Lionel Jospin is a French politician. He served as prime minister of France from 1997 to 2002. Jospin was the Socialist Party candidate for president of France in the elections of 1995 and 2002. In 1995 he was narrowly defeated in the final runoff election by Jacques Chirac. In 2002 he was eliminated in the first round after finishing behind both Chirac and the far-right candidate Jean-Marie Le Pen, he announced his retirement from politics. Lionel Jospin was born to a Protestant family in a suburb of Paris, he is the son of Robert Jospin. He attended the Lycée Janson-de-Sailly before studying at the Institut d'études politiques de Paris and the École nationale d'administration, he was active in the UNEF students' union, protesting against the war in Algeria. He completed his military service as an officer in charge of armoured training in Trier. After his graduation from the ENA in 1965, he entered the Ministry of Foreign Affairs as secretary of Foreign Affairs, he became in charge of economic cooperation there, worked with Ernest-Antoine Seillière, future leader of the MEDEF employers' union.
Representative of a generation of left-wingers who criticized the old SFIO Socialist Party, he joined a Trotskyist group, the Internationalist Communist Organization in the 1960s, before entering the renewed Socialist Party in 1971. Joining François Mitterrand's circle, he became the second highest-ranking member of the party in 1979 its First Secretary when Mitterrand was elected president of France in 1981; when President Mitterrand decided, in 1982–83, to change his economic policy to give priority to the struggle against inflation and for a hard currency, Jospin justified his choice. After Laurent Fabius was chosen as prime minister in 1984, a rivalry between these two political heirs of Mitterrand broke out when they competed for the leadership of the 1986 legislative campaign. In 1988, after Mitterrand's reelection, Jospin left the PS leadership, though Mitterrand considered naming him prime minister, he was nominated for minister of education. Under Jospin's tenure as education minister, teacher training was consolidated, the lycees and universities were reformed, teachers’ salaries improved, technical and vocational education were reformed, which the socialists saw as a means of improving economic performance, tackling youth unemployment, attaining social justice.
Jospin's rivalry with Fabius intensified and caused an internal crisis, notably during the Rennes Congress. The party's mitterrandist faction split because Jospin's followers allied with the other factions to prevent Fabius's election as First Secretary; this damaged Jospin's relationship with Mitterrand and, after the Socialist Party's failure in the March 1992 local elections, Jospin was not included in the new government formed by Pierre Bérégovoy. As a member of the National Assembly, Jospin served first as a representative of Paris, of Haute-Garonne département, he lost his seat in the National Assembly in the Socialists' landslide defeat in the 1993 legislative election and announced his political retirement. In 1993, Jospin was appointed ministre plénipotentiaire, 2nd class, a position he held until his appointment as prime minister in 1997, but he was not appointed to any embassy. In 1995 Jospin claimed a necessity to "take stock" of the mitterrandist inheritance so as to restore the credibility of the Socialist Party.
He was selected as the Socialist candidate for president against the PS leader Henri Emmanuelli. In the run-up to the election, Jospin made various policy proposals, such as a programme for the environment, an extension of social services, a housebuilding programme, the rebuilding of run-down parts of cities, a 37-hour workweek. Following the Socialists' landslide defeats of 1992–94, Jospin was considered to have little chance of victory, but he did well, leading in the first round and losing only narrowly to Jacques Chirac in the final runoff election. His performance was seen to mark a revival of the Socialists as a strong force in French politics and he returned to being the party's First Secretary. Jospin built a new coalition with the other left-wing parties: the French Communist Party, the Greens, the Left Radical Party and the dissident Citizen and Republican Movement. Two years Chirac decided to call an early election for the National Assembly, hoping for a personal endorsement; the move backfired: the "Plural Left" won a parliamentary majority and Jospin became prime minister.
