Government of New York (state)
The Government of the State of New York, headquartered at the New York State Capitol in Albany, encompasses the administrative structure of the U. S. state of New York. Analogously to the US federal government, it is composed of three branches: executive and judicial; the head of the executive is the Governor. The Legislature consists of the Assembly; the Unified Court System consists of the Court of lower courts. The state is divided into counties, cities and villages, which are all municipal corporations with their own government; the elected executive officers are: Not shown is the Attorney General Letitia James elected. There are several state government departments: Department of Agriculture and Markets Department of Audit and Control Department of Civil Service Department of Corrections and Community Supervision Department of Economic Development Education Department Department of Environmental Conservation Executive Department Department of Family Assistance Department of Financial Services Department of Health Department of Labor Department of Law Department of Mental Hygiene Department of Motor Vehicles Department of Public Service Department of State Department of Taxation and Finance Department of TransportationRegulations are promulgated and published in the New York State Register and compiled in the New York Codes and Regulations.
There are numerous decisions and rulings of state agencies. New York's Legislative set up is no different than that of the remaining 50 states of the country; the New York State Legislature is bicameral and consists of the New York State Senate and the New York State Assembly. The Assembly consists of 150 members; the Assembly is headed by the Speaker. The Legislature is empowered to make laws, subject to the Governor's power to veto a bill. However, the veto may be overridden by the Legislature if there is a two-thirds majority in favor of overriding in each House. Furthermore, it has the power to propose amendments to the New York Constitution by a majority vote and another majority vote following an election. If so proposed, the amendment becomes valid; the session laws are published in the official Laws of New York. The permanent laws of a general nature are codified in the Consolidated Laws of New York; the New York State Senate has 32 standing committees, this ranks them second place to Mississippi which has 35.
The Assembly on the second hand has 37 standing committees which compared to other houses of the nation is the 5th largest. Committees have legislative jurisdiction for the agencies they represent. Committees are responsible for reviewing bills before deciding to report them to the voting floor. There are 3 main types of committees: Standing committee, select or special, joint. There's subcommittees, task forces and caucuses. Standing committees on the Assembly side includes: Aging, Agriculture and Drug Abuse,Banks and Families, Codes, Consumer Affairs and Protection, Correction, Economic Development, Election Law, Environmental Conservation, Ethics,Governmental Employees, Governmental Operations, Housing, Judiciary, Labor and Education Technology, Local Governments, Mental Health, Oversight / Analysis and Investigation and Wagering, Real Property Taxation, Small Businesses, Social Services, Tourism/Parks/Arts and Sports Development, Veterans Affairs and lastly the Ways and means committee.
Senate Standing Committees: Administrative Regulations Review Commission, Agriculture, Alcoholism And Substance Abuse, Budget And Revenues, Children And Families, Civil Service And Pensions, Commerce, Economic Development And Small Business, Consumer Protection, Authorities And Commissions, Crime Victims, Crime And Correction, Cultural Affairs, Parks And Recreation, Domestic Animal Welfare, Elections, Energy And Telecommunication, Environmental Conservation, Ethics And Internal Governance, Health, Higher Education, Construction And Community Development, Internet And Technology, Investigations And Government Operations, Labor, Legislative Commission On Rural Resources, Legislative Women's Caucus, Local Government,Mental Health And Developmental Disabilities, New York City Education, Gaming And Wagering, Science, Incubation And Entrepreneurship, Social Services, State-Native American Relations, Task Force For Demographic Research And Reapportionment, The New York State Black, Puerto Rican, Hispanic And Asian Legislative Caucus, Veterans, Homeland Security And Military Affairs, Women's Issues.
