This category has the following 3 subcategories, out of 3 total.
This category has the following 3 subcategories, out of 3 total.
1. Canada in the World Wars and Interwar Years – During the World wars and Interwar Years Canada experienced economic gain, more freedom for women and new technological advancements. On June 28,1914, Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria-Hungary was assassinated, at the time, Canadians were more concerned with events within their own country than European affairs, specifically in the Balkans where crises and wars had been brutal perennials for generations. Canada was facing its worst depression since the 1890s, Canadians hoped the Great Powers of Europe could keep the peace as they had done many times before in earlier disputes of the century. On July 29,1914, Britain warned its colonies to take precautions in case of war, most recent wars had begun with surprise attacks such as the Russo-Japanese War. Soldiers and Canadas few sailors manned Halifax fortifications and brought guns to command the St. Lawrence river, on August 2 armed militia mounted guard on bridges, canals, tunnels and railway stations in preparation. Canada got the news and Hughes was ecstatic, Britain was at war with Germany, Canada was then automatically at war, as she did not yet have control over her foreign policy — not that there were many dissenters. The war was popular even among French Canadians, including Henri Bourassa. Liberal leader Wilfrid Laurier created a party truce for as long as Canada was in danger and had those dissenters in the liberal caucus hold their tongues, in no way was Canada prepared for this scale of war. Its economy could not support it for more than a few months before being hit hard by its cost, no one expected it to last longer than a few months though, many claiming it would be over by Christmas. Mass recruiting for the war began on August 6 with hundreds of telegrams notifying Militia colonel to begin recruiting men between the ages of 18 and 45. Hordes of British immigrants and the unemployed answered the call, ontario, hard hit by the depression, accounted for third of the recruits, while two thirds of the recruits were British born. Few recruits came from the Maritimes and just over 1,000 were French, the cities of Toronto, Winnipeg and Montreal sent enough men each for two battalions. By September 4 there were 32,000 men and 8,000 horses in camp, there was an immediate demand for equipment, uniforms and weapons. The Ross Rifle Company worked overtime as did the textile mills, with a force of 32,000 equipped and ready, it soon became apparent that Embarkation from the docks would be a nightmare. Extra ships had to be chartered to carry the additional men, battalions were marched on to ships only to be marched back off when they didnt fit. Units ignored orders and schedules and crowded the docks not wishing to wait. When it was all done, the last of 30 ships had cleared the harbour, leaving 863 horses,4,512 tons of baggage, vehicles and ammunition behind, the first Canadian casualties of the war occurred before these troops arrived in Europe. Sir Christopher Cradocks squadron was sunk at the Battle of Coronel off the coast of Chile, by the time that the First Contingent reached England on October 14 it became apparent the war would not be over by Christmas
2. Tanks of the U.S. in the World Wars – As the American army did not have tanks of its own, the French two-man Renault FT Light Tank was used by US in the later stages of World War I. It was cheap and well-suited for mass production, and in addition to its traversable turret another innovative feature of the FT was its engine located at the rear. This pattern, with the gun located in a turret and rear engine. The M1917 was a US tank accepted by the army in October 1918 and is based on the plans of the French Renault FT. The crew, a driver and gunner, were separated from the engine by a bulkhead, steel idler wheels replaced the wooden idlers fitted to French examples. Approximately 64 of the M1917 were built before the end of World War I and 10 were sent to Europe, after the war Van Dorn Iron Works, the Maxwell Motor Company, and the C. L. Best Tractor Company created 950 more,374 had cannons and 526 had machine guns and 50 were signal tanks. A later modification, the M1917A1, was a lengthened, rebuilt, updated version compared to the French one, having a 100 hp Franklin engine, U. S. troops also used the British Heavy Tanks Mk V and Mk V*. A battalion trained in England and saw action in France in the last six weeks of the War, on a small number of occasions, U. S. troops were supported by tank units of the French Army operating Schneider and Saint-Chamond machines. Marmon-Herrington tanks that could not be delivered because of the fall of the Dutch East Indies were taken over