Catholic schools are parochial schools or education ministries of the Roman Catholic Church. As of 2011, the Church operates the world's largest non-governmental school system. In 2016, the church supported 43,800 secondary schools, 95,200 primary schools. Catholic schools participate in the evangelizing mission of the Church, integrating religious education as a core subject within their curriculum. Irish immigration provides the main contribution to the increases in Catholic communities across the globe; the Irish immigration established the revival of Catholicism through movement to countries across North America, United Kingdom and Australia. The establishment of Catholic schools in Europe encountered various struggles following the creation of the Church of England in the Elizabethan Religious settlements of 1558-63. Anti-Catholicism in this period encouraged Catholics to create modern Catholic education systems to preserve their traditions; the Relief Acts of 1782 and the Catholic Emancipation Act of 1829 increased the possibility to practice Catholicism in England and to create charitable institutions by the Church.
This led to the development of numerous native religious congregations which established schools, orphanages and workhouses. Traditionally, Catholic schools originated as single sex schools. Catholic schools were required to depend on school fees and endowments. Endowments dropped off causing fees to rise; this prevented some students from enrolling due to their inability to pay. Catholic schools are distinct from their public school counterparts in focusing on the development of individuals as practitioners of the Catholic faith; the leaders and students are required to focus on four fundamental rules initiated by the Church and school. This includes the Catholic identity of the school, education in regards to life and faith, celebration of life and faith, action and social justice. Like other Christian-affiliated institutions, Catholic schools are nondenominational, in that they accept anyone regardless of religion or denominational affiliation, race or ethnicity, or nationality, provided the admission or enrollment requirements and legal documents are submitted, rules & regulations are obeyed for a fruitful school life.
However, non-Catholics, whether Christian or not, may need to participate in or be exempted from required activities those of a religious nature. These are in keeping with the spirit of social inclusiveness; the religious education as a core subject is a vital element of the curriculum where individuals are to develop themselves: “intellectually, physically emotionally and of course, spiritually.” The education involves: “the distinct but complementary aspect of the school's religious dimension of liturgical and prayer life of the school community.” In Catholic schools, teachers teach a Religious Education Program provided by the Bishop. Both teacher and Bishop therefore, contribute to the planning and teaching Religious Education Lessons. Catholic education has been identified as a positive fertility factor. Catholic schools in Malaysia have been the backbone of formal education in the country. Catholic schools have undergone many changes since independence in the late early 60s; the education policy in Malaysia is centralized.
In 1988, all Catholic religious brothers older than 55 were asked to retire with immediate effect, creating vacancies for lay teachers to take over. Any new brother wanting to join the teaching profession in Malaysia have to be in the civil service and share the same status as lay teachers. Many of the Lasallian traditions such as inter-La Salle games or sports are now integrated into other larger government funded programmes. With Islam being the state religion, compulsory or elective Bible lessons today are limited only to those of the Catholic faith; the missionaries who opened schools in Malaysia gave a solid education framework. Today, there are 68 Sisters of the Infant Jesus,11 Parish Convents and 46 La Salle Brothers schools in the country; the Catholic Church in Pakistan is active in education, managing leading schools in addition to its spiritual work. The Catholic Church runs 534 schools, 53 hostels, 8 colleges, 7 technical institutes, according to 2008 statistics; the Catholic Board of Education is the arm of the Catholic Church in Pakistan, responsible for education.
Each diocese has its own board. The Government of Pakistan nationalised most church schools and colleges in Punjab and Sindh in 1972. Leading schools such as St Patrick's High School, Karachi, St Joseph's Convent School and St Michael's Convent School were never nationalised; the Government of Sindh oversaw a denationalization program from 1985 to 1995, the Government of Punjab began a similar program in 1996. In 2001, the Federal Government and the courts ordered the provincial governments to complete the denationalization process. In the Philippines, private schools have been operated by the Catholic Church since the time of Spanish colonization; the Philippines is one of two predominantly Roman Catholic nations in Southeast Asia, the other being East Timor, with a 2004 study by UNESCO indicating that 83% of the population as identifying themselves as Catholics. The oldest existing university in Asia, University of Santo Tomas, is located in the Philippines, it is the largest single Catholic university in the world.
