The word Catholic comes from the Greek phrase καθόλου, meaning "on the whole", "according to the whole" or "in general", is a combination of the Greek words κατά meaning "about" and ὅλος meaning "whole". The first use of "Catholic" was by the church father Saint Ignatius of Antioch in his Letter to the Smyrnaeans. In the context of Christian ecclesiology, it has several usages; the word in English can mean either "of the Catholic faith" or "relating to the historic doctrine and practice of the Western Church". Many Christians use it to refer more broadly to the whole Christian Church or to all believers in Jesus Christ regardless of denominational affiliation. "Catholicos", the title used for the head of some churches in Eastern Christian traditions, is derived from the same linguistic origin. In non-ecclesiastical use, it derives its English meaning directly from its root, is used to mean the following: including a wide variety of things. Liberal, having broad interests, or wide sympathies. Lamb Thoughts on Books. in Elia 2nd Ser.
I bless my stars for a taste so catholic, so unexcluding.or inclusive, inviting 1885 Times 11 Sept. 7/1 Science is catholic, is bounded only by the universe. The term has been incorporated into the name of the largest Christian communion, the Catholic Church. All of the three main branches of Christianity in the East had always identified themselves as Catholic in accordance with Apostolic traditions and the Nicene Creed. Anglicans and some Methodists believe that their churches are "Catholic" in the sense that they too are in continuity with the original universal church founded by the Apostles. However, each church defines the scope of the "Catholic Church" differently. For instance, the Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox churches, Church of the East, each maintain that their own denomination is identical with the original universal church, from which all other denominations broke away. Distinguishing beliefs of Catholicity, the beliefs of most Christians who call themselves "Catholic", include the episcopal polity, that bishops are considered the highest order of ministers within the Christian religion, as well as the Nicene Creed of AD 381.
In particular, along with unity and apostolicity, catholicity is considered one of Four Marks of the Church, found in the line of the Nicene Creed: "I believe in one holy catholic and apostolic Church." During the medieval and modern times, additional distinctions arose regarding the use of the terms Western Catholic and Eastern Catholic. Before the East–West Schism, those terms had just the basic geographical meanings, since only one undivided Catholicity existed, uniting the Latin speaking Christians of West and the Greek speaking Christians of the East. After the split of 1054 terminology became much more complicated, resulting in the creation of parallel and conflicting terminological systems; the Greek adjective katholikos, the origin of the term "catholic", means "universal". Directly from the Greek, or via Late Latin catholicus, the term catholic entered many other languages, becoming the base for the creation of various theological terms such as catholicism and catholicity; the term "catholicism" is the English form of Late Latin catholicismus, an abstract noun based on the adjective "catholic".
The Modern Greek equivalent καθολικισμός is back-formed and refers to the Catholic Church. The terms "catholic", "catholicism" and "catholicity" is related to the use of the term Catholic Church; the earliest evidence of the use of that term is the Letter to the Smyrnaeans that Ignatius of Antioch wrote in about 108 to Christians in Smyrna. Exhorting Christians to remain united with their bishop, he wrote: "Wherever the bishop shall appear, there let the multitude be. In 380, Emperor Theodosius I limited use of the term "Catholic Christian" to those who followed the same faith as Pope Damasus I of Rome and Pope Peter of Alexandria. Numerous other early writers including Cyril of Jerusalem, Augustine of Hippo further developed the use of the term "catholic" in relation to Christianity; the earliest recorded evidence of the use of the term "Catholic Church" is the Letter to the Smyrnaeans that Ignatius of Antioch wrote in about 107 to Christians in Smyrna. Exhorting Christians to remain united with their bishop, he wrote: "Wherever the bishop shall appear, there let the multitude be.
H. Srawley wrote: This is the earliest occurrence in Christian literature of the phrase'the Catholic Church'; the original sense of
The West Chop Club Historic District is a historic district in Tisbury, Massachusetts, on the island of Martha's Vineyard. The district represents a well-preserved planned summer resort community of the late 19th century. Located in and around Iroquois Avenue, the district encompasses the northernmost portion of West Chop, a peninsula that separates Vineyard Sound and the sheltered waters of Vineyard Haven Harbor, an area, developed by the West Chop Land Company in the 1880s; the land is now managed by the private West Chop Club. The district was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2007. For most of the colonial period, the West Chop area of Martha's Vineyard saw agricultural uses; these uses continued into the 19th century because the northern reaches of the point were held by a single landowner. West Chop Light was built in the area in 1817, a Methodist summer camp meeting was held near the lighthouse in 1827; the area's rural character began to change in the 1870s with the rise of summer resort communities on the island.