by the US, the CTLS-4TAC and -4TAY tanks were redesignated Light Tank T14 and T16 respectively. They were used for training, some were used in Alaska, the CTLS-4TAC has the turret offset to the left, the CTLS-4TAY to the right. The Stuart was an upgrade of the M2 Light Tank, the initial upgrade was designated the M3 Stuart and had thicker armor, modified suspension and a 37mm mm gun. Production of the M3 and later the M5 Stuart started in March 1941, an upgrade of the M3, which was initially called M4 but later redesignated the M5, was developed with improved engines and produced through 1942. The M5 featured a hull and drivers hatches moved to the top. The M5 gradually replaced the M3 in production from 1942 and was in turn succeeded by the Light Tank M24 in 1944, the British Army was the first to use the M3 in combat. In November 1941, some 170 Stuarts took part in Operation Crusader, mentioned in the British complaints were the 37 mm gun, a limited range and poor internal layout. The two-man turret crew was a significant weakness, and some British units tried to fight with three-man turret crews, crews liked its high speed and mechanical reliability. From the summer of 1942, when enough US medium tanks had been received, M3s, M3A3s, and M5s continued in British service until the end of the war, but British armor units had a smaller proportion of these light tanks than US units
3. World War I – World War I, also known as the First World War, the Great War, or the War to End All Wars, was a global war originating in Europe that lasted from 28 July 1914 to 11 November 1918. More than 70 million military personnel, including 60 million Europeans, were mobilised in one of the largest wars in history and it was one of the deadliest conflicts in history, and paved the way for major political changes, including revolutions in many of the nations involved. The war drew in all the worlds great powers, assembled in two opposing alliances, the Allies versus the Central Powers of Germany and Austria-Hungary. These alliances were reorganised and expanded as more nations entered the war, Italy, Japan, the trigger for the war was the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, by Yugoslav nationalist Gavrilo Princip in Sarajevo on 28 June 1914. This set off a crisis when Austria-Hungary delivered an ultimatum to the Kingdom of Serbia. Within weeks, the powers were at war and the conflict soon spread around the world. On 25 July Russia began mobilisation and on 28 July, the Austro-Hungarians declared war on Serbia, Germany presented an ultimatum to Russia to demobilise, and when this was refused, declared war on Russia on 1 August. Germany then invaded neutral Belgium and Luxembourg before moving towards France, after the German march on Paris was halted, what became known as the Western Front settled into a battle of attrition, with a trench line that changed little until 1917. On the Eastern Front, the Russian army was successful against the Austro-Hungarians, in November 1914, the Ottoman Empire joined the Central Powers, opening fronts in the Caucasus, Mesopotamia and the Sinai. In 1915, Italy joined the Allies and Bulgaria joined the Central Powers, Romania joined the Allies in 1916, after a stunning German offensive along the Western Front in the spring of 1918, the Allies rallied and drove back the Germans in a series of successful offensives. By the end of the war or soon after, the German Empire, Russian Empire, Austro-Hungarian Empire, national borders were redrawn, with several independent nations restored or created, and Germanys colonies were parceled out among the victors. During the Paris Peace Conference of 1919, the Big Four imposed their terms in a series of treaties, the League of Nations was formed with the aim of preventing any repetition of such a conflict. This effort failed, and economic depression, renewed nationalism, weakened successor states, and feelings of humiliation eventually contributed to World War II. From the time of its start until the approach of World War II, at the time, it was also sometimes called the war to end war or the war to end all wars due to its then-unparalleled scale and devastation. In Canada, Macleans magazine in October 1914 wrote, Some wars name themselves, during the interwar period, the war was most often called the World War and the Great War in English-speaking countries. Will become the first world war in the sense of the word. These began in 1815, with the Holy Alliance between Prussia, Russia, and Austria, when Germany was united in 1871, Prussia became part of the new German nation. Soon after, in October 1873, German Chancellor Otto von Bismarck negotiated the League of the Three Emperors between the monarchs of Austria-Hungary, Russia and Germany