The university was established by the Order of Preachers known as the Dominican Order, on
Catholic Women's League
The Catholic Women's League is a Roman Catholic lay organisation founded by Margaret Fletcher aimed at women in England and Wales. Through emigration in the past, the CWL may be found in some Commonwealth countries, it is flourishing in Canada, New Zealand and Hong Kong. Olivier Rota, "Margaret Fletcher and the Roman Catholic thinking on women before the First World War. An idea of woman and woman’s higher education", in Women’s History Magazine, 58, Spring/Summer 2008, pp. 34–37. Official website
Republic of Ireland
Ireland known as the Republic of Ireland, is a country in north-western Europe occupying 26 of 32 counties of the island of Ireland. The capital and largest city is Dublin, located on the eastern part of the island, whose metropolitan area is home to around a third of the country's over 4.8 million inhabitants. The sovereign state shares its only land border with a part of the United Kingdom, it is otherwise surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the Celtic Sea to the south, St George's Channel to the south-east, the Irish Sea to the east. It is a parliamentary republic; the legislature, the Oireachtas, consists of a lower house, Dáil Éireann, an upper house, Seanad Éireann, an elected President who serves as the ceremonial head of state, but with some important powers and duties. The head of government is the Taoiseach, elected by the Dáil and appointed by the President; the state was created as the Irish Free State in 1922 as a result of the Anglo-Irish Treaty. It had the status of Dominion until 1937 when a new constitution was adopted, in which the state was named "Ireland" and became a republic, with an elected non-executive president as head of state.
It was declared a republic in 1949, following the Republic of Ireland Act 1948. Ireland became a member of the United Nations in December 1955, it joined the European Economic Community, the predecessor of the European Union, in 1973. The state had no formal relations with Northern Ireland for most of the twentieth century, but during the 1980s and 1990s the British and Irish governments worked with the Northern Ireland parties towards a resolution to "the Troubles". Since the signing of the Good Friday Agreement in 1998, the Irish government and Northern Ireland Executive have co-operated on a number of policy areas under the North-South Ministerial Council created by the Agreement. Ireland ranks among the top twenty-five wealthiest countries in the world in terms of GDP per capita, as the tenth most prosperous country in the world according to The Legatum Prosperity Index 2015. After joining the EEC, Ireland enacted a series of liberal economic policies that resulted in rapid economic growth.
The country achieved considerable prosperity between the years of 1995 and 2007, which became known as the Celtic Tiger period. This was halted by an unprecedented financial crisis that began in 2008, in conjunction with the concurrent global economic crash. However, as the Irish economy was the fastest growing in the EU in 2015, Ireland is again ascending league tables comparing wealth and prosperity internationally. For example, in 2015, Ireland was ranked as the joint sixth most developed country in the world by the United Nations Human Development Index, it performs well in several national performance metrics, including freedom of the press, economic freedom and civil liberties. Ireland is a member of the European Union and is a founding member of the Council of Europe and the OECD; the Irish government has followed a policy of military neutrality through non-alignment since prior to World War II and the country is not a member of NATO, although it is a member of Partnership for Peace. The 1922 state, comprising 26 of the 32 counties of Ireland, was "styled and known as the Irish Free State".
