Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park
The Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park is the union of the Waterton Lakes National Park in Canada and the Glacier National Park in the United States. Both parks are declared Biosphere Reserves by UNESCO and their union as a World Heritage Site, the union of the parks was achieved through the efforts of Rotary International members from Alberta and Montana, on June 18,1932. The dedication address was given by Sir Charles Arthur Mander, 2nd Baronet, the two parks are administered separately and have separate entrance fees. Waterton Lakes National Park Glacier National Park Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park, Waterton-Glacier International Peace Park World Heritage Site. Media related to Waterton Glacier International Peace Park at Wikimedia Commons UNESCO World Heritage Site Entry
Chaco Culture National Historical Park
Chaco Culture National Historical Park is a United States National Historical Park hosting the densest and most exceptional concentration of pueblos in the American Southwest. The park is located in northwestern New Mexico, between Albuquerque and Farmington, in a canyon cut by the Chaco Wash. Containing the most sweeping collection of ancient ruins north of Mexico, between AD900 and 1150, Chaco Canyon was a major center of culture for the Ancient Pueblo Peoples. Chacoans quarried sandstone blocks and hauled timber from great distances, assembling fifteen major complexes that remained the largest buildings in North America until the 19th century, evidence of archaeoastronomy at Chaco has been proposed, with the Sun Dagger petroglyph at Fajada Butte a popular example. Many Chacoan buildings may have been aligned to capture the solar and lunar cycles, requiring generations of astronomical observations, climate change is thought to have led to the emigration of Chacoans and the eventual abandonment of the canyon, beginning with a fifty-year drought commencing in 1130.
The sites are considered sacred ancestral homelands by the Hopi and Pueblo people, the park is on the Trails of the Ancients Byway, one of the designated New Mexico Scenic Byways. Ancient Chacoans drew upon dense forests of oak, piñon, ponderosa pine, the canyon itself, located within lowlands circumscribed by dune fields and mountains, is aligned along a roughly northwest-to-southeast axis and is rimmed by flat massifs known as mesas. Large gaps between the southwestern cliff faces—side canyons known as critical in funneling rain-bearing storms into the canyon. The principal Chacoan complexes, such as Pueblo Bonito, Nuevo Alto, the alluvial canyon floor slopes downward to the northwest at a gentle grade of 30 feet per mile, it is bisected by the Chaco Wash, an arroyo that rarely bears water. The canyons main aquifers were too deep to be of use to ancient Chacoans, aside from occasional storm runoff coursing through arroyos, substantial surface water—springs, wells—is virtually nonexistent.
A sandy and swampy coastline oscillated east and west, alternately submerging and uncovering the area atop the present Colorado Plateau that Chaco Canyon now occupies. The Chaco Wash flowed across the upper strata of what is now the 400-foot Chacra Mesa, cutting into it, the mesa comprises sandstone and shale formations dating from the Late Cretaceous, which are of the Mesa Verde formation. The canyon bottomlands were further eroded, exposing Menefee Shale bedrock, the canyon and mesa lie within the Chaco Core—which is distinct from the wider Chaco Plateau, a flat region of grassland with infrequent stands of timber. As the Continental Divide is only 15, an arid region of high xeric scrubland and desert steppe, the canyon and wider basin average 8 inches of rainfall annually, the park averages 9.1 inches. Chaco Canyon lies on the side of extensive mountain ranges to the south and west. The region sees four distinct seasons, rainfall is most likely between July and September, while May and June are the driest months.
