Michael D. Higgins
Michael Daniel Higgins is an Irish politician who has served as the President of Ireland since November 2011. Higgins is a politician, poet and broadcaster, he served as a Teachta Dála for the Galway West constituency and was Minister for Arts and the Gaeltacht from 1993 to 1997. He was the President of the Labour Party from 2003 until 2011, when he resigned following his election as President of Ireland, he has used his time in office to address issues concerning justice, social equality, social inclusion, anti-sectarianism, anti-racism and reconciliation. He made the first state visit by an Irish President to the United Kingdom in April 2014. Higgins ran for a second term as President of Ireland in 2018 and was re-elected in a landslide victory. Higgins attained the largest personal mandate in the history of the Republic of Ireland, with 822,566 first preference votes. Higgins' second presidential inauguration took place on 11 November 2018. Higgins was born on 18 April 1941 in Limerick, his father, John Higgins, was from Ballycar, County Clare, was a lieutenant with the Charleville Company, 3rd Battalion, 2nd Cork Brigade of the Irish Republican Army.
John, along with his two brothers Peter and Michael, had been active participants in the Irish War of Independence. When his own father's health grew poor, with alcohol as a contributing factor, John sent Michael, aged five, his four-year-old brother to live on his unmarried uncle and aunt's farm near Newmarket-on-Fergus, County Clare, his elder twin sisters remained in Limerick. He was educated at Ballycar National School, County Clare, St. Flannan's College, Ennis; as an undergraduate at University College Galway, he served as Vice-Auditor of the College's Literary and Debating Society in 1963–64, rose to the position of Auditor in the 1964–65 academic year. He served as President of UCG Students' Union in 1964–65. In 1967, Higgins graduated from Indiana University Bloomington with a Master of Arts degree in Sociology, he briefly attended the University of Manchester. In his academic career, he was a Statutory Lecturer in the Department of Political Science and Sociology at UCG and was a visiting professor at Southern Illinois University.
He resigned his academic posts to concentrate on his political career. He is a fluent English language and Irish language speaker and speaks Spanish, his wife, Sabina Coyne, is an actress and a native of Cloonrane, a townland in County Galway near Ballindine, County Mayo. She grew up on a farm there in a family of two boys. Higgins met Coyne in 1969 at a party in the family home of journalist Mary Kenny. Higgins proposed over Christmas 1973 and they were married the year after, they have four children: Alice Mary and twins John and Michael Jr.. He has two Bernese mountain dogs named Síoda. Higgins joined Fianna Fáil in UCG while a mature student and was elected its branch chairman in 1966, he was a Labour candidate in the 1969 and 1973 general elections but was unsuccessful on both occasions. One of the people who canvassed for him was future leader of the Labour Party and Tánaiste, Eamon Gilmore, a UCG student. Higgins was appointed in 1973 to the 13th Seanad Éireann by Taoiseach Liam Cosgrave, he was first elected to Dáil Éireann at the 1981 general election as a Labour Party TD.
He was re-elected at the February 1982 election. He served as Mayor of Galway on two occasions, 1982–1983 and 1991–1992. Within the Labour Party during the 1980s he was one of the main figures, along with Emmet Stagg, who opposed going into coalition. Higgins returned to the Dáil at the 1987 general election and held his seat until the 2011 general election. In 1993, he joined the Cabinet as Minister for Arts and the Gaeltacht. During his period as Minister he scrapped the controversial Section 31 of the Broadcasting Act, re-established the Irish Film Board and set up the Irish language television station, Teilifís na Gaeilge, he was appointed to the Labour Party front bench in 2000. In 2003, Higgins succeeded Proinsias De Rossa in the symbolic position of the President of the Labour Party, while continuing as the party's spokesman on foreign affairs. Higgins indicated his interest in contesting the 2004 presidential election for the Labour Party; the party decided on 16 September 2004 against running a candidate in the election, seeing Mary McAleese as unbeatable.
