilized the entire working class for the war effort. She was influenced by the anarchist sex reform movement, which since the 1920s had focused on reproductive rights, given her familys libertarian tradition, the decision to enter the Popular Front government was especially difficult. Notably, she was involved in polemics with Emma Goldman, for many anarchists, the topic of collaboration – with both Marxists and governments – is still a contentious one. She moved to France in 1939 where she wrote many books, although she returned to Spain in 1977, she died on 14 January 1994 in Toulouse, at 88. A. I. The Battle for Spain, The Spanish Civil War, 1936–1939, defying Male Civilization, Women in the Spanish Civil War. ISBN 978-0-14-101161-5 Federica Montsenys works and biography Centre Federica Montseny large collection of anarchist posters from the Spanish Civil War
12. Margarita Nelken – Margarita Nelken was a Spanish feminist and writer. She was a known intellectual and a central figure in the earliest Spanish womens movement in the 1930s. Nelken was born María Teresa Lea Nelken y Mansberger in Madrid in 1894 and her parents were of German-Jewish origin and owners of a jewelry store. She studied music, painting and languages, and she learned to speak French, German and her sister, Carmen Eva Nelken, was an actress and writer. Nelken wrote books of fiction with an orientation in the 1920s. Her other works include La condición social de la mujer en España and she also wrote books about Spanish women writers and Spanish women politicians as well as short stories. She held militant perspective of feminism, claiming that exploitation of workers had negative effects on both male workers and women. In 1931, she became a member of the Socialist Party and she was elected to the Constitutive Parliament. She also won the elections of November 1933 and February 1936, although she was a feminist, she rejected the Spanish womens right to vote, arguing that they were not ready for it. A fervent advocate of the Agrarian Reform, she was the victim of the attacks from the right because her ethnicity, after the Asturian Revolution of 1934, she was accused of military rebellion and left Spain. While in exile, she lived in Paris and visited Scandinavia and she returned to Spain in 1936. Then, disappointed by the leadership of Largo Caballero, she left the PSOE and she served at the parliament until 1939, and as a Republican and socialist, she and her sister exiled to Mexico at the end of the Spanish civil war. There she worked as an art critic and she also wrote a book entitled Los judíos en la cultura hispánica in Mexico, which was republished by AHebraica in Spain in 2009. Nelken died in Mexico on 9 March 1968
13. Gerda Taro – Gerda Taro was born into a Polish-Jewish family that migrated from Galicia to Germany. She became a war photographer, and the companion and professional partner of photographer Robert Capa, Taro is regarded as the first female photojournalist to cover the front lines of a war and to die while doing so. Gerta Pohorylle was born in 1910, in Stuttgart, into a middle-class Jewish Galician family, Pohorylle attended a Swiss boarding school. In 1929, the moved to Leipzig, just prior to the beginning of Nazi Germany. Taro opposed the Nazi Party, joining leftist groups, in 1933, she was arrested and detained for distributing anti-Nazi propaganda. Eventually, the entire Pohorylle household was forced to leave Nazi Germany toward different destinations, Taro would not see her family again. Escaping the anti-Semitism of Hitlers Germany, Pohorylle moved to Paris in 1934, in 1935, she met the photojournalist Endre Friedmann, a Hungarian Jew, becoming his personal assistant and learning photography. Pohorylle began to work for Alliance Photo as a picture editor, in 1936, Pohorylle received her first photojournalist credential. Then, she and Friedmann devised a plan, Capa was derived from Friedmanns Budapest street nickname Cápa which means Shark in Hungarian. The two worked together to cover the surrounding the coming to power of the Popular Front in 1930s France. When the Spanish Civil War broke out, Gerda Taro travelled to Barcelona, Spain, to cover the events with Capa, Taro acquired the nickname of La pequeña rubia. They covered the war together at northeastern Aragon and at the southern Córdoba, always together under the common, bogus signature of Robert Capa, they were successful through many important publications. Their early war photos are distinguishable since Taro used a Rollei camera which rendered squared photographs while Capa produced rectangular Leica pictures, however, for some time in 1937 they produced similar 135 film pictures together under the label of Capa&Taro. Also, she became related to the circle of anti fascist European intellectuals who crusaded particularly for the Spanish Republic. The Ce Soir, a leftist newspaper of France, signed her for publishing Taros works only, then, she began to commercialize her production under the Photo Taro label. Regards, Life, Illustrated London News and Volks-Illustrierte were amongst those publications, reporting the Valencia bombing alone, Gerda Taro attained the photographs which are her most celebrated. Also, in July 1937, Taros photographs were in demand by the press when, alone. Although the Nationalist propaganda claimed that the region was under its control, Taros camera was the only testimony of the actual situation
