Press Gazette known as UK Press Gazette, is a British media trade magazine dedicated to journalism and the press. First published in 1965, it had a circulation of about 2,500, before becoming online-only in 2010. Published with the motto Fighting For Journalism, it contains news from the worlds of newspapers, magazines, TV, radio and online, dealing with launches, moves and technological advances affecting journalists. Commercially, it is funded by subscriptions and by publication of recruitment and classified advertising, as well as occasional display advertising. Since 2010 it has been owned by Progressive Media International, which owns the magazines New Statesman and Spear's. Press Gazette was launched in November 1965 by Colin Valdar, his wife Jill, his brother Stewart. Upon the Valdars' retirement in 1983, the magazine was sold to Timothy Benn, who sold it on, in 1990, to the Canadian publishing company Maclean Hunter. In 1994, the magazine was sold again, this time to EMAP. Three years the magazine along with MediaWeek and 12 other titles, was sold again, to Quantum Business Media for £14.1 million.
Rupert Murdoch's son-in-law Matthew Freud became the new owner of Press Gazette in May 2005, entering into partnership with former Daily Mirror editor Piers Morgan to raise around £600,000 to buy the title. The purchase was part of the break-up of Quantum Business Media by its owners, the venture-capital group ABN Amro Capital. On 19 October 2006, Freud announced that the magazine was for sale, citing as a reason indifference in the newspaper industry to the British Press Awards; the company owned by Freud and Morgan, Press Gazette Limited, subsequently entered administrative receivership. The receivers were unable to find another buyer for the magazine, on 24 November 2006 it closed. After the publication missed one issue, Wilmington Group plc announced on 5 December 2006 that it had acquired the title. Wilmington Media editorial director Tony Loynes, a former Press Gazette editor, led the take-over, he named news editor Dominic Ponsford as editor, the magazine moved from Fleet Street to Wilmington Media's Old Street headquarters.
Both the magazine and its website PressGazette.co.uk underwent a redesign in May 2007, including a new masthead and body font. The magazine switched from weekly to monthly publication in August 2008. On 6 April 2009, Wilmington Group announced the May 2009 issue would be the last, but the magazine was purchased on 22 April 2009 by Mike Danson of the Progressive Media Group, shortly after he attained full control of the New Statesman, in April 2009; the Wilmington Group retained the British Press Awards. Press Gazette went to a quarterly publication in June 2012. At the beginning of 2013, it ended print publication. Since about 1998, the Press Gazette award the Magazine Design and Journalism Awards in multiple categories. One source said "They are considered the only awards which celebrate design and journalism across all magazine sectors – consumer, B2B and customer." Awards were presented in the following categories: Magazine Design Awards Young Designer of the Year Best Designed Feature Spread Best New Design/Redesign Best Designed Front Cover Best Use of Typography Best Use of Illustration Best Use of Photography Magazine Designer of the Year Best Designed Magazine of the Year Magazine Journalism Awards Exclusive of the Year Feature Writer of the Year Interviewer of the Year Columnist of the Year News Reporter of the Year Business Reporter of the Year Production Team of the Year Reviewer of the Year Digital Journalist of the Year Editor of the Year Editor & Publisher - Covering the American newspaper industry Press Gazette website The British Press Awards website Piers Morgan's Official Website Press Gazette publisher looks for buyers The Guardian, 9 December 2004 Piers Morgan turns proprietor with purchase of Press Gazette The Guardian, 28 May 2005 And the Press Gazette title goes to...
Piers Morgan The Guardian, 10 June 2005 Press Gazette honours journalists with Hall of Fame exhibition Brand Republic, 22 November 2005 Big titles boycott'Morgan's organ' press awards The Telegraph, 24 January 2006 Single sponsor for Press Awards The Guardian, 3 March 2006 Digital Edition of Press Gazette Roy Greenslade, Press Gazette 1965-2006
Robert Sackville-West, 7th Baron Sackville
Robert Bertrand Sackville-West, 7th Baron Sackville DL is a British publisher and guardian of Knole House in Kent, a Sackville house for 400 years and is now owned by the National Trust. The eldest son of Hugh Rosslyn Inigo Sackville-West and Bridget Eleanor Cunliffe, he inherited the title of Baron Sackville on 27 March 2004 on the death of his uncle, Lionel Bertrand Sackville-West, 6th Baron Sackville. Sackville-West read History at Magdalen College, Oxford, he gained an MBA at the London Business School before working as a management consultant. In 1984, he founded Toucan Books, of which he is now Chairman, a packaging company which has worked with publishers on both sides of the Atlantic for more than three decades, he was a Governor of Sevenoaks School from 1995 until 2008, serving as Chairman from 2002. He is a Governor of the Knole Academy in Sevenoaks and a member of the International Baccalaureate UK board, he is the executive Chairman of several Sackville family businesses associated with property, works of art and heritage assets.