In October 2010, he announced. He had until this point been living in a modest two-bed apartment at Grattan Hall on Mount Street, Dublin, he has a family home in Galway. In September 2010, Higgins indicated that he was interested in receiving the Labour Party's nomination for the 2011 presidential election, he said prior to the election campaign, repeated during it, that he would serve only one seven-year term as President, would not seek a second term of office, despite being entitled to do so. He was selected as candidate for the presidency at a special convention in Dublin on 19 June 2011, beating former senator Kathleen O'Meara and former party adviser Fergus Finlay, his candidacy was endorsed by Hollywood actor Martin Sheen, who described Higgins as a "dear friend". Higgins assisted his rival David Norris by urging his party colleagues on Dublin City Council not to obstruct Norris's attempts to get onto the ballot at the last moment "in the interests of democracy", adding that th
David Norris (politician)
David Patrick Bernard Norris is an Irish scholar, independent Senator and civil rights activist. Internationally, Norris is credited with having "managed single-handedly, to overthrow the anti-homosexuality law which brought about the downfall of Oscar Wilde", a feat he achieved in 1988 after a fourteen-year campaign, he has been credited with being "almost single-handedly responsible for rehabilitating James Joyce in once disapproving Irish eyes". Norris is a former university lecturer and a member of the Oireachtas, serving in Seanad Éireann since 1987, he was the first gay person to be elected to public office in Ireland. A founder of the Campaign for Homosexual Law Reform, he is a prominent member of the Church of Ireland, he was a candidate for President of Ireland in the October 2011 election. He topped numerous opinion polls and was favourite among members of the Irish public for the position but withdrew from the race months before the election, before returning to the race in September 2011.
David Norris was born in Leopoldville in the Belgian Congo, now known as Kinshasa, capital of the Democratic Republic of Congo, where his father worked as chief engineer for Lever Brothers. John Norris served in the British Armed Forces during World War I and World War II. David Norris was sent to Ireland to be cared for by his mother, Aida Fitzpatrick, her extended family....while, on hearing his dad had died, he "had to squeeze out tears" because they were never that close, the death of his mother, was "totally heartbreaking"."It destroyed my sense of reality," he adds, now. "This was somebody I loved, there one minute the next minute she was gone."After first meeting in 1975, Norris was in a long-term relationship with Israeli activist Ezra Nawi for a number of years until 1985. They continued a platonic friendship after that. In a Today FM interview with Matt Cooper in Summer 2011 Norris said "nowadays people think of a romantic relationship as a sexual one and Ezra and myself have not had that kind of relationship since the 1980s."
Norris attended school at The High School. He entered Trinity College, the University of Dublin, to read for the degree of B. A. in English Literature and Language, where he was elected a Foundation Scholar in 1965 in that subject before achieving a 1st Class Moderatorship in 1967 and editing Icarus, the University literary magazine. He remained at Trinity as a lecturer and college tutor between 1968 and 1996, his love of Joyce is borne out in Dublin's annual Bloomsday celebrations. He defended Ulysses when Roddy Doyle said it was "overlong and unmoving", calling Doyle a "foolish" and "moderate talent", he is an Irish language speaker. He is a Hebrew language speaker. After contracting the water-borne variation of hepatitis while visiting Central Europe in 1994, Norris received disability payments from a private income continuance insurer worth thousands of euro over 16 years, from a Trinity College insurance policy. Norris left his role as a lecturer after Trinity College authorities said the situation arising from his illness was "untenable", although he remained an elected senator.