14. Barbara W. Tuchman – Barbara Wertheim Tuchman was an American historian and author. Tuchman focused on writing popular history and she was born January 30,1912, the Jewish daughter of the banker Maurice Wertheim and his first wife Alma Morgenthau. Her father was an individual of wealth and prestige, the owner of The Nation magazine, president of the American Jewish Congress, prominent art collector, and her mother was the daughter of Henry Morgenthau, Sr. Woodrow Wilsons ambassador to the Ottoman Empire. Wertheim was influenced at an age by the books of Lucy Fitch Perkins. Henty, as well as the novels of Alexandre Dumas. She attended the Walden School on Manhattans Upper West Side and she received her Bachelor of Arts from Radcliffe College in 1933, having studied history and literature. She also contributed to The Nation as a correspondent until her fathers sale of the publication in 1937, traveling to Valencia, a first book resulted from her Spanish experience, The Lost British Policy, Britain and Spain Since 1700, published in 1938. In 1940 Wertheim married Lester R. Tuchman, an internist, medical researcher and they had three daughters, including Jessica Mathews, who became president of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace. During the years of World War II, Tuchman worked in the Office of War Information, with the publication of Bible and Sword in 1956, Tuchman dedicated herself to historical research and writing, turning out a new book approximately every four years. Tuchman favored an approach to the writing of history, providing eloquent explanatory narratives rather than concentration upon discovery. In the words of one biographer, Tuchman was not a historians historian, in 1971, Tuchman received the St. Louis Literary Award from the Saint Louis University Library Associates. Tuchman received a second Pulitzer in 1972 for her biography of Joseph Stilwell, Stilwell, in 1978, Tuchman was elected a Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences. She became the first female president of the American Academy of Arts and she won a U. S. National Book Award in History for the first paperback edition of A Distant Mirror in 1980. Also in 1980 the National Endowment for the Humanities selected Tuchman for the Jefferson Lecture, Tuchmans lecture was entitled Mankinds Better Moments. Tuchman was a trustee of Radcliffe College and a lecturer at Harvard, the University of California, and she died in 1989 in Greenwich, Connecticut, following a stroke, at 77. A tower of Currier House, a residential division first of Radcliffe College, the fact of being on the record makes it appear continuous and ubiquitous whereas it is more likely to have been sporadic both in time and place. Besides, persistence of the normal is usually greater than the effect of the disturbance, the fact is that one can come home in the evening — on a lucky day — without having encountered more than one or two of these phenomena. This has led me to formulate Tuchmans Law, as follows, Tuchmans Law has been defined as a psychological principle of perceptual readiness or subjective probability
15. Urraca of Zamora – Urraca of Zamora was a Leónese infanta, one of the five children of Ferdinand I the Great, who received the city of Zamora as her inheritance and exercised palatine authority in it. Her story was romanticized in the cantar de gesta called the Cantar de Mio Cid, before his death in 1065, Ferdinand divided his widespread conquests in central Spain between his five children, charging them to live at peace with one another. Ferdinands oldest son, Sancho II, received Castile and the tribute from Zaragoza, Alfonso VI received León and the tribute from Toledo and his daughters, Elvira and Urraca, received Toro and Zamora respectively. Sancho, however, resolved to rule over his fathers entire kingdom, by 1072, Sancho had overthrown his youngest brother Garcia, and forced his other brother Alfonso to flee to his Moorish vassal city of Toledo. Toro, the city of Sanchos sister Elvira, fell easily, but in a siege of Urracas better-defended city of Zamora, King Sancho was stalled, and was then mysteriously assassinated on 7 October 1072. It was widely suspected that the assassination was a result of a pact between Alfonso and Urraca, the Chronicle of the Cid, purportedly written by one of the Cids followers, states that the assassin was a nobleman of Zamora, who then received sanctuary in the city. The Castilian nobility, highly suspicious of both Urraca and Alfonso, maintained the siege of Zamora for a period after Sanchos death, in the absence of Sancho, however, their siege was pointless. According to the chronicle, the guilt of Zamora was decided by a trial by combat, Urraca sent summonses to the nobles of Sanchos dominions, calling on them to gather, and Alfonso was grudgingly acknowledged as heir to both Castile and León. Suspicion, however, remained and, led by the Cid and a dozen oath-helpers, from this incident dated Alfonsos later antagonism to the Cid. The Chronicle of the Cid states that in his years as king. There were even rumors of a relationship between the pair. Urraca maintained her rule over Zamora following Alfonsos succession to the Castilian throne, in her later years, Urraca gradually gave up her governing duties, finally retiring to a monastery in Leon, where she died in 1101. She is interred in the Chapel of the Kings at the Basílica of San Isidoro of León, along with her siblings Elvira, the following epitaph in Latin was carved in her tombstone, H. R. DOMNA URRACA REGINA DE ZAMORA, FILIA REGIS MAGNI FERDINANDI. HAEC AMPLIFICAVIT ECCLESIAM ISTAM, ET MULTIS MUNERIBUS DITAVIT, ET QUIA BEATUM ISIDORUM SUPER OMNIA DILIGEBAT. OBIIT ERA MCXXXVIIII. NOBILIS URRACA JACET HOC TUMULO TUMULATA HESPERIAEQUE DECUS HEU TENET HIC LOCULUS HAEC FUIT OPTANDI PROLES REGIS FREDENANDI, AST REGINA FUIT SANCTIA QUAE GENUIT CENTIES UNDECIES SOL VOLVERAT ET SEMEL ANNUM CARNE QUOD OBTECTUS SPONTE. In the poetic legend, Dona Urraca is the wronged infanta, watching Sancho and her brother Alfonso is her loyal and chivalrous defender. And it stretches the psychological card that as older and provoking sister she plays between her brothers Alfonso and Sanchos quarrels for her city and herself. Later in the film, after the death of the haughty older brother Sancho, for some reason the film wrongly makes Urraca the ruler of Calahorra, rather than Zamora