Category:Women in war in Sweden
Pages in category "Women in war in Sweden"
The following 26 pages are in this category, out of 26 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
The following 26 pages are in this category, out of 26 total. This list may not reflect recent changes (learn more).
1. Lovisa von Burghausen – Lovisa von Burghausen was a Swedish memoirist who became famous for her story about her time in captivity as a slave in Russia after being taken prisoner by the Russians during the Great Northern War. She was sold as a several times before she eventually recovered her freedom. Lovisa was born in the city of Narva in Swedish Estonia, one of five daughters to the noble Swedish major Gustaf von Burghausen and her father had been taking part in the defence of the city when it was taken by the Russians after the Battle of Narva. Lovisas parents and sisters were taken captive as prisoners of war and she fainted and woke up in a tent, where she cried for her mother until her throat was so swollen up she lost her voice and lost consciousness. She was taken to Moscow and given as present to the Russian general Prince Anikita Repnin and he sent her to a nunnery for her to be converted to the Russian Orthodox faith, but unable to understand Russian, she was beaten as a pagan unwilling to convert. After three months, she was released from the convent by the intervention of the Princes mother, the dowager princess, who showed her all the tenderness of a mother. She was to accompany the family to Ukraine in 1709 and witness the Swedish army. In 1713, Johan died from being shot in the leg during battle for the prince, the same year, Prince Dimitrie Cantemir, hospodar of Moldavia, a Russian ally at the time, visited Moscow with his family. Princess Cantemir died the year, and Lovisa was poisoned by the wife of the baker of the Cantemir court, who wanted Lovisas place for her daughter. The English merchant sent her to Archangelsk to be educated in the Protestant religion, after seven weeks, she was reported by a German tailor, arrested by the Russian police and taken back to prince Cantemir. She was chained to her hands and feet and nails were hammered through her shoes to make it difficult for her to walk and she was put to wash clothes in a stone-kitchen so cold that her arms were covered with ice. In 1714, prince Cantemir traveled to Saint Petersburg and left his household under the supervision of a captain Iwanof and his wife. The wife of Iwanof took Lovisa, together two other female slaves, one from Finland and one from Narva, to the Russian slave market in Moscow. The Finnish woman was sold to an Armenian, the woman from Narva to a Russian clerk and she was sold for a bit of damask, a fan and a smaller sum of money. She was put among the merchandise in the sleigh of the merchant, mostly consisted of carpets, threatened with beating if she screamed, during the journey, a Russian clerk saw Lovisa crying in an inn, and asked her what had happened. She told him her story, and he reported it to the voivod of Solikamsk, in Solikamsk, the voivod questioned the Turk, but let them go when the Turk told him that the person in his sleigh was an old Russian woman. They then left Solikamsk without knowing, that this was the city where the parents of Lovisa lived as prisoners of war, at the home of the Turk in Tobolsk, Lovisa was put to hard labour and badly beaten every time she made a mistake of sheer exhaustion. Tobolsk was, however, the city in Siberia containing the largest colony of Swedish prisoners of war, Lovisa was later to say about him that he was her greatest saviour next to God
2. Christina Gyllenstierna – Christina Nilsdotter Gyllenstierna of Fogelvik was a Swedish noble and a heroine. She was married to the Swedish regent Sten Sture the Younger, in her own lifetime she was simply referred to as Fru Kristina, but she has became known in history as Kristina Gyllenstierna because of the house of nobility to which she belonged. Christina Gyllenstierna was born to riksråd Nils Eriksson, Lord of Tullgarn and Sigrid Eskilsdotter of Venngarn and she was a great-granddaughter of King Charles VIII of Sweden through her paternal grandmother princess Christina Karlsdotter Bonde, heir of Fogelvik, after whom she was named. By the second marriage of her mother, Christina became the half-sister of Cecilia Månsdotter of Eka, Christina was first engaged to Nils Gädda, governor of Kalmar and Lycka, but the marriage never took place due to his death. On 16 November 1511 in Stockholm, she married the son of the Swedish regent Svante and she had five children during her marriage, Nils, Iliana, Magdalena, Svante Stensson Sture and Anna, and Gustav. In 1512, Sten Sture succeeded his father as elected regent of Sweden upon his death, Sten Stures election as regent was not without opposition. At the death of his father, Sten was 18 years old, and High Councillor Eric Trolle, in reality, lord