Occasional aberrant northward excursions of the convergence zone may boost precipitation in some years. Chaco endures remarkable climatic extremes, temperatures range between −38 to 102 °F, and may swing 60 °F in a single day, the region averages fewer than 150 frost-free days per year, and the local climate swings wildly from years of plentiful rainfall to prolonged drought
Old San Juan
Old San Juan is the oldest settlement within Puerto Rico and the historic colonial section of the city of San Juan. The settlement is a National Historic Landmark District and was listed on the National Register of Historic Places as the Zona Histórica de San Juan. Old San Juan is located on a small and narrow island which lies along the north coast, about 35 miles from the east end of Puerto Rico, and is united to the mainland of Puerto Rico by three bridges. It is bounded by the Atlantic Ocean to the north and to the south by San Juan Bay —which lies between the city and the mainland. On a bluff about 100 feet high at the west end of the island and commanding the entrance to the harbor, rise the battlements of Fort San Felipe del Morro, in which there is a lighthouse. The city is characterized by its narrow, blue cobblestone streets, near Fort San Felipe del Morro, is the Casa Blanca, a palace built on land which belonged to the family of Ponce de Leon. In 1508, Juan Ponce de León founded the original settlement, the ruins of Caparra are known as the Pueblo Viejo sector of Guaynabo, behind the almost land-locked harbor just to the west of the present San Juan metropolitan area.
Constructed in 1521, Casa Blanca served as the first fortification of the settlement and residence of Juan Ponce de León descendants, prior to the 19th century, the area outside the city walls occupying the east side of Old San Juan Island, was almost uninhabited. In 1838 the so-called area of Puerta de Tierra had a population of 168 residents, according to a census made in 1846, the population had risen to 223 inhabitants living in 58 houses. On May 28,1897, the demolition was officially started after a proclamation was issued by Queen Maria Christina. By the year 1899, the population of Puerta de Tierra had risen to 5,453, during the late 1940s, disrepair in the old city was evident. The local authorities were considering development proposals for renovating the old city, anthropologist Ricardo Alegría vehemently advised against the idea of razing old colonial buildings in favor of contemporary building designs. He followed the example suggested by his father, a civic leader who had successfully prevented the demolition of the Capilla del Cristo in favor of a traffic redesign.
He advised mayor Rincón de Gautier in having local zoning laws changed to favor remodeling and this helped preserve the citys architectural profile, and has been a key to San Juans current status as a tourist destination. At the time, most real estate in Old San Juan had devalued under appraised values because the city was perceived as unsafe and not profitable for business. Under combined efforts by the institute and the Government Development Bank for Puerto Rico, the Bank provided low interest loans to remodelers, and the government gave triple tax exemptions to commercial activities in the old city. Potential developers were offered sketches of their properties after a remodeling and these efforts, did not prevent some city blocks from being razed. Strict remodeling codes were implemented to prevent new constructions from affecting the common colonial Spanish architectural themes of the old city, there was a strong push to develop Old San Juan as a small Manhattan
Independence Hall is the building where both the United States Declaration of Independence and the United States Constitution were debated and adopted. It is now the centerpiece of the Independence National Historical Park in Philadelphia, the building was completed in 1753 as the colonial legislature for the Province of Pennsylvania. It became the meeting place of the Second Continental Congress from 1775 to 1783 and was the site of the Constitutional Convention in the summer of 1787. The building is part of Independence National Historical Park and is listed as a World Heritage Site, by the spring of 1729 the citizens of Philadelphia were petitioning to be allowed to build a state house. Two thousand pounds were committed to the endeavor, by October 1730 they had begun purchasing lots on Chestnut Street. By 1732, even though Hamilton had acquired the deed for Lot no.2 from surveyor David Powell, dr. John Kearsley and Hamilton disagreed on a number of issues concerning the state house. Kearsley, who is credited with the designs of both Christ Church and St.
Peters Church, had plans for the structure of the building, the two men disagreed on the buildings site, Kearsley suggested High Street, now Market Street, and Hamilton favored Chestnut Street. Lawrence said nothing on the matter, matters reached a point where arbitration was needed. On August 8,1733, Hamilton brought the matter before the House of Representatives and he explained that Kearsley did not approve of Hamilton’s plans for the location and architecture of the state house and went on to insist the House had not agreed to these decisions. In response to this, Hamilton, on August 11, showed his plans for the house to the House. Ground was broken for construction soon after, Independence Hall is a red brick building designed in the Georgian style. It consists of a building with belltower and steeple, attached to two smaller wings via arcaded hyphens. The highest point to the tip of the spire is 168 ft. The State House was built between 1732 and 1751, designed by Edmund Woolley and Andrew Hamilton, and built by Woolley and its construction was commissioned by the Pennsylvania colonial legislature which paid for construction as funds were available, so it was finished piecemeal.