Norris was hospitalised and was ill for a time as a result of the condition. Norris took the Attorney General to the High Court over the criminalisation of homosexual acts, his claim was based on the fact that the law infringed on his right to privacy and that since the introduction of the Constitution of Ireland the law passed under British rule became repugnant to the constitution. The High Court ruled against Norris, he appealed his case to the Supreme Court of Ireland. In 1983, the Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of the law by a three to two verdict. Having lost the Supreme Court case, Norris took his case to the European Court of Human Rights. In 1988, the European Court ruled that the law criminalising same sex activities was contrary to the European Convention on Human Rights, in particular Article 8 which protects the right to respect for private life; the law was held to infringe on the right of adults to engage in acts of their own choice. The first and immediate thing about the European decision is the enlargement of dignity and freedom for gay people – but I think a decision like this enhances the dignity and freedom of all the people of Ireland because it pushes us towards a more tolerant and plural society.
This law was repealed in 1993. Norris has since expanded his activism to a concept of "universal rights". I did start out on that campaign but I found quickly that the mechanism of discrimination was the same against women, against ethnic minorities, against the handicapped, so I broadened out and this now is how I see things much so. Norris represents the University of Dublin constituency in the Seanad as an Independent, he was first elected to the Seanad in 1987, has been re-elected at each election since. In March 2011, Norris announced his intention to run in the 2011 Irish presidential election. Facebook support for a presidential bid drew comparisons with Barack Obama's campaign for the American presidency. Norris topped multiple opinion polls as the person most Irish people would like to see as their next president. Internal research by Fine Gael placed Norris ahead of all other potential candidates. On 14 March 2011, Norris launched his campaign to secure a nomination. On 9 May 2011, he was nominated by Fingal County Council.
By the end of that month, he had secured the support of 6 TDs. Fine Gael ordered its councillors to block Norris's nomination. In l
Labour Party (Ireland)
The Labour Party is a social-democratic political party in the Republic of Ireland. Founded in 1912 in Clonmel, County Tipperary, by James Larkin, James Connolly, William X. O'Brien as the political wing of the Irish Trades Union Congress, it describes itself as a "democratic socialist party" in its constitution. Labour continues to be the political arm of the Irish trade union and labour movement and seeks to represent workers interests in the Dáil and on a local level. Unlike the other main Irish political parties, Labour did not arise as a faction of the original Sinn Féin party; the party has served as a partner in coalition governments on seven occasions since its formation: six times in coalition either with Fine Gael alone or with Fine Gael and other smaller parties, once with Fianna Fáil. This gives Labour a cumulative total of nineteen years served as part of a government, the second-longest total of any party in the Republic of Ireland after Fianna Fáil; the current party leader is Brendan Howlin.
It is the fourth-largest party in Dáil Éireann, with seven seats. In November 2018, Labour announced that they were considering running candidates again in Northern Ireland, in response to a potential merger between Fianna Fáil and the Social Democratic and Labour Party, with whom Labour have long had fraternal links; the last time Labour had contested elections in the region was in 1973, shortly after the SDLP's formation. The Labour Party is a member of the Progressive Alliance, Socialist International, Party of European Socialists. James Connolly, James Larkin and William X. O'Brien established the Irish Labour Party in 1912, as the political wing of the Irish Trade Union Congress; this party was to represent the workers in the expected Dublin Parliament under the Third Home Rule Act 1914. However, after the defeat of the trade unions in the Dublin Lockout of 1913 the labour movement was weakened; the Irish Citizen Army, formed during the 1913 Lockout, was informally the military wing of the Labour Movement.
The ICA took part in the 1916 Rising. Councillor Richard O'Carroll, a Labour Party member of Dublin Corporation, was the only elected representative to be killed during the Easter Rising. O'Carroll was shot and died several days on 5 May 1916; the ICA was revived during Peadar O'Donnell's Republican Congress but after the 1935 split in the Congress most ICA members joined the Labour Party. The British Labour Party had organised in Ireland, but in 1913 the Labour NEC agreed that the Irish Labour Party would have organising rights over the entirety of Ireland. A group of trade unionists in Belfast objected and the Belfast Labour Party, which became the nucleus of the Northern Ireland Labour Party, remained outside the new Irish party. In Larkin's absence, William O'Brien became the dominant figure in the Irish Transport and General Workers' Union and wielded considerable influence in the Labour Party. O'Brien dominated the Irish Trade Union Congress; the Labour Party, led by Thomas Johnson from 1917, as successor to such organisations as D. D. Sheehan's Irish Land and Labour Association, declined to contest the 1918 general election, in order to allow the election to take the form of a plebiscite on Ireland's constitutional status.