The New York State Assembly Legislative session is a cycle that takes place from the first month of the year up until a budget has been published by both houses. According to the New York State Legislative Calendar, session convenes January 9th throughout June 19th. Budget deadline is the last week of March, but it has dragged on'til the month of August and can surpass that if the Senate and the Assembly fails to compromise. During session both houses work both together and independently to introduce bills and propose changes or support for the Governor's executive budget. During the legislative session for both
A sect is a subgroup of a religious, political, or philosophical belief system an offshoot of a larger group. Although the term was a classification for religious separated groups, it can now refer to any organization that breaks away from a larger one to follow a different set of rules and principles. In an Indian context, sect refers to an organized tradition; the word sect comes from the Latin noun secta, meaning "a way, road", figuratively a way, mode, or manner, hence metonymously, a discipline or school of thought as defined by a set of methods and doctrines. The present gamut of meanings of sect has been influenced by confusion with the homonymous Latin word secta. There are descriptions for the term. Among the first to define them were Max Weber and Ernst Troeltsch. In the church-sect typology they are described as newly formed religious groups that form to protest elements of their parent religion, their motivation tends to be situated in accusations of apostasy or heresy in the parent denomination.
The American sociologists Rodney Stark and William Sims Bainbridge assert that "sects claim to be authentic purged, refurbished version of the faith from which they split". They further assert that sects have, in contrast to churches, a high degree of tension with the surrounding society. Other sociologists of religion such as Fred Kniss have asserted that sectarianism is best described with regard to what a sect is in tension with; some religious groups exist in tension only with co-religious groups of different ethnicities, or exist in tension with the whole of society rather than the church which the sect originated from. Sectarianism is sometimes defined in the sociology of religion as a worldview that emphasizes the unique legitimacy of believers' creed and practices and that heightens tension with the larger society by engaging in boundary-maintaining practices; the English sociologist Roy Wallis argues that a sect is characterized by "epistemological authoritarianism": sects possess some authoritative locus for the legitimate attribution of heresy.
According to Wallis, "sects lay a claim to possess unique and privileged access to the truth or salvation" and "their committed adherents regard all those outside the confines of the collectivity as'in error'". He contrasts this with a cult that he described as characterized by "epistemological individualism" by which he means that "the cult has no clear locus of final authority beyond the individual member." The corresponding words for "sect" in European languages other than English – Sekte, secta, sectă, sekta, sekte, szekta, секта, σέχτα – refer to a harmful religious sect and translate into English as "cult". In France, since the 1970s, secte has a specific meaning, different from the English word; the Macmillan Encyclopedia of Religion distinguishes three types of classification of Buddhism, separated into "Movements", "Nikāyas" and "Doctrinal schools": Schools: Theravada in South Asia and Southeast Asia. Mahāyāna in East Asia. Vajrayāna in Tibet, Nepal, India and the Russian republic of Kalmykia.
Nikāyas, or monastic fraternities, three of which survive at the present day: Theravāda, in Southeast Asia and South Asia Dharmaguptaka, in China and Vietnam Mūlasarvāstivāda, in the Tibetan tradition While the historical usage of the term "sect" in Christendom has had pejorative connotations, referring to a group or movement with heretical beliefs or practices that deviate from those of groups considered orthodox, its primary meaning is to indicate a community which has separated itself in some way from the larger body from which its members came and to which they may or may not still adhere. The term remains valid for this purpose. There are many groups outside the Roman Catholic Church which regard themselves as Catholic, such as the Community of the Lady of All Nations, the Palmarian Catholic Church, the Philippine Independent Church, the Brazilian Catholic Apostolic Church, the Movement for the Restoration of the Ten Commandments of God, Most Holy Family Monastery, others; the Indologist Axel Michaels writes in his book about Hinduism that in an Indian context the word "sect does not denote a split or excluded community, but rather an organized tradition established by founder with ascetic practices."