Jospin is a Member of the Club of Madrid. Jospin served as prime minister during France's third "cohabitation" government under President Chirac from 1997 to 2002. Despite his previous image as a rigid socialist, Jospin sold state-owned enterprises and lowered the VAT, income tax and company tax rates, his government introduced the 35-hour workweek, provided additional health insurance for those on the lowest incomes through the creation of Couverture maladie universelle, promoted the representation of women in politics, expanded the social security system, created the PACS – a civil partnership or union between two people of any genders. During his term, with the help of a favorable economic situation, unemployment fell by 900,000. There were several women but no ethnic minorities in Jospin's government; the "law against social exclusion" extended social security and introduced various measures to combat poverty. These included: The optimization of extra earnings for Revenu minimum d'insertion recipients.
The introduction of CMU. Guaranteeing
2004 European Parliament election in France
Elections to the European Parliament were held in France on 13 June 2004. The opposition Socialist Party made substantial gains, although this was at the expense of minor parties; the governing Union for a Popular Movement and Union for French Democracy made gains. The elections were conducted in seven regional constituencies in metropolitan France, plus an eighth consisting of all overseas departments and territories. Allocation of seats was by proportional representation, with closed lists and no preferential voting, using the rule of the highest average, with a threshold of 5% of the votes in each. For a national list in alphabetical order, see List of members of the European Parliament for France, 2004–09 Jean-Louis Bourlanges Jean-Louis Cottigny Brigitte Douay Hélène Flautre Jean-Paul Gauzes Jacky Henin Carl Lang Marie-Noëlle Lienemann Vincent Peillon Tokia Saïfi Chantal Simonot Henri Weber Marie-Hélène Aubert Roselyne Bachelot-Narquin Philippe de Villiers Ambroise Guellec Stéphane Le Foll Philippe Morillon Bernard Poignant Marie-Line Reynaud Yannick Vaugrenard Bernadette Vergnaud Jean Marie Beaupuy Joseph Daul Bruno Gollnisch Natalie Griesbeck Benoît Hamon Adeline Hazan Marie-Anne Isler-Béguin Véronique Mathieu Pierre Moscovici Catherine Trautmann Kader Arif Françoise Castex Jean-Marie Cavada Christine de Veyrac Alain Lamassoure Anne Laperrouze Jean-Claude Martinez Robert Navarro Gérard Onesta Béatrice Patrie Jean-Luc Bennahmias Guy Bono Marie-Arlette Carlotti Thierry Cornillet Claire Gibault Françoise Grossetête Jean-Marie Le Pen Patrick Louis Michel Rocard Martine Roure Lydia Schenardi Ari Vatanen Dominique Vlasto Bernadette Bourzai Marie-Hélène Descamps Janelly Fourtou Catherine Guy-Quint Brice Hortefeux André Laignel Pervenche Berès Paul-Marie Coûteaux Marielle de Sarnez Harlem Désir Anne Ferreira Nicole Fontaine Patrick Gaubert Marine Le Pen Bernard Lehideux Alain Lipietz Gilles Savary Pierre Schapira Jacques Toubon Francis Wurtz Jean-Claude Fruteau Margie Sudre Paul Vergès
University of Strasbourg
The University of Strasbourg in Strasbourg, France, is a university in France with nearly 51,000 students and over 3,200 researchers. The French university traces its history to the earlier German-language Universität Straßburg, founded in 1538, was divided in the 1970s into three separate institutions: Louis Pasteur University, Marc Bloch University, Robert Schuman University. On 1 January 2009, the fusion of these three universities reconstituted a united University of Strasbourg. With as many as 19 Nobel laureates, the university is now ranked among the best in the League of European Research Universities; the university emerged from a Lutheran humanist German Gymnasium, founded in 1538 by Johannes Sturm in the Free Imperial City of Strassburg. It was transformed to a university in 1621 and elevated to the ranks of a royal university in 1631. Among its earliest university students was Johann Scheffler who studied medicine and converted to Catholicism and became the mystic and poet Angelus Silesius.