It refrained from contesting the 1921 elections. As a result, the party was left outside Dáil Éireann during the vital years of the independence struggle, though Johnson sat in the First Dáil; the Anglo-Irish Treaty divided the Labour Party. Some members sided with the Irregulars in the Irish Civil War that followed. O'Brien and Johnson encouraged its members to support the Treaty. In the 1922 general election the party won 17 seats. However, there were a number of a loss in support for the party. In the 1923 general election the Labour Party only won 14 seats. From 1922 until Fianna Fáil TDs took their seats in 1927, the Labour Party was the major opposition party in the Dáil. Labour attacked the lack of social reform by the Cumann na nGaedheal government. Larkin returned to Ireland in 1923, he hoped to resume the leadership role he had left, but O'Brien resisted him. Larkin sided with the more radical elements of the party, in September that year he established the Irish Worker League. In 1932, the Labour Party supported Éamon de Valera's first Fianna Fáil government, which had proposed a programme of social reform with which the party was in sympathy.
It appeared for a time during the 1940s that the Labour Party would replace Fine Gael as the main opposition party. In the 1943 general election the party won 17 seats, its best result since 1927; the party was conservative compared to similar European parties, its leaders from 1932 to 1977 were members of the Knights of Saint Columbanus. The Larkin-O'Brien feud still continued, worsened over time. In the 1940s the hatred caused the Irish Congress of Trade Unions. O'Brien left with six TDs in 1944, founding the National Labour Party, whose leader was James Everett. O'Brien withdrew ITGWU from the Irish Trade Unions Congress and set up his own congress; the split damaged the Labour movement in the 1944 general election. It was only after Larkin's death in 1947. After the 1948 general election National Labour had five TDs – Everett, Dan Spri
Government of Ireland
The Government of Ireland is the cabinet that exercises executive authority in Ireland. The Constitution of Ireland vests executive authority in a government, headed by the Taoiseach, the head of government; the government is composed of government ministers, all of whom must be members of the Irish parliament. The Taoiseach must be nominated and approved by the Dáil Éireann, the lower house of the Oireachtas, the Irish legislature. Following the nomination of the Dáil, the President of Ireland appoints the Taoiseach to his role; the President appoints members of the government, including the Tánaiste, the deputy head of government, on nomination of the Taoiseach. The government is dependent upon the Oireachtas to make primary legislation and as such, the government needs to command a majority in the Dáil in order to ensure support and confidence for budgets and government bills to pass; the Government is known as the cabinet. The current Taoiseach is Leo Varadkar who took office on 14 June 2017.
He is the leader of the party with the highest number of seats in the Dáil. Varadkar's government is a minority coalition, made up of independent members, his Tánaiste is Simon Coveney who took office on 30 November 2017. Membership of the cabinet is regulated by Article 28 of the Constitution of Ireland and by the Ministers and Secretaries Acts 1924 to 2017; the Irish constitution requires the government to consist of between seven and fifteen members, all of whom must be a member of the Oireachtas. Since the formation of the 12th Government of Ireland in 1966, all Irish cabinets have been formed with the constitutional maximum of fifteen ministers; the total sometimes falls below this number for brief periods following the resignation of individual ministers or the withdrawal of a party from a coalition. No more than two members of the cabinet may be members of Seanad Éireann. All other members of the cabinet must be members of the house of representatives; the Taoiseach, Tánaiste and Minister for Finance must be members of the Dáil.
