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Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge

Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge, is a member of the British royal family. Her husband, Prince William, Duke of Cambridge, is expected to become king of the United Kingdom and 15 other Commonwealth realms, making Catherine a future queen consort. Catherine grew up in Chapel Row, a village near Newbury, England, she studied art history in Scotland at the University of St Andrews, where she met William in 2001. Their engagement was announced in November 2010, they married on 29 April 2011 at Westminster Abbey. The couple's children, Prince George, Princess Charlotte, Prince Louis of Cambridge, are third and fifth in the line of succession to the British throne, respectively; the Duchess of Cambridge's charity works focus on issues surrounding young children and art. To encourage people to open up about their mental health issues, the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge and Prince Harry initiated the mental health awareness campaign "Heads Together" in April 2016; the media have called Catherine's impact on British and American fashion the "Kate Middleton effect".

In 2012 and 2013, Time magazine selected her as one of the 100 Most Influential People in the World. Catherine Elizabeth Middleton was born at the Royal Berkshire Hospital in Reading on 9 January 1982 into an upper-middle-class family, she was baptised at St Andrew's Bradfield, Berkshire, on 20 June 1982. She is the eldest of three children born to Michael Middleton, his wife, Carole, a former flight dispatcher and flight attendant who in 1987 founded Party Pieces, a held mail order company that sells party supplies and decorations with an estimated worth of £30 million, her father's family has ties to British aristocracy and benefited financially from trust funds which they established over 100 years ago. Her Middleton relatives were reported as having played host to British royalty "as long ago as 1926", she has a younger sister, a younger brother, James. The family lived in Amman, from May 1984 to September 1986 where her father worked for British Airways. Middleton attended an English-language nursery school.

When her family returned to Berkshire in 1986, she was enrolled aged four at St Andrew's School, a private school near Pangbourne in Berkshire. She boarded part-weekly at St Andrew's in her years, she studied at Downe House School. She was a boarder at Marlborough College, a co-educational independent boarding school in Wiltshire, graduated in 2005 from the University of St Andrews in Fife, with an undergraduate MA in the history of art. Before university, during a gap year, she travelled to Chile to participate in a Raleigh International programme, studied at the British Institute of Florence in Italy. In November 2006, Middleton worked as an accessory buyer with the clothing chain Jigsaw, where she worked part-time until November 2007, she worked until January 2011 at the family business in catalogue design and production and photography. Prior to her marriage, Middleton lived in an apartment owned by her parents in Chelsea, estimated to be worth £1–1.4 million. In 2018, Catherine's total net worth was estimated at £5–7.3 million, most of, from her parents' company.

In 2001, Middleton met Prince William while they were students in residence at St Salvator's Hall at the University of St Andrews. She caught William's eye at a charity fashion show at the university in 2002 when she appeared on the stage wearing a see-through lace dress; the couple began dating in 2003. During their second year, Middleton shared a flat with two other friends. On 17 October 2005, Middleton complained through her lawyer about harassment from the media, stating she had done nothing significant to warrant publicity. Middleton attended Prince William's Passing Out Parade at the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst on 15 December 2006. Media attention increased around the time of her 25th birthday in January 2007, prompting warnings from the Prince of Wales, Prince William, Middleton's lawyers, who threatened legal action. Two newspaper groups, News International, which publishes The Times and The Sun. In April 2007, Prince William and Middleton ended their relationship; the couple decided to break up during a holiday in the Swiss resort of Zermatt.

Newspapers speculated about the reasons for the split, although these reports relied on anonymous sources. Middleton and her family attended the Concert for Diana in July 2007 at Wembley Stadium, where she and Prince William sat two rows apart; the couple were subsequently seen together in public on a number of occasions and news sources stated that they had "rekindled their relationship". On 17 May 2008, Middleton attended the wedding of Prince William's cousin Peter Phillips to Autumn Kelly, which the prince did not attend. On 19 July 2008, she was a guest at the wedding of Lady Rose George Gilman. Prince William was away on military operations in the Caribbean, serving aboard HMS Iron Duke. In 2010, Middleton pursued an invasion of privacy claim against two agencies and photographer Niraj Tanna, who took photographs of her over Christmas 2009, she obtained a public apology, £5,000 in damages, legal costs. Prince William and Catherine Middleton became engaged in October 2010, in Kenya, during a 10-day trip to the Lewa Wildlife Conservancy to celebrate his passing the RAF helicopter search and rescue course.