He married first Catherine Dorothea Bennett in 1985, who has written against the Peerage system and what she considers the privileges of the nobility. He secondly married Margot Jane MacAndrew in 1994. With his second wife he has three children: Hon. Freya Sackville-West Hon. Arthur Sackville-West Hon. Edie Sackville-West He is the author of two regarded books on the story of his family. Inheritance: The Story of Knole and the Sackvilles The Disinherited: A Story of Family and Betrayal 2010 Spears Book Awards Family History of the Year Inheritance: The Story of Knole and the Sackvilles Who's Who 2008, A & C Black, 2008. Inheritance. London: Bloomsbury, 2010. ISBN 978-1-4088-0338-7
The Wayback Machine is a digital archive of the World Wide Web and other information on the Internet. It was launched in 2001 by the Internet Archive, a nonprofit organization based in San Francisco, United States. Internet Archive founders Brewster Kahle and Bruce Gilliat launched the Wayback Machine in 2001 to address the problem of website content vanishing whenever it gets changed or shut down; the service enables users to see archived versions of web pages across time, which the archive calls a "three dimensional index". Kahle and Gilliat created the machine hoping to archive the entire Internet and provide "universal access to all knowledge."The name Wayback Machine was chosen as a reference to the "WABAC machine", a time-traveling device used by the characters Mr. Peabody and Sherman in The Rocky and Bullwinkle Show, an animated cartoon. In one of the animated cartoon's component segments, Peabody's Improbable History, the characters used the machine to witness, participate in, more than not, alter famous events in history.
The Wayback Machine began archiving cached web pages in 1996, with the goal of making the service public five years later. From 1996 to 2001, the information was kept on digital tape, with Kahle allowing researchers and scientists to tap into the clunky database; when the archive reached its fifth anniversary in 2001, it was unveiled and opened to the public in a ceremony at the University of California, Berkeley. By the time the Wayback Machine launched, it contained over 10 billion archived pages. Today, the data is stored on the Internet Archive's large cluster of Linux nodes, it archives new versions of websites on occasion. Sites can be captured manually by entering a website's URL into the search box, provided that the website allows the Wayback Machine to "crawl" it and save the data. Software has been developed to "crawl" the web and download all publicly accessible World Wide Web pages, the Gopher hierarchy, the Netnews bulletin board system, downloadable software; the information collected by these "crawlers" does not include all the information available on the Internet, since much of the data is restricted by the publisher or stored in databases that are not accessible.
To overcome inconsistencies in cached websites, Archive-It.org was developed in 2005 by the Internet Archive as a means of allowing institutions and content creators to voluntarily harvest and preserve collections of digital content, create digital archives. Crawls are contributed from various sources, some imported from third parties and others generated internally by the Archive. For example, crawls are contributed by the Sloan Foundation and Alexa, crawls run by IA on behalf of NARA and the Internet Memory Foundation, mirrors of Common Crawl; the "Worldwide Web Crawls" have capture the global Web. The frequency of snapshot captures varies per website. Websites in the "Worldwide Web Crawls" are included in a "crawl list", with the site archived once per crawl. A crawl can take months or years to complete depending on size. For example, "Wide Crawl Number 13" started on January 9, 2015, completed on July 11, 2016. However, there may be multiple crawls ongoing at any one time, a site might be included in more than one crawl list, so how a site is crawled varies widely.
As technology has developed over the years, the storage capacity of the Wayback Machine has grown. In 2003, after only two years of public access, the Wayback Machine was growing at a rate of 12 terabytes/month; the data is stored on PetaBox rack systems custom designed by Internet Archive staff. The first 100TB rack became operational in June 2004, although it soon became clear that they would need much more storage than that; the Internet Archive migrated its customized storage architecture to Sun Open Storage in 2009, hosts a new data center in a Sun Modular Datacenter on Sun Microsystems' California campus. As of 2009, the Wayback Machine contained three petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of 100 terabytes each month. A new, improved version of the Wayback Machine, with an updated interface and a fresher index of archived content, was made available for public testing in 2011. In March that year, it was said on the Wayback Machine forum that "the Beta of the new Wayback Machine has a more complete and up-to-date index of all crawled materials into 2010, will continue to be updated regularly.