According to Michaels, "Indian sects do not focus on heresy, since the lack of a center or a compulsory center makes this impossible – instead, the focus is on adherents and followers." The ancient schools of fiqh or sharia in Islam are known as "madhhabs." In the beginning Islam was classically divided into three major sects. These political divisions are well known as Shia Islam and Khariji Islam; each sect developed several distinct jurisprudence systems reflecting their own understanding of the Islamic law during the course of the history of Islam. For instance, Sunnis are separated into five sub-sects, Hanafi, Shafi'i, Hanbali and Ẓāhirī; the Shia, on the other hand, first developed Kaysanism, which in turn divided into three major groupings known as Fivers and Twelvers. The Zaydis separated first; the non-Zaydis are c
National Register of Historic Places
The National Register of Historic Places is the United States federal government's official list of districts, buildings and objects deemed worthy of preservation for their historical significance. A property listed in the National Register, or located within a National Register Historic District, may qualify for tax incentives derived from the total value of expenses incurred preserving the property; the passage of the National Historic Preservation Act in 1966 established the National Register and the process for adding properties to it. Of the more than one million properties on the National Register, 80,000 are listed individually; the remainder are contributing resources within historic districts. For most of its history the National Register has been administered by the National Park Service, an agency within the United States Department of the Interior, its goals are to help property owners and interest groups, such as the National Trust for Historic Preservation, coordinate and protect historic sites in the United States.
While National Register listings are symbolic, their recognition of significance provides some financial incentive to owners of listed properties. Protection of the property is not guaranteed. During the nomination process, the property is evaluated in terms of the four criteria for inclusion on the National Register of Historic Places; the application of those criteria has been the subject of criticism by academics of history and preservation, as well as the public and politicians. Historic sites outside the country proper, but associated with the United States are listed. Properties can be nominated in a variety of forms, including individual properties, historic districts, multiple property submissions; the Register categorizes general listings into one of five types of properties: district, structure, building, or object. National Register Historic Districts are defined geographical areas consisting of contributing and non-contributing properties; some properties are added automatically to the National Register when they become administered by the National Park Service.
These include National Historic Landmarks, National Historic Sites, National Historical Parks, National Military Parks, National Memorials, some National Monuments. On October 15, 1966, the Historic Preservation Act created the National Register of Historic Places and the corresponding State Historic Preservation Offices; the National Register consisted of the National Historic Landmarks designated before the Register's creation, as well as any other historic sites in the National Park system. Approval of the act, amended in 1980 and 1992, represented the first time the United States had a broad-based historic preservation policy; the 1966 act required those agencies to work in conjunction with the SHPO and an independent federal agency, the Advisory Council on Historic Preservation, to confront adverse effects of federal activities on historic preservation. To administer the newly created National Register of Historic Places, the National Park Service of the U. S. Department of the Interior, with director George B.
Hartzog Jr. established an administrative division named the Office of Archeology and Historic Preservation. Hartzog charged OAHP with creating the National Register program mandated by the 1966 law. Ernest Connally was the Office's first director. Within OAHP new divisions were created to deal with the National Register; the division administered several existing programs, including the Historic Sites Survey and the Historic American Buildings Survey, as well as the new National Register and Historic Preservation Fund. The first official Keeper of the Register was an architectural historian. During the Register's earliest years in the late 1960s and early 1970s, organization was lax and SHPOs were small and underfunded. However, funds were still being supplied for the Historic Preservation Fund to provide matching grants-in-aid to listed property owners, first for house museums and institutional buildings, but for commercial structures as well. A few years in 1979, the NPS history programs affiliated with both the U.
S. National Parks system and the National Register were categorized formally into two "Assistant Directorates." Established were the Assistant Directorate for Archeology and Historic Preservation and the Assistant Directorate for Park Historic Preservation. From 1978 until 1981, the main agency for the National Register was the Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service of the United States Department of the Interior. In February 1983, the two assistant directorates were merged to promote efficiency and recognize the interdependency of their programs. Jerry L. Rogers was selected to direct this newly merged associate directorate, he was described as a skilled administrator, sensitive to the need for the NPS to work with SHPOs, local governments. Although not described in detail in the 1966 act, SHPOs became integral to the process of listing properties on the National Register; the 1980 amendments of the 1966 law further defined the responsibilities of SHPOs concerning the National Register.