Stens purpose was to keep Sweden independent of Denmark. He took the Sture name, heritage from his great-grandmother, because it symbolized independence of Sweden as a reminder of Sten Sture the Elder and it is considered likely that Christina participated in state affairs and acted as the political adviser to her spouse, given her later role. Sten became involved in a conflict with archbishop Gustav Trolle, son of his previous rival Eric Trolle, the archbishop claimed more autonomy for the church. The deposition of an archbishop resulted in the excommunication of Sten Sture by the pope, on the New Year of 1520, Christian II invaded Sweden. On 19 January 1520, Regent Sten was mortally wounded at the battle of Bogesund, on 6 March 1520, several members of the Privy Council of Sweden submitted to Christian II, electing him king of Sweden in Uppsala. In late May, the Danish fleet arrived and the city of Stockholm was besieged by land, in her embassy to Danzig, she stated that she governed the realm until her sons had reached the age of majority and could take over the regency. She had the support from the burghers of Stockholm, who referred to her as their Princess, on 7 September 1520, after four months of siege, Christina was persuaded to capitulate in exchange for a letter of amnesty. Personally, Christina were granted Häme Castle and county, Kuhmo state in Finland, Hörningsholm Castle in Södermanland, on November 1, Christian II was proclaimed king Christian I of Sweden, followed by his coronation in Storkyrkan by the reinstated arch bishop Gustav Trolle on 4 September. The coronation was followed by three days of festivities attended by the Swedish nobility, during which he danced with Christina on a ball, on 7 November, king Christian summoned the Swedish nobility to a meeting in the throne hall at Stockholm Castle. Further more, the amnesty granted by the king as a term for her made it impossible for the king to punish them for their actions against him. She stated that there was proof as the protocol from the meeting of 1517, when the removal of Trolle was decided upon, was there, because of the amnesty, the Swedes now considered the matter solved. However, Christian had found a loophole, which the Swedes had overlooked and this resulted in the infamous Stockholm Bloodbath upon the followers of Sten Sture
3. Blenda – For the Polish village, see Blenda, Podlaskie Voivodeship. Blenda is also the name of a Norwegian laundry soap manufactured by Lilleborg, Blenda is the heroine of a Swedish legend from Småland. Blenda led the women of Värend in an attack on a pillaging Danish army. According to the legend, the took place in the time of Alle, King of the Geats. King Alle had marshalled not only the West Geats, but also the South Geats of Småland, when the Danes learned of Smålands precarious situation, they took advantage of it and attacked the defenseless small lands. Blenda was a woman of noble descent in the Konga Hundred and she decided to send the cross to rally all the womenfolk in the hundreds of Konga, Albo, Kinnevald. The women armies assembled on the Brávellir, which according to Smålandish tradition is located in Värend, the women approached the Danes and told them how much they were impressed with the Danish men. They invited the men to a banquet where they were provided with food, after a long evening, the Danish warriors fell asleep and the women killed every single one of them with axes and staffs. When King Alle returned, he bestowed new rights on the women, the five hundreds were combined into the land of Värend, which means the defense, since it was a bulwark for Geatland. Blendas village was called Värnslanda and a location near the ground was called Bländinge. The first printed text, where the legend has been connected with the inheritance rights and he wrote that the inheritance rights were awarded by King Hakon Ring to the women after the Battle of Brávellir, in which they had shown valour against Harald Wartooth. The legend appears in embellished form in the various pleas made in the 1680s and 1690s in order to defend the equal inheritance, the final form probably comes from local historian, Petter Rudebeck since both the oldest editions of it remind of Rudebecks methodology and language. Petter Rudebeck gathered and wrote down peasant customs, practices, myths, in 1813, the legend was rendered in the romantic poem Blenda in the first major poem by Erik Johan Stagnelius. So called Shieldmaidens, three hundred soldiers were recorded having served during the great Battle of Bråvalla in 750. Several attempts have been made to support or discredit the legends historicity, Sven Lagerbring proposed that it taken place during King Sweyn III of Denmarks attack on Sweden in the 1150s. Olof von Dalin conjectured that the event had taken place in the 1270s when King Eric V of Denmark attacked Småland, carl Johan Schlyter suggested that the legend was invented to explain why the women of Värend had equal share in the inheritance with the men. Nordisk familjebok Lagerbring, Sven Swea Rikes Historia, Ifrån De Äldsta Tider Til De Närwarande Henrikson, Alf Antikens historier, Rom OCLC185229027 von Dalin, Olaf Svea rikes historia
