Bindarri National Park
Bindarri National Park is a national park in New South Wales, Australia, 431 km northeast of Sydney. Protected areas of New South Wales Official Site
Coolah Tops National Park
Coolah Tops is a national park located in New South Wales, Australia, 258 kilometres northwest of Sydney, established on 5 July 1996. It is managed by the New South Wales National Parks and Wildlife Service, its World Conservation Union category is II. It is situated 30 kilometres east of Coolah on the Coolah Creek Road; the park features waterfalls. Giant grass trees and open forest with stands of snow gums shelter gliders, wallabies and owls. Camping and walking are the main recreational activities performed here. Views from the tops are possible over the Liverpool Plains; the sources of the Talbragar River and the Coolaburragundy River lie in the park. Protected areas of New South Wales
Mount Kaputar National Park
The Mount Kaputar National Park is a national park located in New South Wales, surrounding the proximities of Mount Kaputar, a volcano active between 17 and 21 million years ago. It is located 50 km east of 570 km northwest of Sydney. Millions of years of erosion have since carved the volcanic region into the lava terraces, volcanic plugs, dykes of Nandewar Range; the central feature of the region is Mount Kaputar, the park's namesake, which rises to an altitude of 1,510 m. The 360 degree view from the summit of the mountain encompasses one-tenth of New South Wales' area or 80,000 square kilometres; the park protects a wide range of biomes, including semi-arid woodland, subalpine heath, eucalypt forests, provides a habitat for a range of animals, including bats, wallabies and the unique red triangle slug, known to appear after rainfall. Before it was a national park, the area was used as grazing land for domestic animals; the conditions in the park are harsh, but several pioneering families lived there, remnants of their occupation remain.
Sheep and cattle continued to graze on the plateau until around the 1950s. It was an isolated place, the stockmen in charge of the cattle would not see another human for months at a time. In 1925 some 775 ha of land around Mount Kaputar were declared a "Reserve for Public Recreation". Two years a trust, known as the Mount Kaputar Trust, was formed to give guidance on managing the park; the area was expanded to 14,244 ha and proclaimed a full national park in 1959. Eight years in 1967, the Fund relinquished the duties of controlling the park to the newly established National Parks and Wildlife Service, the park is still administered by a regional advisory board. In 1965, two cabins were constructed at Dawsons Spring, providing accommodations including a permanent water supply for showers and toilets, a picnic facility. Today there are 3 cabins, including the one facilitated from Bark Hut; the park is popular with rockclimbers, there are 11 walks in the park, as well as a camping ground. However, the most popular site in the park is Scutts Hut, located upward of Kurrawonga Falls.
The hut is the former home of a pioneer family living in the vicinity of the park. It is accessible via a fire trail from the Bark Hut camping grounds; the hut has been restored with an earthen floor and an open fireplace. The hut is built on the banks of Horsearm Creek. Protected areas of New South Wales
Round Mountain (Northern Tablelands)
Round Mountain, a mountain of the Snowy Range, a spur of the Great Dividing Range, is located on the Northern Tablelands in the New England region in New South Wales, Australia. With an elevation of 1,586 metres above sea level, Round Mountain is the highest peak of the Snowy Range which forms part of the eastern escarpment of the Northern Tablelands; the mountain is located in Cathedral Rock National Park, about 72 kilometres east of Armidale and 63 kilometres west of Dorrigo, 10 kilometres northwest of the better known Point Lookout, in New England National Park. It is located a few kilometres west of the small settlement of Ebor; the nearest sealed road is the Waterfall Way 6.5 kilometres from the mountain peak. The northern slopes of Round Mountain are drained by the Guy Fawkes River which flows over the Ebor Falls and goes into the Clarence River; the south slopes of Round Mountain are drained by the Styx River which flows to the Macleay River and the Oaky River which drains into the Chandler River.
A radar air navigation station, for the control and guidance of aircraft, is located on the summit of Round Mountain. List of mountains of New South Wales
New England (New South Wales)
New England or New England North West is the name given to a undefined region in the north of the state of New South Wales, Australia about 60 kilometres inland, that includes the Northern Tablelands and the North West Slopes regions. The region has been occupied by Indigenous Australians for thousands of years, notably in the west by the Kamilaroi people. In the highlands, the original languages, which are now extinct, were Anaiwan to the south of Guyra and Ngarrabal and Marabal to the north of Guyra; the first European to explore the New England area was English explorer John Oxley, who crossed the southern part of the New England Range near the Apsley Falls before he discovered and named Port Macquarie in 1818. In 1827 Allan Cunningham travelled north along the western edge of the Range until he reached the Darling Downs in Queensland. In 1831 Thomas Mitchell reached Wallamoul Station near Tamworth and explored to the Namoi River followed it to Narrabri. Moving on, Mitchell found a deep, broad river, the Gwydir.