4. World War III – World War III and Third World War are names given to a hypothetical third worldwide military conflict subsequent to World War I and World War II. The term has been in use since the end of World War II, during the inter-war period between the two World Wars, WW I was typically referred to simply as The Great War and was almost never referred to as the First World War. Unfortunately, in 1939 the outbreak of World War II disproved the hope that mankind might have outgrown the need for such widespread global wars. With the advent of the Cold War in 1947 and with the spread of nuclear technology to the Soviet Union. During the Cold War years the possibility of a Third World War was anticipated and planned for by military, scenarios ranged from conventional warfare to limited or total nuclear warfare. At the height of the Cold War, in a referred to as MAD. The spectre of the potential of the destruction of the human race may have contributed to the ability of both American and Soviet leaders to avoid such a scenario. The Cold War ended in 1991 when the Soviet Union collapsed, with the end of the Cold War, it was believed that the likelihood of a fully unrestricted nuclear confrontation between two superpowers was significantly diminished. Military planners have been war gaming various scenarios, preparing for the worst, some of those plans are now out of date and have been partially or fully declassified. In April–May 1945, British Armed Forces developed Operation Unthinkable, thought to be the first scenario of the Third World War and its primary goal was to impose upon Russia the will of the United States and the British Empire. The plan was rejected by the British Chiefs of Staff Committee as militarily unfeasible, Operation Dropshot was the 1950s United States contingency plan for a possible nuclear and conventional war with the Soviet Union in the Western European and Asian theaters. At the time the US nuclear arsenal was limited in size, based mostly in the United States, between 75 and 100 of the 300 nuclear weapons were targeted to destroy Soviet combat aircraft on the ground. The scenario was devised prior to the development of ballistic missiles. It was also devised before Robert McNamara and President Kennedy changed the US Nuclear War plan from the city killing countervalue strike plan to counterforce, in January 1950, the North Atlantic Council approved NATOs military strategy of containment. Allied Command Europe was established under General of the Army Dwight D. Eisenhower, US Army, the Western Union Defence Organization had previously carried out Exercise Verity, a 1949 multilateral exercise involving naval air strikes and submarine attacks. Exercise Mainbrace brought together 200 ships and over 50,000 personnel to practice the defence of Denmark and it was the first major NATO exercise. The exercise was jointly commanded by Supreme Allied Commander Atlantic Admiral Lynde D. McCormick, USN, ridgeway, US Army, during the Fall of 1952. The US, UK, Canada, France, Denmark, Norway, Portugal, Netherlands, exercises Grand Slam and Longstep were naval exercises held in the Mediterranean Sea during 1952 to practice dislodging an enemy occupying force and amphibious assault
5. World War II – World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945, although related conflicts began earlier. It involved the vast majority of the worlds countries—including all of the great powers—eventually forming two opposing alliances, the Allies and the Axis. It was the most widespread war in history, and directly involved more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. Marked by mass deaths of civilians, including the Holocaust and the bombing of industrial and population centres. These made World War II the deadliest conflict in human history, from late 1939 to early 1941, in a series of campaigns and treaties, Germany conquered or controlled much of continental Europe, and formed the Axis alliance with Italy and Japan. Under the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact of August 1939, Germany and the Soviet Union partitioned and annexed territories of their European neighbours, Poland, Finland, Romania and the Baltic states. In December 1941, Japan attacked the United States and European colonies in the Pacific Ocean, and quickly conquered much of the Western Pacific. The Axis advance halted in 1942 when Japan lost the critical Battle of Midway, near Hawaii, in 1944, the Western Allies invaded German-occupied France, while the Soviet Union regained all of its territorial losses and invaded Germany and its allies. During 1944 and 1945 the Japanese suffered major reverses in mainland Asia in South Central China and Burma, while the Allies crippled the Japanese Navy, thus ended the war in Asia, cementing the total victory of the Allies. World War II altered the political alignment and social structure of the world, the United