Several 1992 amendments of the NHPA added a category to the National Register, known as Traditional Cultural Properties: those properties associated with Native American or Hawaiian groups
Wood carving is a form of woodworking by means of a cutting tool in one hand or a chisel by two hands or with one hand on a chisel and one hand on a mallet, resulting in a wooden figure or figurine, or in the sculptural ornamentation of a wooden object. The phrase may refer to the finished product, from individual sculptures to hand-worked mouldings composing part of a tracery; the making of sculpture in wood has been widely practised, but survives much less well than the other main materials such as stone and bronze, as it is vulnerable to decay, insect damage, fire. It therefore forms an important hidden element in the art history of many cultures. Outdoor wood sculptures do not last long in most parts of the world, so it is still unknown how the totem pole tradition developed. Many of the most important sculptures of China and Japan, in particular, are in wood, so are the great majority of African sculpture and that of Oceania and other regions. Wood is light and can take fine detail so it is suitable for masks and other sculpture intended to be worn or carried.
It is much easier to work on than stone. Some of the finest extant examples of early European wood carving are from the Middle Ages in Germany, Russia and France, where the typical themes of that era were Christian iconography. In England, many complete examples remain from the 16th and 17th century, where oak was the preferred medium. In the fall of 2018, after the presence of representatives in Iran, abadeh was chosen for first woodcarving city. Nickname of abadeh is the city of wood carving Chip carving Relief carving Scandinavian flat-plane Caricature carving Lovespoon Treen Whittling Chainsaw carving Pattern, Detailing and Smoothening the carving knife: a specialized knife used to pare and smooth wood; the gouge: a tool with a curved cutting edge used in a variety of forms and sizes for carving hollows and sweeping curves. The coping saw: a small saw, used to cut off chunks of wood at once; the chisel: large and small, whose straight cutting edge is used for lines and cleaning up flat surfaces.
The V-tool: used for parting, in certain classes of flat work for emphasizing lines. The U-Gauge: a specialized deep gouge with a U-shaped cutting edge. Sharpening equipment, such as various stones and a strop: necessary for maintaining edges. A special screw for fixing work to the workbench, a mallet, complete the carvers kit, though other tools, both specialized and adapted, are used, such as a router for bringing grounds to a uniform level, bent gouges and bent chisels for cutting hollows too deep for the ordinary tool; the nature of the wood being carved limits the scope of the carver in that wood is not strong in all directions: it is an anisotropic material. The direction in which wood is strongest is called "grain", it is smart to arrange the more delicate parts of a design along the grain instead of across it. However, a "line of best fit" is instead employed, since a design may have multiple weak points in different directions, or orientation of these along the grain would necessitate carving detail on end grain.
Carving blanks are sometimes assembled, as with carousel horses, out of many smaller boards, in this way, one can orient different areas of a carving in the most logical way, both for the carving process and for durability. Less this same principle is used in solid pieces of wood, where the fork of two branches is utilized for its divergent grain, or a branch off of a larger log is carved into a beak; the failure to appreciate these primary rules may be seen in damaged work, when it will be noticed that, whereas tendrils, tips of birds beaks, etc. arranged across the grain have been broken away, similar details designed more in harmony with the growth of the wood and not too undercut remain intact. The two most common woods used for carving in North America are basswood and tupelo. Chestnut, oak, American walnut and teak are very good woods. Decoration, to be painted and of not too delicate a nature is carved in pine, soft and inexpensive. A wood carver begins a new carving by selecting a chunk of wood the approximate size and shape of the figure he or she wishes to create or if the carving is to be large, several pieces of wood may be laminated together to create the required size.