The index driving the classic Wayback Machine only has a little bit of material past 2008, no further index updates are planned, as it will be phased out this year." In 2011, the Internet Archive installed their sixth pair of PetaBox racks which increased the Wayback Machine's storage capacity by 700 terabytes. In January 2013, the company announced a ground-breaking milestone of 240 billion URLs. In October 2013, the company announced the "Save a Page" feature which allows any Internet user to archive the contents of a URL; this became a threat of abuse by the service for hosting malicious binaries. As of December 2014, the Wayback Machine contained 435 billion web pages—almost nine petabytes of data, was growing at about 20 terabytes a week; as of July 2016, the Wayback Machine contained around 15 petabytes of data. As of September 2018, the Wayback Machine contained more than 25 petabytes of data. Between October 2013 and March 2015, the website's global Alexa rank changed from 163 to 208. In March 2019 the rank was at 244.
Wayback Machine has respected the robots exclusion standard in determining if a website would be crawled or not. Website owners had the option to opt-out of Wayback M
The Sunday Telegraph
The Sunday Telegraph is a British broadsheet newspaper, founded in February 1961, is published by the Telegraph Media Group, a division of Press Holdings. It is the sister paper of The Daily Telegraph published by the Telegraph Media Group. A separate operation with a different editorial staff, since 2013 the Telegraph has been a seven-day operation. Official website
Politics refers to a set of activities associated with the governance of a country, or an area. It involves making decisions, it refers to achieving and exercising positions of governance—organized control over a human community a state. The academic study focusing on just politics, therefore more targeted than general political science, is sometimes referred to as politology. In modern nation-states, people have formed political parties to represent their ideas, they agree to take the same position on many issues and agree to support the same changes to law and the same leaders. An election is a competition between different parties; some examples of political parties worldwide are: the African National Congress in South Africa, the Conservative in the United Kingdom, the Christian Democratic Union in Germany and the Indian National Congress in India. Politics is a multifaceted word, it has a set of specific meanings that are descriptive and nonjudgmental, but does colloquially carry a negative connotation.
The word has been used negatively for many years: the British national anthem as published in 1745 calls on God to "Confound their politics", the phrase "play politics", for example, has been in use since at least 1853, when abolitionist Wendell Phillips declared: "We do not play politics. Politics is exercised on a wide range of social levels, from clans and tribes of traditional societies, through modern local governments and institutions up to sovereign states, to the international level. A political system is a framework; the history of political thought can be traced back to early antiquity, with seminal works such as Plato's Republic, Aristotle's Politics and the works of Confucius. The word comes from the same Greek word from which the title of Aristotle's book Politics derives; the book title was rendered in Early Modern English in the mid-15th century as "Polettiques". The singular politic first attested in English 1430 and comes from Middle French politique, in turn from Latin politicus, the Latinization of the Greek πολιτικός, meaning amongst others "of, for, or relating to citizens", "civil", "civic", "belonging to the state", in turn from πολίτης, "citizen" and that from πόλις, "city".
Formal politics refers to the operation of a constitutional system of government and publicly defined institutions and procedures. Political parties, public policy or discussions about war and foreign affairs would fall under the category of Formal Politics. Many people view formal politics as something outside of themselves, but that can still affect their daily lives. Semi-formal politics is politics in government associations such as neighborhood associations, or student governments where student government political party politics is important. Informal politics is understood as forming alliances, exercising power and protecting and advancing particular ideas or goals; this includes anything affecting one's daily life, such as the way an office or household is managed, or how one person or group exercises influence over another. Informal Politics is understood as everyday politics, hence the idea that "politics is everywhere"; the history of politics is reflected in the origin and economics of the institutions of government.
The origin of the state is to be found in the development of the art of warfare. Speaking, all political communities of the modern type owe their existence to successful warfare. Kings and other types of monarchs in many countries including China and Japan, were considered divine. Of the institutions that ruled states, that of kingship stood at the forefront until the American Revolution put an end to the "divine right of kings"; the monarchy is among the longest-lasting political institutions, dating as early as 2100 BC in Sumeria to the 21st century AD British Monarchy. Kingship becomes an institution through the institution of hereditary monarchy; the king even in absolute monarchies, ruled his kingdom with the aid of an elite group of advisors, a council without which he could not maintain power. As these advisors and others outside the monarchy negotiated for power, constitutional monarchies emerged, which may be considered the germ of constitutional government; the greatest of the king's subordinates, the earls and dukes in England and Scotland, the dukes and counts in the Continent, always sat as a right on the council.
A conqueror wages war upon the vanquished for vengeance or for plunder but an established kingdom exacts tribute. One of the functions of the council is to keep the coffers of the king full. Another is the satisfaction of military service and the establishment of lordships by the king to satisfy the task of collecting taxes and soldiers. There are many forms of political organization, including states, non-government organizations and international organizations such as the United Nations. States are the predominant institutional form of political governance, where a state is understood as an institution and a government is understood as the regime in power. According