An initial attempt at development failed in the 1870s, but in the 1880s the West Chop Land Company began development of the area. The company laid out narrow winding roads; the company built a wharf, developed a stretch of beach for public use, sold plots of land for development as summer cottages. In 1892 the company built the West Chop Inn, it built a clubhouse and cottages that it rented out, constructed two tennis courts for the use of its clients. By 1900 the resort community had grown to include two hotels, a post office, grocery store, a variety of recreational facilities; the West Chop Land Company went bankrupt in 1911. The owners of the houses in the community banded together to form the West Chop Land Trust, which acquired the Land Company properties; the held West Chop Club was organized in the 1960s to manage the properties owned by the Trust. The historic district was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2007, it encompasses about 17 acres, includes five buildings and four structures: The Cedars, a large Shingle-style building at Main and Iroquois The Cottage, located directly east of The Cedars, is a simple rectangular single story Shingle style building The Casino, a large two story building across from the West Chop Inn The West Chop Inn, on Iroquois Street, a large T-shaped Shingle-style building The West Chop Post Office, a white 1.5 story building which used to have its own zip code The "Big Pier", built in 1888, juts into the Vineyard Sound The Jetty, built in the first half of the 20th century, separates Vineyard Haven Harbor from Vineyard Sound, marks the eastern end of the club's waterfront Two clay tennis courts, built c.
1911, are located next to the West Chop InnThe district boundaries include the following non-contributing properties: Two modern concrete tennis courts A playground A flagpole, two nearby benches National Register of Historic Places listings in Dukes County, Massachusetts West Chop Club website
Oneonta is a city in southern Otsego County, New York, United States. It is one of the northernmost cities of the Appalachian Region. According to the 2010 U. S. Census, Oneonta had a population of 13,901, its nickname is "City of the Hills." While the word "oneonta" is of undetermined origin, it is popularly believed to mean "place of open rocks" in the Mohawk language. This refers to a prominent geological formation known as "Table Rock" at the western end of the city; the city is surrounded by the town of a separate municipal and political jurisdiction. Oneonta Municipal Airport is north of the city. Indigenous ancestors of Algonquin and Iroquoian-speaking Native Americans inhabited the land in the territory of Oneonta for thousands of years before European colonists settled in the area; the Five Nations of the Iroquois Confederacy are believed to have emerged and gained dominance prior to the 15th century. The area's early European-American settlers did not arrive until around 1775 and consisted of ethnic Palatine German and Dutch settlers moving out of the Hudson and eastern Mohawk valleys.
The first such settler in the area now known as the Town of Oneonta was Henry Scramling. He had secured a grant of 1,000 acres in the Susquehanna Valley, moved from German Flatts and settled about 1773 in the Oneonta Plains near the mouth of the Otego Creek, he left during the Revolution and returned after the conflict with his brothers and David Scramling, his brothers-in-law and David Young. Their farms were not far from the mouth of the Otego Creek; the army led by General James Clinton passed through the area in order to join the Sullivan Expedition in 1779 against Iroquois settlements. The first hamlet developed around 1800 and was known as "Milfordville." In 1830, the Town of Oneonta was formed from parts of two other Towns in the county. Milfordville changed its name to Oneonta in 1832. In 1848, it was incorporated as a village within the Town. In the mid-19th century, the Delaware and Hudson Railroad reached Oneonta, stimulating development as a railroad center and attracting new industries.
Oneonta was once home to the largest locomotive roundhouse in the world. The village incorporated as a city in 1908. Oneonta is located at 42°27′21″N 75°3′44″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 4.4 square miles, all land. The city lies between Albany; the Susquehanna River flows westward past the south part of the city. Interstate 88 follows the course of the Susquehanna River past Oneonta. New York State Route 7, New York State Route 23 and New York State Route 28 pass through the city; the architecture of Oneonta consists of a variety of Victorian and 20th-century commercial and domestic styles, including low-rise commercial buildings. Oneonta has few industrial complexes; because of its location, Oneonta does not serve as a prime industrial city. There are several historic buildings that were homes of prominent people; the Fairchild Mansion was placed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1974 and was the home of George Winthrop Fairchild, one of the original partners with Thomas Watson.
Fairchild and Watson were the founders of what became IBM. George I. Wilber House is a historic home located in the City, it was built in two phases, 1875 and about 1890. It is a three-story wood-frame structure on a stone foundation in the Late Victorian style, it features a three-story, round corner tower, cross gabled roof, a large decorative wrap-around porch with a porte-cochere. In 1997 it became home to the Upper Catskill Community Council of the Arts, it was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2000. Listed on the National Register of Historic Places are: Bresee Hall, Chapin Memorial Church, Ford Block, Fortin Site, Municipal Building, Oneonta Armory, Stonehouse Farm, Oneonta Theatre, Old Post Office, Oneonta Downtown Historic District, Walnut Street Historic District; the tallest building in Oneonta is Nader Towers. Standing 9 stories high, the building is owned by the City of Oneonta Housing Authority and is operated as a senior citizen's housing dwelling; as of the census of 2000, there were 13,292 people, 4,253 households, 1,913 families residing in the city.