Nations was established to foster international co-operation and prevent future conflicts. The victorious great powers—the United States, the Soviet Union, China, the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union and the United States emerged as rival superpowers, setting the stage for the Cold War, which lasted for the next 46 years. Meanwhile, the influence of European great powers waned, while the decolonisation of Asia, most countries whose industries had been damaged moved towards economic recovery. Political integration, especially in Europe, emerged as an effort to end pre-war enmities, the start of the war in Europe is generally held to be 1 September 1939, beginning with the German invasion of Poland, Britain and France declared war on Germany two days later. The dates for the beginning of war in the Pacific include the start of the Second Sino-Japanese War on 7 July 1937, or even the Japanese invasion of Manchuria on 19 September 1931. Others follow the British historian A. J. P. Taylor, who held that the Sino-Japanese War and war in Europe and its colonies occurred simultaneously and this article uses the conventional dating. Other starting dates sometimes used for World War II include the Italian invasion of Abyssinia on 3 October 1935. The British historian Antony Beevor views the beginning of World War II as the Battles of Khalkhin Gol fought between Japan and the forces of Mongolia and the Soviet Union from May to September 1939, the exact date of the wars end is also not universally agreed upon. It was generally accepted at the time that the war ended with the armistice of 14 August 1945, rather than the formal surrender of Japan
6. World war – A world war is a war involving many of the countries of the world or many of the most powerful and populous ones. World wars span multiple countries on multiple continents, with battles fought in multiple theaters. The Oxford English Dictionary cited the first known usage in the English language to a Scottish newspaper, the term World War I was coined by Time magazine in its issue of June 12,1939. In the same article, the term World War II was first used speculatively to describe the upcoming war, the first use for the actual war came in its issue of September 11,1939. m. Speculative fiction authors had been noting the concept of a Second World War in 1919 and 1920, due to this fact, a very minute conflict between two countries had the potential to set off a domino effect of alliances, triggering a world war. The fact that the powers involved had large overseas empires virtually guaranteed that such a war would be worldwide, the same strategic considerations also ensured that the combatants would strike at each others colonies, thus spreading the wars far more widely than those of pre-Colombian times. Both world wars had also seen war crimes, the First World War had seen major use of chemical weapons despite the Hague Conventions of 1899 and 1907 outlawing the use of such weapons in warfare. The Ottoman Empire had been considered responsible for the death of one million Armenians during the First World War. The Second World War was the first conflict in which atomic bombs had been used, nazi Germany had been responsible for multiple genocides, most notably the Holocaust, killing six million Jews. The outcome of the wars had a profound effect on the course of world history. The old European empires had collapsed or been dismantled as a result of the wars crushing costs. The United States of America had been established as the dominant global superpower, along with its ideological foe. These two superpowers exerted political influence over most of the worlds nation-states for decades after the end of the Second World War, the modern international security, economic and diplomatic system had been created in the aftermath of the wars. Institutions such as the United Nations were established to collectivize international affairs, the wars had also greatly changed the course of daily life. Technologies developed during wartime had an effect on peace-time life as well, for instance, advances in, jet aircraft, penicillin, nuclear energy. Since the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki during the Second World War, there has been a widespread and this war has been anticipated and planned for by military and civil authorities, and explored in fiction in many countries. Concepts have ranged from purely conventional scenarios, to limited use of nuclear weapons, among these are former American, French, and Mexican government officials, military leaders, politicians, and authors, Despite their efforts, none of these wars are commonly deemed world wars. The Second Congo War involved nine nations and led to ongoing low-level warfare despite an official peace and it has often been referred to as Africas World War