In practice, the members of the cabinet are invariably members of the Dáil. Since the adoption of the 1937 constitution, only two ministers have been appointed from the Seanad: Seán Moylan who served in 1957 as Minister for Agriculture and James Dooge who served as Minister for Foreign Affairs from 1981 to 1982. Members of the government in charge of Department of State are designated Ministers of Government. For distinction, Ministers of State — informally called junior ministers — are not members of the Government, but assist the Government Ministers in their Departments. A minister without portfolio may be appointed to the Government, not the head of a Department of State. Non members have no voting rights at Cabinet but may otherwise participate and receive circulated cabinet papers on the same basis as a full member of Government. Votes are rare, with the cabinet following the Taoiseach or working by consensus; the Government is advised by the Attorney General, not formally a member of the Government, but who participates in cabinet meetings as part of their role as legal advisor to the Government.
The Chief Whip is not a member of the Government. In addition, the Government can choose other Ministers of State; this person is informally known as a "super junior minister". The current super junior ministers are Mary Mitchell O'Connor and Finian McGrath; the Government continues in office until the nomination of a new Taoiseach by Dáil Éireann. This will either be after a general election, or after the nomination of a Taoiseach during the lifetime of a Dáil term. A Dáil term may last no longer than five years by law. Most governments in recent years have served 4 to 5 years; the Government must enjoy the confidence of Dáil Éireann. If the Taoiseach ceases "to retain the support of a majority in Dáil Éireann", either Dáil Éireann must be dissolved or the Taoiseach must resign; this applies only in cases of a no-confidence vote or loss of supply, rather than a government bill being rejected. The President may refuse to grant a dissolution to a Taoiseach who does not enjoy the support of the Dáil, thus forcing the resignation of the Taoiseach.
When the Taoiseach resigns, the entire Government is deemed to have resigned as a collective. However, in such a scenario, according to the Constitution, "the Taoiseach and the other members of the Government shall continue to carry on their duties until their successors shall have been appointed"; the Taoiseach can direct the President to dismiss or accept the resignation of individual ministers. Upon the dissolution of Dáil Éireann, ministers are no longer members of the Oireachtas, therefore at first glance ineligible for office. However, under a different clause in the Constitution, they "shall continue to hold office until their successors shall have been appointed". Unlike the cabinets in other parliamentary systems, the Government is both the de jure and de facto executive authority in Ireland. In most other parliamentary regimes, the head of state is the nominal chief executive, though bound by convention to act on the advice of the cabi
The Irish are a Celtic nation and ethnic group native to the island of Ireland, who share a common Irish ancestry and culture. Ireland has been inhabited for about 12,500 years according to archaeological studies. For most of Ireland's recorded history, the Irish have been a Gaelic people. Viking invasions of Ireland during the 8th to 11th centuries established the cities of Dublin, Waterford and Limerick. Anglo-Normans conquered parts of Ireland in the 12th century, while England's 16th/17th-century conquest and colonisation of Ireland brought a large number of English and Lowland Scots people to parts of the island the north. Today, Ireland is made up of the Republic of the smaller Northern Ireland; the people of Northern Ireland hold various national identities including British, Northern Irish or some combination thereof. The Irish have their own customs, music, sports and mythology. Although Irish was their main language in the past, today most Irish people speak English as their first language.
The Irish nation was made up of kin groups or clans, the Irish had their own religion, law code and style of dress. There have been many notable Irish people throughout history. After Ireland's conversion to Christianity, Irish missionaries and scholars exerted great influence on Western Europe, the Irish came to be seen as a nation of "saints and scholars"; the 6th-century Irish monk and missionary Columbanus is regarded as one of the "fathers of Europe", followed by saints Cillian and Fergal. The scientist Robert Boyle is considered the "father of chemistry", Robert Mallet one of the "fathers of seismology". Famous Irish writers include Oscar Wilde, W. B. Yeats, Samuel Beckett, George Bernard Shaw, Bram Stoker, James Joyce, C. S. Lewis and Seamus Heaney. Notable Irish explorers include Brendan the Navigator, Sir Robert McClure, Sir Alexander Armstrong, Sir Ernest Shackleton and Tom Crean. By some accounts, the first European child born in North America had Irish descent on both sides. Many presidents of the United States have had some Irish ancestry.