It was initially inhabited by the government of Pennsylvania as its State House. In 1753 Thomas Stretch erected a giant clock at the buildings west end that resembled a tall clock, the 40-foot-tall limestone base was capped with a 14-foot wooden case surrounding the clocks face, which was carved by Samuel Harding. The giant clock was removed about 1830, the clock’s dials were mounted at the east and west ends of the main building connected by rods to the clock movement in the middle of the building. The acquisition of the clock and bell by the Pennsylvania Colonial Assembly is closely related to the acquisition of the Liberty Bell
The Cahokia Mounds State Historic Site /kəˈhoʊkiə/ is the site of a pre-Columbian Native American city directly across the Mississippi River from modern St. Louis, Missouri. This historic park lies in southern Illinois between East St. Louis and Collinsville, the park covers 2,200 acres, or about 3.5 square miles, and contains about 80 mounds, but the ancient city was much larger. In its heyday, Cahokia covered about 6 square miles and included about 120 human-made earthen mounds in a range of sizes, shapes. Today, Cahokia Mounds is considered the largest and most complex archaeological site north of the great cities in Mexico. Cahokia Mounds is a National Historic Landmark and a site for state protection. It is one of only 23 UNESCO World Heritage Sites within the United States, although there is some evidence of occupation during the Late Archaic period in and around the site, Cahokia as it is now defined was settled around 600 CE during the Late Woodland period. Mound building at this location began with the Emergent Mississippian cultural period, the citys original name is unknown.
The Mounds were named after the Cahokia tribe, a historic Illiniwek people living in the area when the first French explorers arrived in the 17th century. As this was centuries after Cahokia was abandoned by its original inhabitants, most likely multiple indigenous ethnic groups settled in the Cahokia area. Though widely debated, some archaeologists connect Dhegihan Siouan-speaking tribes to Cahokia and they include the Osage, Omaha and Quapaw. These peoples are believed to have migrated from the east of the Ohio Valley. Many Native American tribes migrated over the centuries in response to local conditions and those living in territories at the time of the European encounter were often not the descendants of peoples who had lived there centuries before and built the mounds. Historian Daniel Richter notes that the apex of the city occurred during the Medieval Warming Period, the decline of the city coincides with the little ice age, although by the three-fold agriculture remained well-established throughout temperate North America.
Cahokia became the most important center for the peoples known today as Mississippians and their settlements ranged across what is now the Midwest and Southeastern United States. Cahokia was located in a position near the confluence of the Mississippi, Missouri. It maintained trade links with communities as far away as the Great Lakes to the north and the Gulf Coast to the south, trading in such items as copper, Mill Creek chert. Mill Creek chert, most notably, was used in the production of hoes, Cahokias control of the manufacture and distribution of these hand tools was an important economic activity that allowed the city to thrive. Bartering, not money was used in trade, at the high point of its development, Cahokia was the largest urban center north of the great Mesoamerican cities in Mexico and Central America
Mammoth Cave National Park
Mammoth Cave National Park is a U. S. national park in central Kentucky, encompassing portions of Mammoth Cave, the longest cave system known in the world. Since the 1972 unification of Mammoth Cave with the system under Flint Ridge to the north. The park was established as a park on July 1,1941. It became a World Heritage Site on October 27,1981, the parks 52,830 acres are located primarily in Edmonson County, with small areas extending eastward into Hart County and Barren County. It is centered on the Green River, with a tributary, with 405 miles of surveyed passageways Mammoth Cave is by far the worlds longest known cave system, being over twice as long as the second-longest cave system, Mexicos Sac Actun underwater cave. Mammoth Cave developed in thick Mississippian-aged limestone strata capped by a layer of sandstone and it is known to include more than 390 miles of passageway, new discoveries and connections add several miles to this figure each year. Mammoth Cave National Park was established to preserve the cave system, the epikarstic zone concentrates local flows of runoff into high-elevation springs which emerge at the edges of ridges.