The Lutheran German university still persisted after the annexation of the City by King Louis XIV in 1681, but turned into a French speaking university during the French Revolution. The university was refounded as the German Kaiser-Wilhelm-Universität in 1872, after the Franco-Prussian war and the annexation of Alsace-Lorraine to Germany provoked a westwards exodus of Francophone teachers. During the German Empire the university was expanded and numerous new buildings were erected because the university was intended to be a showcase of German against French culture in Alsace. In 1918, Alsace-Lorraine was returned to France, so a reverse exodus of Germanophone teachers took place. During the Second World War, when France was occupied and equipment of the University of Strasbourg were transferred to Clermont-Ferrand. In its place, the short-lived German Reichsuniversität Straßburg was created. In 1971, the university was subdivided into three separate institutions: Louis Pasteur University Marc Bloch University Robert Schuman University These were, reunited in 2009, were able to be among the first twenty French universities to gain greater autonomy.
The university campus covers a vast part near the center of the city, located between the "Cité Administrative", "Esplanade" and "Gallia" bus-tram stations. Modern architectural buildings include: Escarpe, the Doctoral College of Strasbourg, Pangloss, PEGE and others; the student residence building for the Doctoral College of Strasbourg was designed by London-based Nicholas Hare Architects in 2007. The structures are depicted on the main inner wall of the Esplanade university restaurant, accompanied by the names of their architects and years of establishment; the administrative organisms, attached to the university, are located in the "Agora" building. Karl Ferdinand Braun Paul Ehrlich Hermann Emil Fischer Jules Hoffmann Albrecht Kossel Martin Karplus Charles Louis Alphonse Laveran Jean-Marie Lehn Otto Loewi Otto Fritz Meyerhof Louis Néel Wilhelm Röntgen Albert Schweitzer Hermann Staudinger Adolf von Baeyer Max von Laue Pieter Zeeman Jean-Pierre Sauvage Bibliothèque nationale et universitaire Jardin botanique de l'Université de Strasbourg List of early modern universities in Europe Observatory of Strasbourg On the Poverty of Student Life Musée de minéralogie Musée zoologique de la ville de Strasbourg Reichsuniversität Straßburg University of Strasbourg The Art and Science collections of the University of Strasbourg
Maurice Druon was a French novelist and a member of the Académie française, of which he served as "Perpetual Secretary" between 1985 and 1999. Born in Paris, Druon was the son of Russian-Jewish immigrant Lazare Kessel and was brought up at La Croix-Saint-Leufroy in Normandy and educated at the lycée Michelet de Vanves, his father committed suicide in 1920 and his mother remarried in 1926. He was the nephew of the writer Joseph Kessel, with whom he translated the Chant des Partisans, a French Resistance anthem of World War II, with music and words by Anna Marly. Druon was a member of the Resistance and came to London in 1943 to participate in the BBC's "Honneur et Patrie" programme. Druon began writing for literary journals at the age of 18. In September 1939, having been called up for military service, he wrote an article for Paris-Soir entitled "J'ai vingt ans et je pars". Following the fall of France in 1940, he was demobilized and remained in the unoccupied zone of France, his first play, Mégarée, was produced in Monte Carlo in February 1942.
He left the same year to join the forces of Charles de Gaulle. Druon became aide de camp to General François d'Astier de La Vigerie. In 1948 Druon received the Prix Goncourt for his novel Les Grandes Familles, published two sequels. Druon was elected to the 30th seat of the Académie française on 8 December 1966, succeeding Georges Duhamel, he was elected as "Perpetual Secretary" in 1985, but chose to resign the office in late 1999 due to old age. On the death of Henri Troyat on 2 March 2007, he became the Dean of the Académie, its longest-serving member. While his scholarly writing earned him a seat at the Académie, Druon is best known for a series of seven historical novels published in the 1950s under the title Les Rois maudits; the novels were adapted for French television in 1972, gaining a wider audience through overseas sales, again in 2005, starring Jeanne Moreau. Fantasy writer George R. R. Martin stated that the novels had been an inspiration for his fantasy series A Song of Ice and Fire, called Druon "France's best historical novelist since Alexandre Dumas, père".