The population of Ireland is about 6.3 million, but it is estimated that 50 to 80 million people around the world have Irish forebears, making the Irish diaspora one of the largest of any nation. Emigration from Ireland has been the result of conflict and economic issues. People of Irish descent are found in English-speaking countries Great Britain, the United States and Australia. There are significant numbers in Argentina and New Zealand; the United States has the most people of Irish descent, while in Australia those of Irish descent are a higher percentage of the population than in any other country outside Ireland. Many Icelanders have Scottish Gaelic forebears. During the past 12,500 years of inhabitation, Ireland has witnessed some different peoples arrive on its shores; the ancient peoples of Ireland—such as the creators of the Céide Fields and Newgrange—are unknown. Neither their languages nor the terms they used to describe; as late as the middle centuries of the 1st millennium the inhabitants of Ireland did not appear to have a collective name for themselves.
Ireland itself was known by a number of different names, including Banba, Fódla, Ériu by the islanders and Hiverne to the Greeks, Hibernia to the Romans. Scotland takes its name from Scota, who in Irish mythology, Scottish mythology, pseudohistory, is the name given to two different mythological daughters of two different Egyptian Pharaohs to whom the Gaels traced their ancestry explaining the name Scoti, applied by the Romans to Irish raiders, to the Irish invaders of Argyll and Caledonia which became known as Scotland. Other Latin names for people from Ireland in Classic and Mediaeval sources include Attacotti and Gael; this last word, derived from the Welsh gwyddel "raiders", was adopted by the Irish for themselves. However, as a term it is on a par with Viking, as it describes an activity and its proponents, not their actual ethnic affiliations; the terms Irish and Ireland are derived from the goddess Ériu. A variety of historical ethnic groups have inhabited the island, including the Airgialla, Fir Ol nEchmacht, Fir Bolg, Érainn, Eóganachta, Conmaicne and Ulaid.
In the cases of the Conmaicne, Érainn, it can be demonstrated that the tribe took their name from their chief deity, or in the case of the Ciannachta, Eóganachta, the Soghain, a deified ancestor. This practice is paralleled by the Anglo-Saxon dynasties' claims of descent from Woden, via his sons Wecta, Baeldaeg and Wihtlaeg; the Greek mythographer Euhemerus originated the concept of Euhemerism, which treats mythological accounts as a reflection of actual historical events shaped by retelling and traditional mores. In the 12th century, Icelandic bard and historian Snorri Sturluson proposed that the Norse gods were historical war leaders and kings, who became cult figures set into society as gods; this view is in agreement with Irish historians such as Francis John Byrne. One legend states that the Irish were descended from one Míl Espáine, whose sons conquered Ireland around 1000 BC or
The National University of Ireland Galway is located in the city of Galway in Ireland. A third-level teaching and research institution, the University has been awarded the full five QS stars for excellence, is ranked among the top 1 per cent of universities according to the 2018 QS World University Rankings; the University was founded in 1845 as "Queen's College Galway", was more known as "University College Galway". NUI Galway is a member of a network of 40 long-established European universities; the University opened for teaching in 1849 as "Queen's College Galway" with 37 professors and 91 students. A year it became part of the Queen's University of Ireland; the Irish Universities Act, 1908 made this college a constituent college of the new National University of Ireland, under a new charter the name of the University changed to "University College Galway". It was given special statutory responsibility under the University College Galway Act, 1929 with respect of the use of the Irish language as a working language of the University.