The type of wood is important. Hardwoods have greater luster and longevity. Softer woods are more prone to damage. Any wood can be carved but they all have different qualities and characteristics; the choice will depend on the requirements of carving being done: for example, a detailed figure would need a wood with a fine grain and little figure as a strong figure can interfere with'reading' fine detail. Once the sculptor has selected their wood, he or she begins a general shaping process using gouges of various sizes; the gouge is a curved blade. For harder woods, the sculptor may use gouges sharpened with stronger bevels, about 35 degrees, a mallet similar to a stone carver's; the terms gouge and chisel are open to confusion. A gouge is a tool with a curved cross-section and a chisel is a tool with a flat cross-section. However, professional carvers tend to refer to them all as'ch
Building material is any material, used for construction purposes. Many occurring substances, such as clay, rocks and wood twigs and leaves, have been used to construct buildings. Apart from occurring materials, many man-made products are in use, some more and some less synthetic; the manufacturing of building materials is an established industry in many countries and the use of these materials is segmented into specific specialty trades, such as carpentry, insulation and roofing work. They provide the make-up of structures including homes. In history there are trends in building materials from being natural to becoming more man-made and composite; these trends tend to increase the initial and long term economic, ecological and social costs of building materials. Initial economic cost of building materials is the purchase price; this is what governs decision making about what materials to use. Sometimes people take into consideration the energy savings or durability of the materials and see the value of paying a higher initial cost in return for a lower lifetime cost.
For example, an asphalt shingle roof costs less than a metal roof to install, but the metal roof will last longer so the lifetime cost is less per year. Some materials may require more care than others, maintaining costs specific to some materials may influence the final decision. Risks when considering lifetime cost of a material is if the building is damaged such as by fire or wind, or if the material is not as durable as advertised; the cost of materials should be taken into consideration to bear the risk to buy combustive materials to enlarge the lifetime. It is said that,'if it must be done, it must be done well'. Pollution costs can be micro; the macro, environmental pollution of extraction industries building materials rely on such as mining and logging produce environmental damage at their source and in transportation of the raw materials, transportation of the products and installation. An example of the micro aspect of pollution is the off-gassing of the building materials in the building or indoor air pollution.
Red List building materials are materials found to be harmful. The carbon footprint, the total set of greenhouse gas emissions produced in the life of the material. A life-cycle analysis includes the reuse, recycling, or disposal of construction waste. Two concepts in building which account for the ecological economics of building materials are green building and sustainable development; the Initial energy costs include the amount of energy consumed to produce and install the material. The long term energy cost is the economic and social costs of continuing to produce and deliver energy to the building for its use and eventual removal; the initial embodied energy of a structure is the energy consumed to extract, deliver, the materials. The lifetime embodied energy continues to grow with the use and reuse/recycling/disposal of the building materials themselves and how the materials and design help minimize the life-time energy consumption of the structure. Social costs are injury and health of the people producing and transporting the materials and potential health problems of the building occupants if there are problems with the building biology.
Globalization has had significant impacts on people both in terms of jobs and self-sufficiency are lost when manufacturing facilities are closed and the cultural aspects of where new facilities are opened. Aspects of fair trade and labor rights are social costs of global building material manufacturing. Brush structures are built from plant parts and were used in primitive cultures such as Native Americans and pygmy peoples in Africa These are built with branches and leaves, bark, similar to a beaver's lodge; these were variously named wikiups, lean-tos, so forth. An extension on the brush building idea is the wattle and daub process in which clay soils or dung cow, are used to fill in and cover a woven brush structure; this gives the structure more thermal strength. Wattle and daub is one of the oldest building techniques. Many older timber frame buildings incorporate wattle and daub as non load bearing walls between the timber frames. Snow and ice, were used by the Inuit peoples for igloos and snow is used to build a shelter called a quinzhee.
Ice has been used for ice hotels as a tourist attraction in northern climates. Clay based buildings come in two distinct types. One being when the walls are made directly with the mud mixture, the other being walls built by stacking air-dried building blocks called mud bricks. Other uses of clay in building is combined with straws to create light clay and daub, mud plaster. Wet-laid, or damp, walls are made by using the mud or clay mixture directly without forming blocks and drying them first; the amount of and type of each material in the mixture used leads to different styles of buildings. The deciding factor is connected with the quality of the soil being used. Larger amounts of clay are employed in building with cob, while low-clay soil is associated with sod house or sod roof construction; the other main ingredients straw/grasses. Rammed earth is both an old and newer take on creating walls, once made by compacting clay soils between planks by hand. Soil, clay, provides good the
The term chapel refers to a Christian place of prayer and worship, attached to a larger nonreligious institution or, considered an extension of a primary religious institution. It may be part of a larger structure or complex, such as a college, palace, funeral home, synagogue or mosque, located on board a military or commercial ship, or it may be an free-standing building, sometimes with its own grounds. Chapel has referred to independent or nonconformist places of worship in Great Britain—outside the established church; until the Protestant Reformation, a chapel denoted a place of worship, either at a secondary location, not the main responsibility of the local parish priest, or that belonged to a person or institution. The earliest Christian places of worship are now referred to as chapels, as they were not dedicated buildings but rather a dedicated chamber within a building. Most larger churches had one or more secondary altars, which if they occupied a distinct space, would be called a chapel.