4. Margareta von Ascheberg – Margareta von Ascheberg was a Swedish land owner, noble and acting regiment colonel during the Great Northern War. Margareta von Ascheberg was the youngest child of Field Marshal Rutger von Ascheberg, on 26 January 1691, she married colonel count Kjell Christopher Barnekow in Malmö. As was the custom of the Swedish nobility as that time, she kept her name after marriage and she accompanied her spouse on his military commissions, she gave birth to their youngest sons during the Bombardment of Brussels in 1695. At the outbreak of the Great Northern War, Kjell Christopher Barnekow was called to Sweden and appointed colonel of the Scanian dragoons, however, he died very suddenly and unexpectedly of a fever 19 December 1700 before he had the time to fulfill his task. As a widow, Margareta von Ascheberg was left with the responsibility of her four minor children and this included the task of the command and equipment of his Scanian regiment. She was not freed from responsibility, and the acting colonel Kr. A. v. Buchwaldt was appointed to see that she fulfilled her task. She also sat at the office of the regiment when it was sent to war from Kristianstad. During the war, she took care of the equipment and affairs of the regiment. She was called Coloneless or Madame Colonel and she was admired for The energy and care, with which she performed her unusual task, a circumstance, which in other cases would seem impossible for a woman. She herself inherited and acquired the estates of Eliinge, Sövdeborg. She was a successful business person and land owner and recommended for her efficiency. She was called A true mother of the household and was admired for her unusual accomplishment, in the parish of Vittskövle, were preferred to reside, The Ascheberg woman became a respected figure of folklore. Maria Sofia De la Gardie Anteckningar om svenska qvinnor / Margaretha Ascheberg, von, urn, sbl,18867, Svenskt biografiskt lexikon, hämtad 2014-12-28
5. Christina of Saxony – Christina of Saxony, was Queen consort of Denmark, Norway, and Sweden. She was born a granddaughter of Frederick the Gentle of Saxony and she was the grandmother of Christina of Denmark through her son Christian II. Christina was engaged to John, King of Denmark, Norway and Sweden, the year after, she traveled from Saxony to Warnemunde, where she was met by a Danish retinue who brought her Copenhagen Castle, where she was married to John on 6 September 1478. In 1481, she became queen of Denmark and she was however not crowned until 1483, when John had become king of Norway also. On 18 May 1483, she and John were crowned king and queen of Denmark, during the first twenty years of her marriage, there is not much information about Christina, and she seem to have lived a life devoted to her family. She was the mother of Christian II, Franciscus, Knud and Elizabeth, who later married Joachim I Nestor, Elector of Brandenburg, Christina is described as pious, and were said to weep every time she was unable to attend mass. In 1497, John was elected king of Sweden, two years later, Christina followed him to Sweden, and on 4 February 1499, they were crowned king and queen of Sweden in Uppsala. She accompanied John on his visit to Sweden in 1500. During the 1501 visit, John entered into his affair with one of her ladies-in-waiting, Edel Jernskjæg. When the War of Deposition against King Hans and Dano-Swedish War took place later that same year and he left Christina in charge of the garrison of the Castle of Tre Kronor in Stockholm as regent and as moral support for his followers. From September 1501 until 6 May 1502, queen Christina was besieged by the Swedish rebels and this was one of the hardest sieges known during the Kalmar Union, during which a garrison of 1000 men was reduced to 70 out of plague and starvation. On 9 May 1502, queen Christina surrendered to the Swedish Regent Sten Sture the Elder, according to the peace settlement, was to be kept at a convent in Stockholm until she could travel back to Denmark. When she surrendered her position, she turned herself over to lady Ingeborg Tott and she was kept first at the Black Friars Monastery of Stockholm and then at the Grey Friars Abbey, Stockholm. However, the treaty was broken by Sten Sture, when John had a ship sent to Stockholm to collect her, in October 1503, she was finally released and escorted to the Danish border by Sten Sture, where she was met by her son Christian in Halmstad. In 1504, she made a pilgrimage to Wilsnack and Sternberg in Brandenburg, upon her return to Denmark, she founded convents for Poor Clares in Copenhagen and Odense. From her return to Denmark after her release onward, queen Christina lived the rest of her separated from king John. She had her own court, headed by Anne Meinstrup. Christina was interested in art and music and acted as the benefactor of musicians and she commissioned the famous altar piece of Claus Berg, who depicted the royal Danish family and was placed in the Odense cathedral, as well as the literary work of the priest Michael of Odense