Clarence House announced the engagement on 16 November 2010. Prince William gave Middleton the engagement rin

USS Winston S. Churchill

USS Winston S. Churchill is an Arleigh Burke-class destroyer of the United States Navy, she is named after the renowned former Prime Minister of the United Kingdom. This ship is the 31st destroyer of her class. Winston S. Churchill was the 18th ship of this class to be built at Bath Iron Works in Bath and construction began on 7 May 1998, she was launched and christened on 17 April 1999. On 10 March 2001, she was commissioned during a ceremony at Town Point Park in Virginia. On 29 November 1995, on a visit to the United Kingdom, President Bill Clinton announced to Parliament that the new ship would be named after Sir Winston Churchill, the former Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, she was the first destroyer and only the fourth United States Navy warship named after a British citizen, the first since 1976 named after a non-U. S. Citizen, though Churchill was an honorary U. S. citizen and his mother was American. Other U. S. warships named after Britons were an armed merchantman named after King Alfred the Great.

The former frigate Harold E. Holt was named after a person from a country in the Commonwealth of Nations, Harold Holt, the Australian Prime Minister, presumed to have drowned in 1967. However, this is the first ship to be named after a modern British citizen, or British prime minister; the ship is the first of the Flight IIA variants fitted with the 62-caliber Mark 45 Mod 4 naval gun system. The guns' longer barrels allow more complete combustion of the propellant, reducing barrel flare and improving projectile velocity and firepower against ship and shore targets. Winston S. Churchill is armed with Standard and ASROC missiles; the vessel additionally contains two hangars, not present in earlier destroyers. These LAMPS can be fitted with air-to-surface missiles for surface ship attacks, torpedoes for submarine attacks; the ship is fitted with the AN/SPY-1D phased array radar—this represents a significant advancement in the detection capabilities of the Aegis weapon system and provides enhanced resistance to electronic countermeasures.

The radar can guide more than one hundred missiles at once to targets as far as 600 nautical miles. The contract to build Winston S. Churchill was awarded to the Bath Iron Works Corporation on 6 January 1995, the keel was laid down on 7 May 1998. Winston S. Churchill was launched on 17 April 1999, delivered 13 October 2000, commissioned 10 March 2001; the launch and christening of the ship was co-sponsored by Lady Soames, the daughter of Winston Churchill, Mrs. Janet Cohen, wife of the Secretary of Defense, her first commanding officer was Commander Michael T. Franken. Winston S. Churchill is the only U. S. Navy vessel to have a Royal Navy Officer permanently assigned to the ship's company; the U. S. Navy had a permanent U. S. Navy Officer on the Royal Navy ship, HMS Marlborough, until her decommission on 8 July 2005. Winston S. Churchill is the only U. S. Naval vessel to fly a foreign ensign. Being named after a Briton, the Royal Navy's White Ensign is honorarily flown on special occasions from the ship's mast, on the port side, whereas the U.

S. flag is flown from the starboard side. However, during normal operations, only the U. S. flag is flown on the center of the main mast. On 14 May 2001, Winston S. Churchill underwent shock trials off the coast of Florida; these trials subjected the ship to several close-range underwater detonations, each consisting of 7 tons of high explosives, were performed to collect data concerning ship survivability and damage resistance in a modern threat environment. Winston S. Churchill sustained minor damage during these three tests. On 14 September 2001, the German Navy destroyer Lütjens passed close abeam Winston S. Churchill and rendered honors by manning the rails, flying the Stars and Stripes at half-mast, the display of a banner reading "We Stand By You." An e-mail sent by an ensign on board Winston S. Churchill described the occasion. In January 2003, Winston S. Churchill deployed with the USS Theodore Roosevelt battle group in support of the Iraq War's Operation Iraqi Freedom, firing several Tomahawk missiles.