It is in underlying massive limestone layers that the human-explorable caves of the region have naturally developed. The limestone layers of the column beneath the Big Clifty, in increasing order of depth below the ridgetops, are the Girkin Formation. Genevieve Limestone, and the St. Louis Limestone, for example, the large Main Cave passage seen on the Historic Tour is located at the bottom of the Girkin and the top of the Ste. Each of the layers of limestone is divided further into named geological units and subunits. One area of research involves correlating the stratigraphy with the cave survey produced by explorers. This makes it possible to produce approximate three-dimensional maps of the contours of the layer boundaries without the necessity for test wells. The upper sandstone caprock is relatively hard for water to penetrate, the sandstone caprock layer has been dissolved and eroded at many locations within the park, such as the Frozen Niagara room. At one valley bottom in the region of the park.
Known as Cedar Sink, the features a small river entering one side. Mammoth Cave is home to the endangered Kentucky cave shrimp, a sightless albino shrimp, the National Park Service offers several cave tours to visitors. Some notable features of the cave, such as Grand Avenue, Frozen Niagara, two tours, lit only by visitor-carried paraffin lamps, are popular alternatives to the electric-lit routes
Mesa Verde National Park
Mesa Verde National Park is a National Park and World Heritage Site located in Montezuma County, Colorado. It protects some of the best preserved Ancestral Puebloan archaeological sites in the United States, created by President Theodore Roosevelt in 1906, the park occupies 52,485 acres near the Four Corners region of the American Southwest. With more than 4,300 sites, including 600 cliff dwellings, Mesa Verde is best known for structures such as Cliff Palace, thought to be the largest cliff dwelling in North America. Starting c. 7500 BCE, Mesa Verde was seasonally inhabited by a group of nomadic Paleo-Indians known as the Foothills Mountain Complex. The variety of points found in the region indicates they were influenced by surrounding areas, including the Great Basin, the San Juan Basin. Later, Archaic people established semi-permanent rockshelters in and around the mesa, by 1000 BCE, the Basketmaker culture emerged from the local Archaic population, and by 750 CE the Ancestral Puebloans had developed from the Basketmaker culture.
The Mesa Verdeans survived using a combination of hunting and subsistence farming of crops such as corn and squash. They built the mesas first pueblos sometime after 650, and by the end of the 12th century, the first occupants of the Mesa Verde region, which spans from southeastern Utah to northwestern New Mexico, were nomadic Paleo-Indians who arrived in the area c. 9500 BCE. They followed herds of big game and camped near rivers and streams, the earliest Paleo-Indians were the Clovis culture and Folsom tradition, defined largely by the way in which they fashioned projectile points. Although they left evidence of their presence throughout the region, there is indication that they lived in central Mesa Verde during this time. After 9600 BCE, the environment grew warmer and drier, a change that brought to central Mesa Verde pine forests. Paleo-Indians began inhabiting the mesa in increasing numbers c. 7500, development of the atlatl during this period made it easier for them to hunt smaller game, a crucial advance at a time when most of the regions big game had disappeared from the landscape.