6. Anna Leuhusen – Anna Rheinholdsdotter Leuhusen, was the Abbess of St. Clares Priory in Stockholm. She became known for her involvement in the Swedish War of Liberation between Sweden and Denmark in the 1520s and her sister was married to the Danish colonel Gregorius Holst. The year of her birth is unknown, Anna Lehusen entered the Clara Abbey as a member of the order of Saint Clare of Assisi. She was appointed sometime prior to 1508. This year, she is confirmed as such, when she appealed to the city for assistance in her capacity of abbess. During this period, Sweden and Denmark, formally united through the Kalmar Union, was involved in warfare which eventually led to the Swedish War of Liberation. In 1520, the city of Stockholm was sieged and taken by the Danes after the defeat of Christina Gyllenstierna, soon after, however, the rest of Sweden rose in rebellion and in 1522, the city was besieged by the Swedes under Gustav Vasa. During the siege, the St. Clares Priory was used as a channel by people who wished to join the Swedes outside the city. Leuhusen was a Danish loyalist and, according to the legend, when they left the convent on their way outside the city, they were taken by the Danes and executed for treason. This was performed in collaboration with her brother-in-law, the Danish loyalist mayor of Stockholm, in June 1523, Stockholm was retaken by the Swedes and made capital of the independent Kingdom of Sweden. In 1525, Elin Thomasdotter is noted to have replaced Anna Leuhusen as abbess, the St. Clares Priory was to be one of the very first convents to be dissolved during the Swedish Reformation in 1527. This has been contributed to the acts of Anna Leuhusen during the war, Anna Leuhusen is known to have kept one of the convent most treasured possessions. When the abbey was founded in 1288, Princess Richenza of Sweden had entered it, Richenza possessed a golden chain, which was consequently used by the abbesses of the abbey for centuries. Anna Leuhusen kept this chain when the abbey was dissolved and gave it to her family, Anna Leuhusen was still alive in 1550. She is believed to have died around 1554, upplösningen av kloster och konvent i Sverige 1523–1596. Berömda och glömda stockholmskvinnor, sju stadsvandringar,155 kvinnoporträtt
7. Elisa Servenius – Elisa Servenius, née Bernström, also known as Johanna Servenius, was a woman who served in the Swedish army dressed as a man during the Finnish War between Sweden and Russia 1808-1809. Elisa Servenius, a maid, met the soldier Bernard Servenius when his regiment was stationed in Stockholm and this regiment was either the Kings lifeguard or the Queens regiment. Her husband was believed killed in action at the Battle of Ratan and Sävar, while she collected the ammunition of the enemy. For this action Gustav Wachtmeister recommended that she be decorated for bravery in battle, during the march to Piteå, when for the third time she prepared to in her ability serve her country, her gender was discovered and she was fired. In the report to the queen, this version was given and she was discovered, but allowed to remain despite her sex. At Ratan, she marched at her husbands side dressed in a uniform, nursed the wounded, collected the ammunition from the fallen and handed it to her fellow soldiers during the battle. Her husband was reported dead, but she was convinced he was alive and a prisoner, during this expedition, her biological sex was discovered by her new comrades. Officers, who knew her from the expedition, informed admiral Johan af Puke. Puke informed himself of her conduct during the battle at Ratan, I am with my husband, for him I would do anything, and also, I wish to help the wounded. I ask nothing more than to do it again, if needed, I do not mind the flying of the bullets the least bit, you will die someday anyway, this way as well as another. The queen was impressed with her, and commented, Truly a philosophic way of reason from a woman of the people, after the war, it was discovered that her husband had been captured rather than killed in action. He was released from his Russian captivity in 1810, and they were reunited in Stockholm, elisa Servenius is portrayed in the novel Affairen vid Ratan by Björn Holm, were the characther Katrin Servenius is based on her. Translated into Swedish as Så följde hon trogen och käck armén, trans