Winston S. Churchill returned to Norfolk at the end of May 2003. On 22 August 2005, Winston S. Churchill was involved in a minor collision with the destroyer USS McFaul off the coast of Jacksonville, Florida. Both ships suffered minor damage, no injuries were reported. Both ships returned to their homeport at Naval Station Norfolk under their own power. On 22 January 2006 Winston S. Churchill captured a suspected pirate vessel in the Indian Ocean as part of an ongoing effort to help maintain law and order in the region. On 26 September 2010, Winston S. Churchill came across a disabled skiff in the Gulf of Aden. After attempts to repair the skiff's engines failed Winston S. Churchill took the vessel under tow towards Somalia. On 27 September the skiff sank when the 85 passengers rushed to one side of the skiff during a food delivery causing the vessel to capsize. Winston S. Churchill was able to rescue 61 of the passengers and continued towards Somalia on 28 September, her homeport is Naval Station Norfolk, Virgin

Paul Du Chaillu

Paul Belloni Du Chaillu was a French-American traveler and anthropologist. He became famous in the 1860s as the first modern European outsider to confirm the existence of gorillas, the Pygmy people of central Africa, he researched the prehistory of Scandinavia. There are conflicting reports of both the place of his birth; the year is variously given as 1831, 1835, or 1839. Accounts cite either Paris or New Orleans as his place of birth. A contemporary obituary quotes a statement made by Du Chaillu referring to "the United States, my country by adoption, and... France, my native land." His grave marker identifies his place of birth as Louisiana, the year as 1839. However, the most reliable information comes from the memoirs of his personal friend Edward Clodd. Clodd mentioned New York as another claimed location but asserted that Du Chaillu's true birthplace was the French Indian Ocean island territory of Île Bourbon, he further claimed. In 1979, historian Henry H. Bucher presented evidence to back Clodd's view, including records of Du Chaillu's father.

Bucher argued that Du Chaillu, as a member of the European scientific community, would have tried to obfuscate or conceal the family history that would have labeled him a quadroon. In the 19th century atmosphere of scientific racism, great apes and Sub-Saharan Africans were linked as sharing a small cranial capacity and an inborn inability to achieve civilization. Du Chaillu's credibility as an African explorer and gorilla expert would have suffered due to his black heritage as a result. Indeed, comments in a letter by Du Chaillu's contemporary, the ethnologist of Africa Mary Kingsley, indicate that at least some scientists who thought poorly of Du Chaillu knew of his ancestry or other discrediting information about him. In his youth, he accompanied his father, a French trader in the employment of a Parisian firm, to the west coast of Africa where, at a station on the Gabon, he was educated by missionaries and acquired an interest in and knowledge of the country, its natural history, its natives, their languages before emigrating to the U.

S. in 1852. He was sent in 1855 by the Academy of Natural Sciences at Philadelphia on an African expedition; until 1859, he explored the regions of West Africa in the neighborhood of the equator, gaining considerable knowledge of the delta of the Ogooué River and the estuary of the Gabon. During his travels from 1856 to 1859, he observed numerous gorillas, known to non-locals in prior centuries only from an unreliable and ambiguous report credited to Hanno the Navigator of Carthage in the 5th century BC and known to scientists in the preceding years only by a few skeletons, he brought back dead specimens and presented himself as the first white European person to have seen them. A subsequent expedition, from 1863 to 1865, enabled him to confirm the accounts given by the ancients of a pygmy people inhabiting the African forests. Du Chaillu sold his hunted gorillas to the Natural History Museum in London and his "cannibal skulls" to other European collections. Narratives of both expeditions were published, in 1861 and 1867 under the titles Explorations and Adventures in Equatorial Africa, with Accounts of the Manners and Customs of the People, of the Chace of the Gorilla and other Animals.