In 1832, Mitchell cut across the plains to the Gwydir River near Moree. The team spent several weeks charting the tributaries between the Gwydir and the Barwon Rivers. Hamilton Collins Sempill was the first settler in the New England area when he took up the'Wolka' run in 1832, establishing slab huts where'Langford' now stands close to Walcha. During the 1830s further squatters moved their sheep flocks onto the Northern Tablelands as they had been displaced by the Australian Agricultural Company, which dominated resources in the Hunter Valley; when the area was opened up for settlement in the 1830s, this led to the gazetting of nine pastoral districts. These districts had a Commissioner of Crown Lands. Australian red cedar cutters moved into the headwaters of the Macleay River in the early 1830s to harvest the valuable trees; the ranges between Kempsey and Glen Innes yielded about 300,000 board feet in 1950. Work commenced in 1838 with the use of convicts to build a road known as Major's Line, across the Great Dividing Range to link the wool-growing settlement of Walcha with Port Macquarie.
This road was named the Oxley Highway. On 22 May 1839 the New England District was gazetted thus: New England District: Bounded on the east by a line north by compass from the top of Werrikimber Mountain, at the head of the Hastings River. In 1840 there were 66 separate pastoral licences, in 1842 it rose to 98, 1845 – 116. Only 10 new runs were registered between 1848 and 1855. In 1843 the Darling Downs district was separated from the New England; this region ceased to be a statistical division after 1874, but the counties of Arrawatta, Clive, Hardinge, Hawes and Vernon approximated the region’s limits. In 1847 these counties, with the exception of Hawes and Vernon formed part of the "Unsettled District" of the colony. By 1850 all major communication routes had been forged, with little government assistance. During the 1860s the famous bushranger, Captain Thunderbolt, robbed properties, mail coaches and hotels throughout the region. Thunderbolt was shot dead in May 1870 near Uralla; the population of the New England Region, including the slopes in 1957 was 143,788 and in 1971 there were 164,128 people, according to the census data.
In the 2006 census the New England region had a population of 180,000 which included the local government areas of Armidale Dumaresq, Walcha, Glen Innes Severn, Guyra, Liverpool Plains, Moree Plains, Tamworth Regional and Uralla. Gold was discovered in 1851 at Rocky River two kilometres west of Uralla and started a rush to the area. Gold was found at Hanging Rock and nearby Swamp Creek in 1852. In the early 1850s some alluvial gold was found at Mulla Rywung on Swamp Oak Creek. In 1852 the first licenses to prospect were taken out. In the late 19th century several gold and antimony mines were established at places such as Halls Peak and Hillgrove, as well as two ambitious hydro-electric schemes to power them, the remains of which can be seen today along the Styx River and at Gara Gorge; the first gold mining was recorded at Tia in 1866 and in 1873 a reef was discovered at McLeod’s Creek, near Walcha. The discovery of the Torrington Tin Lode was made in 1881 but the small prospectors soon lost control to overseas mining companies.