8. Ebba Stenbock – Ebba Gustavsdotter Stenbock was a Swedish noble. The sister of queen Katarina Stenbock, she married Clas Eriksson Fleming, governor of Finland, Ebba Stenbock was the daughter of riksråd Gustaf Olofsson Stenbock and Brita Eriksdotter Leijonhufvud, and the sister of Queen Catherine Stenbock. She was the niece of Queen Margareta Leijonhufvud, and thereby the cousin of the children of that marriage, including the future John III of Sweden. In 1573, she married Clas Eriksson Fleming in the house of her sister, the Queen Dowager in Stockholm and she had three children during her marriage, the daughters Katarina, Hebla and Margareta, and her son Johan Fleming. In 1594, her spouse was appointed Governor-General of Finland, Ebba Stenbock was noted for her fearless conduct toward Duke Charles. In parallel, the Cudgel War erupted in Finland in 1596, in April 1597, after having subdued the Cudgel War and preparing to resist the expected invasion of Duke Charles, Fleming died. She prepared the castle for a siege awaiting relief from King Sigismund in Poland, in August 1597, Duke Charles and his army invaded Finland, took Åland, which was the fief of her sister Queen Dowager Catherine, and besieged Turku Castle. He offered the women of the Castle safe passage through the lines, including Ebba, Ebba was eventually forced to surrender, as no help from Poland arrived. Fleming was still not buried, and, according to legend, Ebba and her daughters were taken prisoner and brought to Stockholm, where they were separated and placed in house arrest. In 1599, a messenger of Sigismund from Finland was arrested in Stockholm and her son was executed in the Åbo Bloodbath the same year. No formal accusation was brought against her, and she and her daughters were released after the Linköping Bloodbath, like many other wives and daughters of the exiled loyalists to Sigismund, whose estates had been confiscated by Charles, they took refuge with Queen Dowager Catherine Stenbock at Strömsholm. Ebba Bielke Profile, Anteckningar om svenska qvinnor Gustaf Elgenstierna, Den introducerade svenska adelns ättartavlor, 1925-36 Tegenborg Falkdalen, Karin, Vasadrottningen, en biografi över Katarina Stenbock 1535-1621, Historiska media, Lund,2015
9. Ingeborg Tott – She was the fiefholder of Häme in Finland. She functioned as the de facto queen consort of Sweden for over three decades and participated in affairs during the reign of her spouse. Ingeborg was the daughter of the Danish noble and riksråd Aage Axelsson Tott, governor of Örebro Castle in Sweden, and she belonged to the elite of Dano-Swedish nobility at the time and was related to the infamous Brita Tott. In 1464, she was engaged to marry the Norwegian noble Hans Sigurdsen, son of the Norwegian drots, noble Sigurd Jonsen, in 1467 she married the Swedish noble Sten Sture the elder. In 1470, Sten Sture the elder was elected Regent of Sweden after the death of his uncle Charles VIII. While Sten became the King in all but name, she was given the position of queen in all. The court of Sten and Ingeborg was described as a jolly one, in 1476, she was granted equal inheritance as her brothers after their parents. Ingeborg has been described as a wise, brave and intellectually capable character, the marriage was described as happy. In the correspondence between regent Sten and Ingeborg, the regent referred to her as Min kära hjärtans stallbroder, Ingeborg became known for her loyalty toward Sten and Sweden against her birth country Denmark. In the absence of Sten, Ingeborg, according to the chronicles and her political involvement is apparent from her correspondence with Sten. On this occasion, Ingeborg ventured out upon the street in an attempt to calm the situation, upon the return of the Regent, he became so agitated by this incident that he had to be prevented by the council from exacting revenge upon the city. Reportedly, his warning to the city of Stockholm on this occasion kept the peace in the city for the remainder of his reign, Ingeborg showed an interest in science, theology and education. In 1477, she encouraged the foundation of the first secular university in Sweden and she acted as a patron of science and literature, and gave donations to the financiation of libraries and the printing and translations of books. Ingeborg commissioned the De dignitate et utilitate psalteriibeatae Mariae virginis by Alanus de Rupe and she also took an interest in religion. She and acted as the patron of the Order of the Carmelites as the benefactor of the Carmelite convent of Varberg, in 1493, she acted as the patron of the first convent of the Carthusian Order in Sweden, the Carthusian convent of Mariefred. In 1497, the union with Denmark was again made a fact when John. Thereby, Sten lost his position of Regent, Sten and Ingeborg left for Finland, where they held a grand court at Tavastehus Castle. In 1501, John, King of Denmark was deposed as King of Sweden in a rebellion, Stockholm, which was defended against the rebels by the queen of Denmark, Christina of Saxony, surrendered to the Swedish forces after a siege on 9 May 1502