In Russian Orthodox tradition, the chapels were built underneath city gates, where most people could visit them. The most famous example is the Iberian Chapel. Although chapels refer to Christian places of worship, they are commonly found in Jewish synagogues and do not denote a specific denomination. In England—where the Church of England is established by law—non-denominational or inter-faith chapels in such institutions may nonetheless be consecrated by the local Anglican bishop. Non-denominational chapels are encountered as part of a non-religious institution such as a hospital, university or prison. Many military installations have chapels for the use of military personnel under the leadership of a military chaplain; the earliest Christian places of worship were not dedicated buildings but rather a dedicated chamber within a building, such as a room in an individual's home. Here one or two people could pray without being part of a communion/congregation. People who like to use chapels may find it peaceful and relaxing to be away from the stress of life, without other people moving around them.
The word, like the associated word, chaplain, is derived from Latin. More the word "chapel" is derived from a relic of Saint Martin of Tours: traditional stories about Martin relate that while he was still a soldier, he cut his military cloak in half to give part to a beggar in need; the other half he wore over his shoulders as a "small cape". The beggar, the stories claim, was Christ in disguise, Martin experienced a conversion of heart, becoming first a monk abbot bishop; this cape came into the possession of the Frankish kings, they kept the relic with them as they did battle. The tent which kept the cape was called the capella and the priests who said daily Mass in the tent were known as the capellani. From these words, via Old French, we get the names "chapel" and "chaplain"; the word appears in the Irish language in the Middle Ages, as Welsh people came with the Norman and Old English invaders to the island of Ireland. While the traditional Irish word for church was eaglais, a new word, séipéal, came into usage.
In British history, "chapel" or "meeting house", was the standard designation for church buildings belonging to independent or Nonconformist religious societies and their members. It was a word associated with the pre-eminence of independent religious practice in rural regions of England and Wales, the northern industrial towns of the late 18th and 19th centuries, centres of population close to but outside the City of London; as a result, "chapel" is sometimes used as an adjective in the UK to describe the members of such churches. A proprietary chapel is one that belonged to a private person. In the 19th century they were common being built to cope with urbanisation, they were set up by evangelical philanthropists with a vision of spreading Christianity in cities whose needs could no longer be met by the parishes. Some functioned more with a wealthy person building a chapel so they could invite their favorite preachers, they are anomalies in the English ecclesiastical law, having no parish area, but being able to have an Anglican clergyman licensed there.
Many Anglican Churches were Proprietary Chapels. Over the years they have been converted into normal Parishes. While the usage of the word "chapel" is not limited to Christian terminology, it is most found in that context. Nonetheless, the word's meaning can vary by denomination, non-denominational chapels can be found in many hospitals and the United Nations headquarters. Chapels can be found for worship in Judaism; the word "chapel" is in common usage in the United Kingdom, in Wales, for Nonconformist places of worship. In the UK, due to the rise in Nonconformist chapels during the late 18th and early 19th centuries, by the time of the 1851 census, more people attended the independent chapels than attended the state religion's Anglican churches. In Roman Catholic Church canon law, a chapel, technically called an "oratory", is a building or part thereof dedicated to the celebration of services the Mass, not a parish church; this may be a private chapel, for the use of one person or a select group.