While in Ashango Land in 1865, he was elected King of the Apingi tribe. A narrative, The Country of the Dwarfs was published in 1872. At the time, he was in great demand on the public lecture circuits of New York and Paris. Although there were initial challenges of his accounts, they came to be accepted, although Encyclopædia Britannica speculated that "possibly some of the adventures he described as happening to himself were reproductions of the hunting stories of natives."In addition to his zoological work on gorillas, Du Chaillu collected and identified a number of new species to science. He was the first person to scientifically describe the giant otter shrew, taking precedence over John Edward Gray's description of the same animal as a mouse instead, he collected the type specimens for the southern needle-clawed bushbaby, the hammer-headed bat, the African pygmy squirrel, all West African species. Despite not being an ornithological collector, he collected the types specimens for thirty-nine valid species of African birds.

Du Chaillu collected the type series of Amnirana albolabris from Gabon. After some years' residence in America, during which he wrote several books for the young based on his African adventures, Du Chaillu turned his attention to northern Europe. After a visit to northern Norway in 1871, over the following five years, he made a study of customs and antiquities in Sweden, Norway and Northern Finland, he published in 1881 The Land of the Midnight Sun, as a series of Summer and Winter Journeys, in two volumes. His 1889 work The Viking Age in two volumes, was a broad study of the early history and customs of the ancestors of the English-speaking nations, he labored for eight and a half years and read hundreds of Sagas that describe the life of the people who inhabited the Scandinavian peninsula from the Stone Age to the Middle Ages. This scholarly work demonstrates what is now recognized, the importance

Michele Lee

Michele Lee is an American actress, dancer and director. She is known for her role as Karen Cooper Fairgate MacKenzie on the 1980s prime-time soap opera Knots Landing, for which she was nominated for a 1982 Emmy Award and won the Soap Opera Digest Award for Best Actress in 1988, 1991 and 1992, she was the only performer to appear in all 344 episodes of the series. Lee How to Succeed in Business Without Really Trying, she made her movie debut in the film version of the latter in 1967. Her other film appearances include the Disney film The Comic and Along Came Polly, she was nominated for the Tony Award for Best Actress in a Musical in 1974 for Seesaw, for the Tony Award for Best Featured Actress in a Play in 2001 for The Tale of the Allergist's Wife. She played the title role in the 1998 TV film Scandalous Me: The Jacqueline Susann Story, Madame Morrible in the Broadway musical Wicked in 2015. Lee was born Michele Lee Dusick on June 24, 1942, in Los Angeles, the daughter of Sylvia Helen and Jack Dusick, a make-up artist.

She is of Ashkenazi Jewish descent, her ancestors being from Russia. She attended Alexander Hamilton High School, her television career began at age 19, on the December 26, 1961, episode of the CBS-TV sitcom The Many Loves of Dobie Gillis. When Lee was 18, after graduation from high school, she auditioned for the Broadway play, Vintage'60, she soon began appearing in musicals, becoming a Broadway performer at the age of 19 in How to Succeed in Business Without Really Trying opposite Robert Morse and Rudy Vallée, a role she reprised in the film version. She appeared in dramas such as the Los Angeles production of Jerry Herman's Parade and the Broadway productions of Bravo Giovanni and The Tale of the Allergist's Wife. After she sang in the film version of How to Succeed in Business Without Really Trying, she became known for her roles in the films The Comic, opposite Dick Van Dyke, The Love Bug, opposite Dean Jones; the latter becoming the third-highest-grossing film of 1968 in the United States.

That same year, she starred in a special television production of the Jerome Kern–Otto Harbach musical, Roberta, in which she sang "Smoke Gets In Your Eyes", peaked at #52 on the Billboard Hot 100 with "L. David Sloane". After the birth of her son, she worked infrequently until accepting a role on Broadway in Seesaw, which netted her a Tony Award nomination in 1974. After her mother's death, she stopped working to spend time with her son. In 1974, Lee starred in the pilot episode for proposed CBS sitcom The Michele Lee Show, she played a clerk in a hotel newsstand, with support from Stephen Collins. However, only the pilot episode was aired and the series did not proceed. Lee became a busy guest actor in the 1970s, appearing on Marcus Welby, M. D. Alias Smith and Jones, Night Gallery, American Style, Fantasy Island and The Love Boat. In 1979, Lee accepted the role of Karen Fairgate on Knots Landing, a spin-off of the immensely popular Dallas. Though slow to start, the series became a ratings hit and became one of the longest-running American primetime dramas lasting for a total of 14 seasons from 1979 - 1993.