6000 BCE marks the beginning of the Archaic period in North America, the Archaic people probably developed locally, but were influenced by contact and intermarriage with immigrants from these outlying areas. The early Archaic people living near Mesa Verde utilized the atlatl and harvested a variety of plants and animals than the Paleo-Indians had. Environmental stability during the period drove population expansion and migration, by the late Archaic, more people were living in semi-permanent rockshelters that preserved perishable goods such as baskets and mats. They started to make a variety of figurines that usually resembled sheep or deer. The late Archaic is marked by increased trade in materials such as obsidian. Marine shells and abalone from the Pacific coast made their way to Mesa Verde from Arizona, Rock art flourished, and people lived in rudimentary houses made of mud and wood
Everglades National Park
Everglades National Park is a U. S. National Park in Florida that protects the southern 20 percent of the original Everglades. In the United States, it is the largest tropical wilderness, the largest wilderness of any kind east of the Mississippi River and it is the third-largest national park in the lower 48 states after Death Valley and Yellowstone. It has been declared an International Biosphere Reserve, a World Heritage Site, although most U. S. national parks preserve unique geographic features, Everglades National Park was the first created to protect a fragile ecosystem. The Everglades are a network of wetlands and forests fed by a river flowing.25 miles per day out of Lake Okeechobee, the Park is the most significant breeding ground for tropical wading birds in North America and contains the largest mangrove ecosystem in the western hemisphere. The majority of South Floridas fresh water, which is stored in the Biscayne Aquifer, is recharged in the park. Humans have lived for thousands of years in or around the Everglades until plans arose in 1882, to drain the wetlands, as the 20th century progressed, water flow from Lake Okeechobee was increasingly controlled and diverted to enable explosive growth of the South Florida metropolitan area.
The park was established in 1934, to protect the quickly vanishing Everglades, the ecosystems in Everglades National Park have suffered significantly from human activity, and restoration of the Everglades is a politically charged issue in South Florida. Everglades National Park covers 1,509,000 acres, throughout Dade, the elevation typically ranges from 0 to 8 feet above sea level, but a Calusa-built shell mound on the Gulf Coast rises 20 feet above sea level. The terrain of South Florida is relatively and consistently flat, although rock formations are not a central draw to Everglades National Park, the limestone that underlies the Everglades is integral to the formation of the diverse ecosystems within the park. Florida was once part of the African portion of the supercontinent Gondwana, after it separated, conditions allowed a shallow marine environment to deposit calcium carbonate in sand and coral to be converted into limestone. Tiny bits of shell and bryozoans compressed over multiple layers forming unique structures in the limestone called ooids, the Florida peninsula appeared above sea level between 100,000 and 150,000 years ago.
As sea levels at the end of the Wisconsin ice age rose, Lake Okeechobee began to flood and convection thunderstorms were created. Vast peat deposits south of Lake Okeechobee indicate that regular flooding had occurred about 5,000 years ago, plants began to migrate, subtropical ones from the northern part of Florida, and tropicals carried as seeds by birds from islands in the Caribbean. Although the limestone shelf appears to be flat, there are slight rises—called pinnacles—and depressions caused by the erosion of limestone by the properties of the water. Portions of the Everglades that remain flooded for more than nine out of the year are usually covered by peat. Areas that are flooded six months or less are covered by marl, plant communities are determined by the type of soil and amount of water present. While they are common in the portion of Florida, no underground springs feed water into the Everglades system. An underground reservoir called the Floridan Aquifer lies about 1,000 feet below the surface of South Florida, the Everglades has an immense capacity for water storage, owing to the sponge-like permeable limestone beneath the exposed land
Aztec Ruins National Monument
Salmon Ruins and Heritage Park, with more Puebloan structures, lies a short distance to the south, just west of Bloomfield near the San Juan River. The buildings date to the 11th to 13th centuries, and the misnomer attributing them to the Aztec civilization can be traced back to early American settlers in the mid-19th century, the actual construction was by the Ancestral Puebloans. The site was declared Aztec Ruin National Monument on January 24,1923, as a historical property of the National Park Service, the National Monument was administratively listed on the National Register of Historic Places on October 15,1966. Aztec Ruins was added to the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites, as part of the Chaco Culture National Historical Park, the site is on the Trails of the Ancients Byway, one of the designated New Mexico Scenic Byways. National Register of Historic Places listings in San Juan County, New Mexico The National Parks, washington, U. S. Department of the Interior. Aztec Ruins - Photos and Maps National Park Service website American Southwest, a National Park Service Discover Our Shared Heritage Travel Itinerary UNESCO World Heritage site
Monticello was the primary plantation of Thomas Jefferson, the third President of the United States, who began designing and building Monticello at age 26 after inheriting land from his father. The current Nickel features a depiction of Monticello on the reverse, situated on the summit of an 850-foot -high peak in the Southwest Mountains south of the Rivanna Gap, the name Monticello derives from the Italian for little mount. Cabins for field slaves were farther from the mansion, at Jeffersons direction, he was buried on the grounds, in an area now designated as the Monticello Cemetery. The cemetery is owned by the Monticello Association, a society of his descendants through Martha Wayles Skelton Jefferson, after Jeffersons death, his daughter Martha Jefferson Randolph sold the property. In 1834 it was bought by Uriah P. Levy, a commodore in the U. S. Navy and his nephew Jefferson Monroe Levy took over the property in 1879, he invested considerable money to restore and preserve it. In 1923, Monroe Levy sold it to the Thomas Jefferson Foundation and it has been designated a National Historic Landmark.