It retained the title of University College Galway until the Universities Act, 1997 changed it to the "National University of Ireland, Galway". Located close to the city centre, it stretches along the River Corrib; the oldest part of the University, the Quadrangle with its Aula Maxima was designed by John Benjamin Keane. The stone from which it is built was supplied locally. Fine Gael's youth wing took a hold on the university in 1973 during the Liam Cosgrave-led Fine Gael/Labour Coalition government, with Enda Kenny and Madeleine Taylor-Quinn among those behind its establishment there. More modern parts of the university sprang up in the 1970s and were designed by architects Scott Tallon Walker; the 1990s saw considerable development, including the conversion of an old munitions factory into a student centre. Under the early 21st-century Presidency of Iognáid G. Ó Muircheartaigh, NUI Galway announced details of plans to make the University a "campus of the future" at a cost of around €400 million.
Ó Muircheartaigh's successor James J. Browne continued with that plan; the University launched its Strategic Plan "Vision 2020" in 2015. 21st-century developments include a state-of-the-art University Sports Centre, Áras Moyola, J. E. Cairnes School of Business & Economics, the Alice Perry Engineering Building, the BioSciences Research Building, the Life Course Institute, the Lambe Institute and the O'Donoghue Centre for Drama and Performance. A new Human Biology Building completed in summer 2017. Nelson Mandela made a memorable appearance at the University in 2003. On what was his last visit to Ireland, Mandela condemned U. S. foreign policy and received an honorary doctorate from NUI Chancellor Garret FitzGerald. The five Colleges of the University are: College of Arts, Social Sciences and Celtic Studies College of Business, Public Policy and Law College of Engineering and Informatics College of Medicine and Health Sciences College of ScienceSince January 2006, St. Angela's College, Sligo has been a college of Galway.
As a result those admitted to St. Angela's College are registered as students at Galway. Since 2015 the Shannon College of Hotel Management is incorporated into the University — becoming part of the College of Business, Public Policy & Law at Galway —, formally marked by the Minister for Education and Skills Jan O'Sullivan at an event held in Shannon College on 9 November 2015. All staff of Shannon College of Hotel Management became staff of Galway and all students of Shannon College of Hotel Management became students at Galway. There are several Research Institutes at Galway, each of which comprise research teams drawn from the Colleges. National Centre for Biomedical Engineering Science Insight Centre for Data Analytics Ryan Institute - Marine, Energy & Environment CÚRAM Whitaker Institute for Innovation and Societal Change Institute for Lifecourse and Society Moore Institute for Research in the Humanities and Social Studies Irish Centre for Human Rights Constituent schools found in the relevant colleges include: Galway University Foundation was established in 1998 with the intention of generating financial support from private individuals and institutions for NUI Galway.
It nurtures relationships with donors for. The Foundation has many'Priority Projects' in development. NUI Galway has about 150 active student societies, ranging from the academic to artistic and performing. Religions are represented. In addition, many of Ireland's political parties have active societies at NUI Galway, including Fine Gael, Labour, People Before Profit, Sinn Féin and the Social Democrats; the oldest society on the campus is the Literary and Debating Society, founded in 1846. Another of NUI Galway's oldest societies is Cumann Staire. One of Europe's oldest history societies, it is a member of the Comhaltas na gCumann Staire - Irish History Students' Association and the International Students of History Association."Dram Soc" played a critical part in the formation of the Druid Theatre Company, Macnas and t
Mary Therese Winifred Robinson is an Irish Independent politician who served as the seventh President of Ireland, becoming the first woman to hold this office. She served as United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights from 1997 to 2002 and a Senator for the University of Dublin from 1969 to 1989, she first rose to prominence as an academic and campaigner. She defeated Fianna Fáil's Brian Lenihan and Fine Gael's Austin Currie, in the 1990 presidential election, becoming the first Independent candidate nominated by the Labour Party, the Workers' Party and Independent Senators, she was the first elected President in the office's history not to have had the support of Fianna Fáil. She is regarded as a transformative figure for Ireland, for the Irish presidency and liberalising a conservative, low-profile political office, she resigned the presidency two months ahead of the end of her term of office to take up her post in the United Nations. During her UN tenure she visited Tibet, she extended her intended single four-year term by a year to preside over the World Conference against Racism 2001 in Durban, South Africa.