Tin and arsenic were mined from the 1880s near Emmaville. Copper was discovered at Gulf Creek, near Barraba, in 1889 and the first mine was established there in 1892. At its peak, in 1901, the copper mine was one of the largest in the state. Asbestos was first mined at Woodsreef near Barraba, from 1919 to the 1980s. Mining had a major influence on the rise and fall of other towns and villages such as, Bear Hill, Emmaville, Nundle, Stannifer and Torrington. Construction of the Northern Tablelands railway service commenced in the 1870s and the Main North railway line reached Werris Creek and west Tamworth in 1878, Armidale in 1883 and Wallangarra on the Queensland border in 1888; the Main North railway line is now closed north of Armidale. The Mungindi railway line from Werris Creek to Gunnedah opened in 1879, Narrabri in 1884 and Moree in 1897, Mungindi in 1914; the line is truncated to Weemelah between Moree and Mungindi. The line between Werris Creek and Moree is known as the North-West line. A branch line was
Garrawilla National Park
Garrawilla National Park was created in December 2005. It covers an area of 937 hectares; this park is located on the northern side of the Oxley Highway halfway between Coonabarabran and Mullaley in New South Wales, Australia. Protected areas of New South Wales
New South Wales
New South Wales is a state on the east coast of Australia. It borders Queensland to the north, Victoria to the south, South Australia to the west, its coast borders the Tasman Sea to the east. The Australian Capital Territory is an enclave within the state. New South Wales' state capital is Sydney, Australia's most populous city. In September 2018, the population of New South Wales was over 8 million, making it Australia's most populous state. Just under two-thirds of the state's population, 5.1 million, live in the Greater Sydney area. Inhabitants of New South Wales are referred to as New South Welshmen; the Colony of New South Wales was founded as a penal colony in 1788. It comprised more than half of the Australian mainland with its western boundary set at 129th meridian east in 1825; the colony included the island territories of New Zealand, Van Diemen's Land, Lord Howe Island, Norfolk Island. During the 19th century, most of the colony's area was detached to form separate British colonies that became New Zealand and the various states and territories of Australia.
However, the Swan River Colony has never been administered as part of New South Wales. Lord Howe Island remains part of New South Wales, while Norfolk Island has become a federal territory, as have the areas now known as the Australian Capital Territory and the Jervis Bay Territory; the prior inhabitants of New South Wales were the Aboriginal tribes who arrived in Australia about 40,000 to 60,000 years ago. Before European settlement there were an estimated 250,000 Aboriginal people in the region; the Wodi Wodi people are the original custodians of the Illawarra region of South Sydney. Speaking a variant of the Dharawal language, the Wodi Wodi people lived across a large stretch of land, surrounded by what is now known as Campbelltown, Shoalhaven River and Moss Vale; the Bundjalung people are the original custodians of parts of the northern coastal areas. The European discovery of New South Wales was made by Captain James Cook during his 1770 survey along the unmapped eastern coast of the Dutch-named continent of New Holland, now Australia.
In his original journal covering the survey, in triplicate to satisfy Admiralty Orders, Cook first named the land "New Wales", named after Wales. However, in the copy held by the Admiralty, he "revised the wording" to "New South Wales"; the first British settlement was made by. After years of chaos and anarchy after the overthrow of Governor William Bligh, a new governor, Lieutenant-Colonel Lachlan Macquarie, was sent from Britain to reform the settlement in 1809. During his time as governor, Macquarie commissioned the construction of roads, wharves and public buildings, sent explorers out from Sydney and employed a planner to design the street layout of Sydney. Macquarie's legacy is still evident today. During the 19th century, large areas were successively separated to form the British colonies of Tasmania, South Australia and Queensland. Responsible government was granted to the New South Wales colony in 1855. Following the Treaty of Waitangi, William Hobson declared British sovereignty over New Zealand in 1840.
In 1841 it was separated from the Colony of New South Wales to form the new Colony of New Zealand. Charles Darwin visited Australia in January 1836 and in The Voyage of the Beagle records his hesitations about and fascination with New South Wales, including his speculations about the geological origin and formation of the great valleys, the aboriginal population, the situation of the convicts, the future prospects of the country. At the end of the 19th century, the movement toward federation between the Australian colonies gathered momentum. Conventions and forums involving colony leaders were held on a regular basis. Proponents of New South Wales as a free trade state were in dispute with the other leading colony Victoria, which had a protectionist economy. At this time customs posts were common on borders on the Murray River. Travelling from New South Wales to Victoria in those days was difficult. Supporters of federation included the New South Wales premier Sir Henry Parkes whose 1889 Tenterfield Speech was pivotal in gathering support for New South Wales involvement.
Edmund Barton to become Australia's first Prime Minister, was another strong advocate for federation and a meeting held in Corowa in 1893 drafted an initial constitution. In 1898 popular referenda on the proposed federation were held in New South Wales, South Australia and Tasmania. All votes resulted in a majority in favour, but the New South Wales government under Premier George Reid had set a requirement for a higher "yes" vote than just a simple majority, not met. In 1899 further referenda were held in the same states as well as Queensland. All resulted in yes votes with majorities increased from the previous year. New South Wales met the conditions; as a compromise to the question on where the capital was to be located, an agreement was made that the site was to be within New South Wales but not closer than 100 miles from Sydney, while the provisional capital would be Melbourne. The area that now forms the Australian Capital Territory was ceded by New South Wales when Canberra was selected.
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