Druon's only work for children – Tistou les pouces verts – was published in 1957 and translated into English in 1958 and 2012. Druon was Minister of Cultural Affairs in Pierre Messmer's cabinet, a deputy of Paris, he was survived by his second wife, Madeleine Marignac, whom he married in 1968. Druon was a descendant of Brazilian author Odorico Mendes; the individual English titles below are from the Scribner English editions as published in the United States, rather than literal translations of the original French titles. Le Roi de fer La Reine étranglée Les Poisons de la couronne La Loi des mâles La Louve de France Le Lys et le lion Quand un Roi perd la France Knight Grand Cross of the Legion of Honour Commander of the Order of Arts and Letters Médaille de la France libre Honorary Knight Commander of the Order of the British Empire Grand Officer of Merit of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta Commandor in the Order of the Phoenix Knight Grand Cross in the Order of Merit of the Italian Republic Knight Grand Cross in the Order of the Aztec Eagle Grand Officer in the Order of the Lion of Senegal Knight Grand Cross in the Military Order of Christ Knight officer in the Order of May.
Honorary Doctorates from York University, Boston University and the University of Tirana Prix Goncourt Literary Award of the Foundation of Prince Pierre de Monaco Prix Saint-Simon Prize Agrippa d'Aubigné Order of Friendship, 1993 L'Académie française Maurice Druon on IMDb
François Gerard Marie Léotard is a retired French politician. Singer and actor Philippe Léotard was his brother. Member of the Republican Party, the liberal-conservative component of the Union for French Democracy, he appeared in the foreground of the political scene in the 1980s, he led a new generation of right-wing politicians, the "renovationmen", who opposed the old right-wing leaders Jacques Chirac and Valéry Giscard d'Estaing. In 1981, he was selected to be one of the first Young Leaders of the French-American Foundation, his political career started with being elected as the Mayor of Fréjus in 1977. He served two terms as the deputy of Var. Culture Minister, from 1986 to 1988, he sold the main public TV channel TF1, he returned in the cabinet as Defense Minister, from 1993 to 1995. Supporting the candidacy of Edouard Balladur in the 1995 presidential election, he was dismissed after Chirac's election. Elected president of the UDF in 1996, he could not prevent the split of this confederation two years with Alain Madelin's secession.
This and the party's poor showing in the 1998 regional elections prompted his resignation. After a mission in Macedonia in 2001 as representative of the European Union, he retired from politics. In 2003, he created together with other prominent European personalities the Medbridge Strategy Center, whose goal is to promote dialogue and mutual understanding between Europe and the Middle-East, he has since written several books. Governmental functions Minister of State, minister of Defence: 1993–1995. Minister of Culture and Communication: 1986–1988. Electoral mandates National Assembly of France Member of the National Assembly of France for Var: 1978–1986 / 1988–1993 / 1995–2001. Elected in 1978, reelected in 1981, 1986, 1988, 1993, 1995, 1997. Regional Council Regional councillor of Provence-Alpes-Côte d'Azur: 1998–2004. General Council General councillor of Var: 1979–1988. Reelected in 1985. Municipal Council Mayor of Fréjus: 1977–1997. Reelected in 1983, 1989, 1995. Municipal councillor of Fréjus: 1977–1997.
Reelected in 1983, 1989, 1995. Political functions President of the Union for French Democracy: 1996–1998. President of the Republican Party: 1982–1990 / 1995–1997. Léotard wrote several books including non-fiction and a couple of novels: Ma liberté published by Plon, 1995 Pour l'honneur published by B. Grasset, 1997 La Couleur des femmes published by Grasset & Fasquelle, 2002 A mon frère qui n'est pas mort published by Grasset & Fasquelle, 2003 La vie mélancolique des méduses published by Grasset & Fasquelle, 2005 Ça va mal finir published by Grasset & Fasquelle, 2008 www.medbridge.org
Culture is the social behavior and norms found in human societies. Culture is considered a central concept in anthropology, encompassing the range of phenomena that are transmitted through social learning in human societies. Cultural universals are found in all human societies; the concept of material culture covers the physical expressions of culture, such as technology and art, whereas the immaterial aspects of culture such as principles of social organization, philosophy and science comprise the intangible cultural heritage of a society. In the humanities, one sense of culture as an attribute of the individual has been the degree to which they have cultivated a particular level of sophistication in the arts, education, or manners; the level of cultural sophistication has sometimes been seen to distinguish civilizations from less complex societies. Such hierarchical perspectives on culture are found in class-based distinctions between a high culture of the social elite and a low culture, popular culture, or folk culture of the lower classes, distinguished by the stratified access to cultural capital.