An architectural style is characterized by the features that make a building or other structure notable or identifiable. A style may include such elements as form, method of construction, building materials, regional character. Most architecture can be classified within a chronology of styles which changes over time reflecting changing fashions and religions, or the emergence of new ideas, technology, or materials which make new styles possible. Styles therefore emerge from the history of a society, they are documented in the subject of architectural history. At any time several styles may be fashionable, when a style changes it does so as architects learn and adapt to new ideas; the new style is sometimes only a rebellion against an existing style, such as post-modernism, which has in recent years found its own language and split into a number of styles which have acquired other names. Styles spread to other places, so that the style at its source continues to develop in new ways while other countries follow with their own twist.
For instance, Renaissance ideas emerged in Italy around 1425 and spread to all of Europe over the next 200 years, with the French, German and Spanish Renaissances showing recognisably the same style, but with unique characteristics. A style may spread through colonialism, either by foreign colonies learning from their home country, or by settlers moving to a new land. One example is the Spanish missions in California, brought by Spanish priests in the late 18th century and built in a unique style. After a style has gone out of fashion, revivals and re-interpretations may occur. For instance, classicism found new life as neoclassicism; each time it is revived, it is different. The Spanish mission style was revived 100 years as the Mission Revival, that soon evolved into the Spanish Colonial Revival. Vernacular architecture is listed separately; as vernacular architecture is better understood as suggestive of culture, writ broadly, it technically can encompass every architectural style--or none at all.
In and of itself, vernacular architecture is not a style. Constructing schemes of the period styles of historic art and architecture was a major concern of 19th century scholars in the new and mostly German-speaking field of art history. Important writers on the broad theory of style including Carl Friedrich von Rumohr, Gottfried Semper, Alois Riegl in his Stilfragen of 1893, with Heinrich Wölfflin and Paul Frankl continued the debate into the 20th century. Paul Jacobsthal and Josef Strzygowski are among the art historians who followed Riegl in proposing grand schemes tracing the transmission of elements of styles across great ranges in time and space; this type of art history is known as formalism, or the study of forms or shapes in art. Semper, Wölfflin, Frankl, Ackerman, had backgrounds in the history of architecture, like many other terms for period styles, "Romanesque" and "Gothic" were coined to describe architectural styles, where major changes between styles can be clearer and more easy to define, not least because style in architecture is easier to replicate by following a set of rules than style in figurative art such as painting.
Terms originated to describe architectural periods were subsequently applied to other areas of the visual arts, more still to music and the general culture. In architecture stylistic change follows, is made possible by, the discovery of new techniques or materials, from the Gothic rib vault to modern metal and reinforced concrete construction. A major area of debate in both art history and archaeology has been the extent to which stylistic change in other fields like painting or pottery is a response to new technical possibilities, or has its own impetus to develop, or changes in response to social and economic factors affecting patronage and the conditions of the artist, as current thinking tends to emphasize, using less rigid versions of Marxist art history. Although style was well-established as a central component of art historical analysis, seeing it as the over-riding factor in art history had fallen out of fashion by World War II, as other ways of looking at art were developing, a reaction against the emphasis on style developing.
According to James Elkins "In the 20th century criticisms of style were aimed at further reducing the Hegelian elements of the concept while retaining it in a form that could be more controlled". While many architectural styles explore harmonious ideals, Mannerism wants to take style a step further and explores the aesthetics of hyperbole and exaggeration. Mannerism is notable for its intellectual sophistication as well as its artificial qualities. Mannerism favours compositional instability rather than balance and clarity; the definition of Mannerism, the phases within it, continues to be the subject of debate among art historians. An example of mannerist architecture is the Villa Farnese at Caprarola in the rugged country side outside of Rome; the proliferation of engravers during the 16th century spread Mannerist styles more than any previous styles. A center of Mannerist design was Antwerp during its 16th-century boom. Through Antwerp and Mannerist styles were introduced in England and northern and eastern Europe in general.
Dense with ornament of "Roman" detailing, the display doorway at Colditz Castle exemplifies this northern style, characteristically applie