The population density was 3,032.6 people per square mile. There were 4,574 housing units at an average density of 403.2 persons/km². The racial makeup of the city was 89.81% White, 4.87% Black, 0.21% Native American, 1.68% Asian, 0.09% Pacific Islander, 0.95% from other races, 1.69% from two or more races. 3.87 % of the population were Latino of any race. There were 4,253 households out of which 22.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 31.4% were married couples living together, 10.5% have a woman whose husband does not live with her, 55.0% were non-families. 36.4% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.20 and the average family size was 2.87. In the city, the population was spread out with 13.6% under the age of 18, 43.1% from 18 to 24, 17.6% from 25 to 44, 13.8% from 45 to 64, 11.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 23 years. For every 100 females, there were 82.8 males.
For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 80.7 males. The median income for a household in the city was $24,671, the median income for a family was $40,833. Males had a median income of $31,250 versus $25,338 for females; the per capita income for the city was $12,640. 30.3% of th
Chela is an Australian singer and songwriter who has released a number of singles. From Fremantle, Western Australia, she relocated to Melbourne, Victoria with her family at the age of 15, resides in Los Angeles. Chela began producing music at age 12 on Logic software, played bass guitar in punk bands throughout her teenage years, she directs her own music videos, writes and produces most of her own songs, as well as writes for other artists. In 2014 she teamed up with Styalz Fuego to write "Closure" for Owl Eyes, the first single off her debut album "Nightswim", which reached No. 28 in the Australian Albums Chart. In 2015 Chela was formally recognised by Spotify via their Spotlight Artists. Pulse Radio listed her as one of ten electronic crossover acts "to watch out for" in 2015, Bit Candy described her as recording "seriously catchy, stand-out music that sets her apart from the sea of electro-pop acts that have been popping up this year". Chela first gained international attention releasing singles "Romanticise" and "Zero" on French taste-maker label Kitsuné.
It was followed by the single "Plastic Gun". She has collaborated with several music groups, including Goldroom on his summer-anthem "Fifteen", Clubfeet on their highly-rotated single "Heartbreak", queer pop-punk cult hero Seth Bogart on his debut self-titled solo album alongside Kathleen Hanna and Tavi Gevinson. On September 14, 2017, Chela returned with a new single "Bad Habit" by premiering the self-directed video on NPR. A full EP is in preparation and will be released independently. MTV – About Chela
Protectionist is a Thoroughbred racehorse bred and trained in Germany. He was bred by Christoph Berglar, owned by Berglar in conjunction with an Australian syndicate. Protectionist was the winner of the 2014 Melbourne Cup, ridden by Ryan Moore and trained by Andreas Wöhler, became the first German-trained horse to win the race. Protectionist was sired by Monsun, who sired the 2013 Melbourne Cup winner, Fiorente; the horse is part-owned by his breeder, Christoph Berglar, by Australian Bloodstock, a syndicate based in Newcastle, New South Wales. Protectionist won his first race in Hanover during his two-year-old season, in the season placed second in a Group 3 race in Krefeld, the Herzog von Ratibor-Rennen, he appeared only twice in his three-year-old season, winning one listed race and placing second in another. During his 2014 European campaign, Protectionist won two races from four starts, he ran second in the listed Preis von Dahlwitz and the Group 2 Großer Preis der Badischen Unternehmen, won back-to-back Group 2 victories in the Hansa-Preis and the Prix Kergorlay.
He was ridden by Eduardo Pedroza for both wins. Protectionist was brought to Australia for the 2014 Spring Racing Carnival, with his trainer, Andreas Wöhler, making his first appearance in Australia since he contested the 2004 Cox Plate with Paolini. Protectionist ran fourth in the Group 2 Herbert Power Stakes, ridden by Craig Williams, was subsequently installed as an early favourite for the Melbourne Cup with some bookmakers, though this status was acquired by Admire Rakti closer to the race, after his win in the Caulfield Cup. At the 2014 Melbourne Cup, Protectionist was ridden by British jockey Ryan Moore, who had won the Cox Plate on Adelaide ten days earlier, he won the 3,200-metre race by four lengths from Red Cadeaux, who become the first horse to place second in three Melbourne Cups. Protectionist is the first German-trained horse to win the race, he ran the race in 3:17.71, the fastest time since Media Puzzle in the 2002 race, the fourth-fastest overall. His winning margin was the biggest victory.