Under continuing pressure from the U. S. Robinson resigned her post in September 2002. After leaving the UN in 2002, Robinson formed Realizing Rights: the Ethical Globalization Initiative, which came to a planned end at the end of 2010, its core activities were 1) fostering equitable trade and decent work, 2) promoting the right to health and more humane migration policies, 3) working to strengthen women's leadership and encourage corporate social responsibility. The organisation supported capacity building and good governance in developing countries. Robinson returned to live in Ireland at the end of 2010, has set up The Mary Robinson Foundation - Climate Justice, which aims to be'a centre for thought leadership and advocacy on the struggle to secure global justice for those many victims of climate change who are forgotten - the poor, the disempowered and the marginalised across the world.' Robinson is Chairman of the Institute for Human Rights and Business and Chancellor of the University of Dublin.
Since 2004, she has been Professor of Practice in International Affairs at Columbia University, where she teaches international human rights. Robinson visits other colleges and universities where she lectures on human rights. Robinson sits on the board of the Mo Ibrahim Foundation, an organisation which supports good governance and great leadership in Africa, is a member of the Foundation's Ibrahim Prize Committee. Robinson is a B Team Leader, alongside Richard Branson, Jochen Zeitz and a group of leaders from business and civil society as part of The B Team. Robinson is an Extraordinary Professor in the Centre for Human Rights and the Centre for Sexualities, AIDS and Gender at the University of Pretoria. Robinson served as Oxfam's honorary president from 2002 until she stepped down in 2012 and is honorary president of the European Inter-University Centre for Human Rights and Democratisation EIUC since 2005, she is Chairman of the International Institute for Environment and Development and is a founding member and chairman of the Council of Women World Leaders.
Robinson was a member of the European members of the Trilateral Commission. In 2004, she received Amnesty International's Ambassador of Conscience Award for her work in promoting human rights. Born Mary Therese Winifred Bourke in Ballina, County Mayo, in 1944, she is the daughter of two medical doctors, her father was Dr. Aubrey Bourke, of Ballina, while her mother was Dr. Tessa Bourke, of Carndonagh, County Donegal; the Hiberno-Norman Bourkes have lived in Mayo since the thirteenth century. Her family had links with many diverse political strands in Ireland. One ancestor was a leading activist in the Irish National Land League of Mayo and the Irish Republican Brotherhood; some branches of the family were members of the Anglican Church of Ireland while others were Catholics. More distant relatives included William Liath de Burgh, Tiobóid mac Walter Ciotach Bourke, Charles Bourke. Robinson was therefore born into a family, a historical mix of rebels against and servants of the British Crown. Mary Bourke attended Mount Anville Secondary School in Dublin and studied law at Trinity College Dublin graduating in 1967 with first class honours, King's Inns and Harvard Law School.
She was called to the Irish Bar in 1967 and while still in her twenties, she was called to the Inner Bar as Senior Counsel, was appointed Reid Professor of Law in the college. A subsequent holder of that title was her successor as Mary McAleese. An outspoken critic of some Catholic church teachings, she gave an acceptance speech in 1969, for a law-review position, in which she advocated removing the prohibition of divorce in the Irish Constitution, eliminating the ban on the use of contraceptives, decriminalising homosexuality and suicide. In 1970, she married Nicholas Robinson, with whom she had a relationship since they were fellow law students and, practising as a solicitor. Despite the fact that her family had close links to the Church of Ireland, her marriage to a Protestant caused a rift with her parents, who did not attend her wedding; the rift was overcome in subsequent