In common parlance, culture is used to refer to the symbolic markers used by ethnic groups to distinguish themselves visibly from each other such as body modification, clothing or jewelry. Mass culture refers to the mass-produced and mass mediated forms of consumer culture that emerged in the 20th century; some schools of philosophy, such as Marxism and critical theory, have argued that culture is used politically as a tool of the elites to manipulate the lower classes and create a false consciousness, such perspectives are common in the discipline of cultural studies. In the wider social sciences, the theoretical perspective of cultural materialism holds that human symbolic culture arises from the material conditions of human life, as humans create the conditions for physical survival, that the basis of culture is found in evolved biological dispositions; when used as a count noun, a "culture" is the set of customs and values of a society or community, such as an ethnic group or nation. Culture is the set of knowledge acquired over time.
In this sense, multiculturalism values the peaceful coexistence and mutual respect between different cultures inhabiting the same planet. Sometimes "culture" is used to describe specific practices within a subgroup of a society, a subculture, or a counterculture. Within cultural anthropology, the ideology and analytical stance of cultural relativism holds that cultures cannot be objectively ranked or evaluated because any evaluation is situated within the value system of a given culture; the modern term "culture" is based on a term used by the Ancient Roman orator Cicero in his Tusculanae Disputationes, where he wrote of a cultivation of the soul or "cultura animi," using an agricultural metaphor for the development of a philosophical soul, understood teleologically as the highest possible ideal for human development. Samuel Pufendorf took over this metaphor in a modern context, meaning something similar, but no longer assuming that philosophy was man's natural perfection, his use, that of many writers after him, "refers to all the ways in which human beings overcome their original barbarism, through artifice, become human."In 1986, philosopher Edward S.
Casey wrote, "The word culture meant'place tilled' in Middle English, the same word goes back to Latin colere,'to inhabit, care for, worship' and cultus,'A cult a religious one.' To be cultural, to have a culture, is to inhabit a place sufficiently intensive to cultivate it—to be responsible for it, to respond to it, to attend to it caringly." Culture described by Richard Velkley:... meant the cultivation of the soul or mind, acquires most of its modern meaning in the writings of the 18th-century German thinkers, who were on various levels developing Rousseau's criticism of "modern liberalism and Enlightenment". Thus a contrast between "culture" and "civilization" is implied in these authors when not expressed as such. In the words of anthropologist E. B. Tylor, it is "that complex whole which includes knowledge, art, law and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society." Alternatively, in a contemporary variant, "Culture is defined as a social domain that emphasizes the practices and material expressions, over time, express the continuities and discontinuities of social meaning of a life held in common.
The Cambridge English Dictionary states that culture is "the way of life the general customs and beliefs, of a particular group of people at a particular time." Terror management theory posits that culture is a series of activities and worldviews that provide humans with the basis for perceiving themselves as "person of worth within the world of meaning"—raising themselves above the physical aspects of existence, in order to deny the animal insignificance and death that Homo sapiens became aware of when they acquired a larger brain. The word is used in a general sense as the evolved ability to categorize and represent experiences with symbols and to act imaginatively and creatively; this ability arose with the evolution of behavioral modernity in humans around 50,000 years ago, is thought to be unique to humans, although some other species have demonstrated similar, though much less complex, abilities for social learning. It is used to denote the co
2014 European Parliament election in France
The 2014 European Parliament election in France for the election of the 8th delegation from France to the European Parliament took place on 24 May 2014 in the overseas territories of France, on 25 May 2014 in metropolitan France. The number of seats allocated to France increased to 74, compared to 72 in the 2009 election, as a result of the 2013 reapportionment of seats in the European Parliament