Due to her long-running tenure, Lee's alter ego is credited as being the center of the program. Television personality Joan Rivers commented that Lee was, in theory, the "First Lady of Knots Landing" during her guest appearance on The Late Show, which Rivers hosted at the time; the characters of the serial represented what was happening in society at the time. Lee acknowledged that, wasn't ashamed of that. Remember in our society, maybe people don't remember, but remember when we could go over to other people's houses and come in through an open back door? I remember when I was a little girl and my mother and father would have people over and they'd walk into an unlocked door in our house." Lee was the only performer to appear in all of the show's 344 episodes. Although Lee was enjoying a successful career on television, her marriage to actor James Farentino was failing. Farentino and she separated around the same time Lee's onscreen husband, Don Murray, left the series. Lee thus played a single mother on Knots Landing at the same time.

Lee revealed that when her character took off her wedding ring in a 1982 episode, she was taking off her real wedding band. During the fall of 1982, her character met M. Patrick "Mack" MacKenzie, who became her screen husband the following year, they would continue working together until the end of the series. Lee won the Soap Opera Digest Award for Best Lead Actress three times, was nominated for an Emmy in 1982 for "Outstanding Lead Actress in a Drama Series". In 1983, the writers/producers of Knots Landing urged her to do a storyline based on prescription drug dependency which became one of her most prominent storylines. Six years Lee directed her first of several episodes of the series. In 1991, Knots Landing reached a milestone with its 300th episode. During the same season, Lee filmed her favorite scene from the series, known as the "Pollyanna Speech" among fans. In this scene, for which Lee had much input, Karen reacts against all of the social problems of 1990s society and explains how she does not want to be a Pollyanna and see the world through rose-colored glasses, but rather wanted the world to be rose-colored.

As Knots Landing moved into the 1990s, its popularity began to wane, although it had outlived all of its contemporaries. The big budget that the series once had was trimmed to the extent that, in the final season, the higher paid

Southern Red Sea Region

The Southern Red Sea Region is a region of Eritrea. It lies along the southern half of the Red Sea, contains the coastal city of Assab, it borders the Northern Red Sea Region, has an area of around 27,600 km2. As of 2005, the region had a population of 83,500 compared to a population of 73,700 in 2001; the net growth rate was 11.74 per cent. The total area of the province was 27600.00 km2 and the density was 3.03 persons per km2. The People’s Front for Democracy and Justice, an authoritarian government, rules the country and the region; the regional and local elections are conducted on a periodic basis on a restricted framework. All men and women of any ethnic or religious background are eligible to vote. No parties or groups other than PFDJ are allowed to contest and the elections are presided by representatives from PDFJ; the Southern Red Sea Region is only around 50 km wide. Forming the major part of the Danakil Desert, its major towns include Asseb, Rahaita and T'i'o; the highest point in this region is Mount Ramlu.

It is considered as one of the hottest and most inhospitable regions in the country. The topography of the region has coastal plains, which are hotter than the regions around the highland plateau. There are the heavier one during summer and the lighter one during spring; the climate and geography of the region along with other regions of Eritrea is similar to the one of Ethiopia. The hottest month is May recording temperatures up to 30 °C, while the coldest month is December to February when it reaches freezing temperature; the region received around 200 mm of rainfall and the soil is salty and not conducive for agriculture. Wildlife such as hamadryas baboons, Soemmerring's gazelle, dorcas gazelle, black-backed jackal, Ruppells sandfox, African golden wolf, Abyssinian hare, wild ass and ostriches are found in this region. African wild dog was found in this region, but their present condition is unknown. There have been reports of cheetah occurring in this region, but there has been no evidence of their presence.