Media related to Protectionist at Wikimedia Commons
The Iowa Democratic presidential caucus occurred on January 3, 2008, was the state caucuses of the Iowa Democratic Party. It was the first election for the Democrats of the 2008 presidential election. Referred to as "the First in the Nation Caucus," it was the first election of the primary season on both the Democratic and Republican sides. Of the eight major Democratic presidential candidates, then-U. S. Senator Barack Obama of Illinois received the most votes and was declared the winner of the Iowa Democratic Caucus of 2008, making him the first African American to win the caucus. Former U. S. Senator John Edwards of North Carolina came in second place and then-U. S. Senator Hillary Clinton of New York finished third, though Clinton received more delegates than Edwards. Campaigning had begun as early as two years before the event; the Iowa Caucuses have been the first held in the United States. The caucus marked the traditional and formal start of the delegate selection process for the 2008 United States presidential election, the process in which members of the Democratic Party gathered to make policy decisions.
Iowa state law mandates that its caucus must be held at least eight days before any other meeting, caucus, or primary for the presidential nominating process. Therefore, the Iowa Caucuses have always been traditionally the leading state in the nominating process. Not only did controversy brew between the candidates, but the caucuses themselves drew a large amount of media attention; the decisions of the Iowans affect the rest of the campaign season. Barack Obama's victory in Iowa helped establish him as one of the Democratic frontrunners of 2008 and was a first step toward his eventual nomination; the caucuses followed the regular procedures of the Democratic Party process. Any voter, a registered Democrat and a resident of Iowa was eligible to participate in the event. Individuals could have chosen to change their party affiliation at the door, it was estimated that 60 percent of the caucusgoers would have attended the caucuses for the first time. All of the caucusgoers met in public buildings or schools in their respective precincts and divided themselves into groups.
The voting was done publicly in a voice vote. To be viable, each preference group or candidate needed at least 15 percent of the caucusgoers' votes. If a candidate received less than 15 percent of the caucusgoers' votes the supporters of that non-viable candidate had 30 minutes to join a viable candidate's group, join another non-viable candidate's group to make the candidate viable, join an uncommitted group, or choose not to be counted as a voter. In Iowa, there were 1,784 precincts for the caucuses; each viable preference group at each caucus elected a certain number of delegates proportional to the group's size that would represent the candidate at the county conventions. There are 99 counties in Iowa, their Democratic conventions took place on March 15, 2008. At these conventions, a subset of delegates were chosen to attend the district state conventions. At the Iowa Democratic Party State Convention on June 14, 2008, a subset of delegates were chosen to attend the Democratic National Convention held August 25–28, 2008, in Denver, Colorado.
As in the precinct caucuses, the pledged delegates to the national convention proportionally represented the candidates compared to the results of the state caucus. The delegate allocation to the Democratic National Convention was as follows: 29 district delegates proportionally represented a candidate's support at each congressional district; the First Congressional District receives six pledged delegates, the Second Congressional District receives seven, the Third Congressional District receives six, the Fourth Congressional District receives six, the Fifth Congressional District receives four. All of these pledged. At the Iowa Democratic Party State Convention, on the other hand, 16 pledged delegates proportionally represented the candidates' support. Ten of these delegates were designated as at-large, meaning that they represent the entire state as a whole; the other six were Elected Officials. These may include members of the Democratic National Committee, members of the U. S. House of Representatives and the U.
S. Senate, the Governor, former party leaders. Not all of the PLEOs were pledged, but if they were, they would represent the state as a whole along with the at-large delegates. In total, the Democratic presidential candidates were allocated a total of 45 pledged delegates, depending on their support in each district and in the state. Twelve delegates that did not represent caucus results were sent to the Democratic National Convention. Eleven of them are PLEOs, which include six members of the DNC, one U. S. Senator, three U. S. Representatives, one Governor; because these unpledged delegates' profiles are high-profile elected officials, they are referred to as superdelegates. The other unpledged delegate is an add-on delegate, selected at the Iowa Democratic Party State Convention. While this process lasts for a period of five months, the results of the state caucus are predictable by the results of the precincts' caucuses combined. Therefore, the results of the precinct caucuses provide a good measurement of Iowa's delegation to the Democratic National Convention.
Before the caucuses, the Des Moines Register reported that during a poll of 800 Democratic caucus goers from December 27 to December 30, 2007, the candidates had the following results: Barack Obama - 32% Hillary Clinton - 25% John Edwards