Cathine

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Cathine
Cathine2DCSD.svg
Cathine3DanJ.gif
Clinical data
Routes of
administration
Oral
ATC code
Legal status
Legal status
Pharmacokinetic data
Elimination half-life 1.8–8.6 hours[1]
Identifiers
CAS Number
PubChem CID
DrugBank
ChemSpider
UNII
ChEMBL
ECHA InfoCard 100.007.050 Edit this at Wikidata
Chemical and physical data
Formula C9H13NO
Molar mass 151.206 g/mol
3D model (JSmol)
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Cathine, also known as D-norpseudoephedrine and (+)-norpseudoephedrine, is a psychoactive drug of the phenethylamine and amphetamine chemical classes which acts as a stimulant. Along with cathinone, it is found naturally in Catha edulis (khat), and contributes to its overall effects.[2] It has approximately 10–14% the potency of amphetamine.[2]

Pharmacology[edit]

Like amphetamines, cathinone, and ephedrine, cathine acts as a norepinephrine releasing agent (NRA).[2] It also acts as a dopamine releasing agent (DRA) to a lesser extent.[2]

Chemistry[edit]

Cathine is one of the four stereoisomers of phenylpropanolamine (PPA).

Regulation[edit]

The World Anti-Doping Agency's list of prohibited substances (used for the Olympic Games among other athletic events) bars cathine in concentrations of over 5 micrograms per milliliter in urine. Cathine is a Schedule III drug under the Convention on Psychotropic Substances.[3] In the United States, it is classified as a Schedule IV controlled substance.[4]

In Australia, Cathine is officially a schedule 4 drug but is not available or approved for any use.

Cathine is found in the shrub khat (Catha edulis).

In Hong Kong, cathine is regulated under Schedule 1 of Hong Kong's Chapter 134 Dangerous Drugs Ordinance. Unlawful possession is punishable by severe fines and imprisonment.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Toennes, S. W.; Harder, S.; Schramm, M.; Niess, C.; Kauert, G. F. (2003). "Pharmacokinetics of cathinone, cathine and norephedrine after the chewing of khat leaves". British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. 56 (1): 125–130. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2125.2003.01834.x. PMC 1884326Freely accessible. PMID 12848785. 
  2. ^ a b c d Hoffman, R.; Al-Absi, M. (December 2010). "Khat use and neurobehavioral functions: suggestions for future studies" (PDF). Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 132 (3): 554–63. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2010.05.033. PMC 2976806Freely accessible. PMID 20553832. 
  3. ^ "List of psychotropic substances under international control" (PDF). International Narcotics Control Board. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2012-08-31. 
  4. ^ https://www.deadiversion.usdoj.gov/schedules/orangebook/a_sched_alpha.pdf