In 1987 Monticello and the nearby University of Virginia, designed by Jefferson, were designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Jeffersons home was built to serve as a house, which ultimately took on the architectural form of a villa. It has many antecedents, but Jefferson went beyond them to create something very much his own. He consciously sought to create a new architecture for a new nation, work began on what historians would subsequently refer to as the first Monticello in 1768, on a plantation of 5,000 acres. Jefferson moved into the South Pavilion in 1770, where his new wife Martha Wayles Skelton joined him in 1772, Jefferson continued work on his original design, but how much was completed is of some dispute. In constructing and reconstructing his home, Jefferson used both free workers and enslaved laborers, after his wifes death in 1782, Jefferson left Monticello in 1784 to serve as Minister of the United States to France. His decision to remodel his own home may date from this period, in 1794, following his service as the first U. S.
Secretary of State, Jefferson began rebuilding his house based on the ideas he had acquired in Europe. The remodeling continued throughout most of his presidency, although generally completed by 1809, Jefferson continued work on the present structure until his death in 1826. Jefferson added a hallway and a parallel set of rooms to the structure, more than doubling its area. He removed the second full-height story from the house and replaced it with a mezzanine bedroom floor. The interior is centered on two rooms, which served as an entrance-hall-museum, where Jefferson displayed his scientific interests. The most dramatic element of the new design was an octagonal dome, the dome room has now been restored to its appearance during Jeffersons lifetime, with Mars yellow walls and a painted green floor
Kluane National Park and Reserve
Kluane National Park and Reserve are two units of Canadas national park system, located in the extreme southwestern corner of the territory of Yukon. Kluane National Park Reserve was established in 1972, covering 22,013 square kilometers, the park includes the highest mountain in Canada, Mount Logan of the Saint Elias Mountains. Mountains and glaciers dominate the landscape, covering 83% of its area. The rest of the land in the park is forest and tundra—east of the largest mountains, trees grow only at the parks lowest elevations. The primary tree species are spruce, balsam poplar and trembling aspen. The park contains about 120 species of birds, including the rock ptarmigan, a day-use area with boat launch, picnic facilities and campground is located at Kathleen Lake, and is operated from mid-May to mid-September. Hiking is an activity on trails such as St. The park was the subject of a film in 2011s National Parks Project, directed by Louise Archambault and scored by Graham Van Pelt, Ian DSa.
In August 2013, Robert F. Kennedy, Jr. visited the park to see Mount Kennedy, in a 2009 census of the Kluane herd, there were 181 northern mountain caribou, a distinct ecotype of the woodland caribou. Kluane National Park lies within the territories of the Champagne and Aishihik First Nations. Through their respective Final Agreements with the Canadian Government, they have made into law their rights to harvest in this region, National Parks of Canada List of National Parks of Canada List of Yukon parks List of World Heritage Sites in the Americas Lee, Douglas. Canadas Icy Wilderness Park — Kluane, Parks Canada website for Kluane NP World Heritage site Kluane — a National Film Board of Canada documentary - Kluane a Pbase Gallery - Champagne and Aishihik First Nations - Kluane First Nation