It is likely that both cheetah and wild dog are extinct in Eritrea. As of 2005, the region had a population of 83,500 compared to a population of 73,700 in 2001; the net growth rate was 11.74 per cent. The total area of the province was 27600.00 km2 and the density was 3.03 persons per km2. As of 2002, the Total Fertility Rate, defined as the children per woman was 3.9. The General Fertility Rate, defined as the births per 1,000 women between the ages of 15 and 45 remained at 135.0. The Crude Birth Rate, the number of births per 1,000 population, was 34.0. The percentage of women pregnant as of 2002 out of the total population was 8.9 per cent. The mean number of children born stood at 5.1. The Infant Mortality Rate, defined as the number of deaths of children for every 1,000 born was 122.0 while the Child Mortality Rate, defined as the number of child deaths for every 1,000 children 5 years of age was 74.0. The under-5 mortality rate stood at 187.0. The number of children with the prevalence of Acute Respiratory Infection was 174, fever was 174, Diarrhea was 174.

The number of women with the knowledge of AIDS was 324 and the number of people with no knowledge of the disease or its prevention was 0.2 per cent. As of 2002, the number of males completing or attending highest level of schooling in the region was 410 while it was 567 females; the percentage of literate males was 60.00 and the percentage of literate females was 41.60. A fraction of 37.60 males had no education, while the corresponding number for females was 54.80. The fraction of males completing secondary school stood at 8.40 and the fraction of males completing more than secondary was 003. The corresponding numbers for females was 000 respectively; as of 2002, the number of people engaged in Professional/technical/managerial activities was 3.30 per cent, Clerical was 9.30 per cent and services was 21.10 per cent, Skilled Manual was 4.50 per cent, Unskilled Manual was 0.50 per cent, Domestic Service was 25.00 per cent and Agriculture was 34.60 per cent. The total number of employed men was 345 and the total number of employed women was 409.

The number of men who were paid their total earnings in cash was 77.70 per cent, in kind was 0.10 and in both was 0.20. The number of women who were paid their total earnings in cash was 58.80 per cent, in kind was 0.60 per cent and in both was 0.30 per cent. The region includes the following districts: Are'eta District, Central Denkalya District and Southern Denkalya District. Eritrea has a one party national Assembly governed by People’s Front for Democracy and Justice, an authoritarian government. From the time of independence since 30 May 1991, the country has been continuing with a transitional government elected during the elections in April 1993; the scheduled elections in 2001 has been postponed indefinitely. The regional and local elections are conducted on a periodic basis on a restricted framework. All men and women of any ethnic or religious background are eligible to vote. No parties or groups other than PFDJ are allowed to contest and the elections are presided by representatives from PDFJ.

Policy decisions should be centered around the party mandate and opposition and dissenters have been imprisoned. Regions of Eritrea

Opaline gland

Sea hares are gastropods without hard shells, using their specialized ink as their main defensive mechanism instead. Their ink has several purposes. For one, the ink serves to cloud the predator's vision as well as halt their senses temporarily. In addition, the chemicals in the ink mimic food, their skin and digestive tract are toxic to predators as well. They are seen to change their feeding behaviours in response to averse stimuli; the diet of sea hares enable them to gain the chemicals present in their ink and determine the color of their ink. They have adapted over time to feed on seaweed and algae as without their specific diet they will be left without ink and fall prey to predators; the species they feed on determine the strength of their chemical defense. Individuals that feed on red algae, such as plocamium, were found to have better defense than those that fed on green algae, like ulva lactuca; the ink and opaline glands produce ink and opaline which are mixed in the cavity and expelled towards the predator.

The ink and opaline are concentrated with free amino acids and ammonium. The ink and opaline has been demonstrated to stimulate appetitive and ingestive behaviours, though opaline differs in the sense in that it inhibits ingestion. Phagomimicry is the defensive behaviour in which expelled chemicals mimic food, deceiving some organisms to eat it instead. In the case of sea hares, the ink produced deceives their predators to attack their ink instead of pursuing the sea hare; this is possible because of the chemicals present in sea hares' ink mixture. The ink and opaline contains high levels of amino acids and ammonium, present in their predators' food; as a result, predators are deceived into feeding on it. This gives the sea hare an opportunity to escape; this reaction has been observed in some lobsters. The chemicals produced affect the nervous system of the predators; the ink produces an averse response in some predators. For instance, sea anemones shrivel up when they come in contact with the Ink