The Constitution of Ireland, adopted in 1937, provides that "the name of the State is Éire, or, in the English language, Ireland". Section 2 of the Republic of Ireland Act 1948 states, "It is hereby declared that the description of the State shall be the Republic of Ireland." The 1948 Act does not name the state as "Republic of Ireland", because to have done so would have put it in conflict with the Constitution. The government of the United Kingdom used the name "Eire" and, from 1949, "Republic of Ireland", for the state; as well as "Ireland", "Éire" or "the Republic of Ireland", the state is referred to as "the Republic", "Southern Ireland" or "the South". In an Irish republican context it is referred to as "the Free State" or "the 26 Counties". From the Act of Union on 1 January 1801, until 6 December 1922, the island of Ireland was part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. During the Great Famine, from 1845 to 1849, the island's population of over 8 million fell by 30%. One million Irish died of starvation and/or disease and another 1.5 million emigrated to the United States.
This set the pattern of emigration for the century to come, resulting in constant population decline up to the 1960s. From 1874, under Charles Stewart Parnell from 1880, the Irish Parliamentary Party gained prominence; this was firstly through widespread agrarian agitation via the Irish Land League, that won land reforms for tenants in the form of the Irish Land Acts, secondly through its attempts to achieve Home Rule, via two unsuccessful bills which would have granted Ireland limited national autonomy. These led to "grass-roots" control of national affairs, under the Local Government Act 1898, in the hands of landlord-dominated grand juries of the Protestant Ascendancy. Home Rule seemed certain when the Parliament Act 1911 abolished the veto of the House of Lords, John Redmond secured the Third Home Rule Act in 1914. However, the Unionist movement had been growing since 1886 among Irish Protestants after the introduction of the first home rule bill, fearing discrimination and loss of economic and social privileges if Irish Catholics achieved real political power
England and Wales
England and Wales is a legal jurisdiction covering England and Wales, two of the four nations of the United Kingdom. "England and Wales" forms the constitutional successor to the former Kingdom of England and follows a single legal system, known as English law. The devolved National Assembly for Wales was created in 1999 by the Parliament of the United Kingdom under the Government of Wales Act 1998 and provides a degree of self-government in Wales; the powers of the Assembly were expanded by the Government of Wales Act 2006, which allows it to pass its own laws, the Act formally separated the Welsh Government from the Assembly. There is no equivalent body for England, directly governed by the Parliament and the government of the United Kingdom. During the Roman occupation of Britain, the area of present-day England and Wales was administered as a single unit, with the exception of the land to the north of Hadrian's Wall – though the Roman-occupied area varied in extent, for a time extended to the Antonine/Severan Wall.
At that time, most of the native inhabitants of Roman Britain spoke Brythonic languages, were all regarded as Britons, divided into numerous tribes. After the conquest, the Romans administered this region as the province of Britain. Long after the departure of the Romans, the Britons in what became Wales developed their own system of law, first codified by Hywel Dda when he was king of most of present-day Wales. However, after the Norman invasion of Wales in the 11th century, English law came to apply in the parts of Wales conquered by the Normans. In 1283, the English, led by Edward I, with the biggest army brought together in England since the 11th century, conquered the remainder of Wales organised as the Principality of Wales; this was united with the English crown by the Statute of Rhuddlan of 1284. This aimed to replace Welsh criminal law with English law. Welsh law continued to be used for civil cases until the annexation of Wales to England in the 16th century; the Laws in Wales Acts 1535–1542 consolidated the administration of all the Welsh territories and incorporated them into the legal system of the Kingdom of England.
Prior to 1746 it was not clear whether a reference to "England" in legislation included Wales, so in 1746 Parliament passed the Wales and Berwick Act. This specified that in all prior and future laws, references to "England" would by default include Wales; the Wales and Berwick Act was repealed in 1967, although the statutory definition of "England" created by that Act still applies for laws passed before 1967. In new legislation since 1967, what was referred to as "England" is now "England and Wales", while references to "England" and "Wales" refer to those political divisions. England and Wales are treated as a single unit for some purposes, because the two form the constitutional successor to the former Kingdom of England; the continuance of Scots law was guaranteed under the 1706 Treaty of Union that led to the Acts of Union 1707, as a consequence English law—and after 1801, Irish law—continued to be separate. Following the two Acts of Union, Parliament can restrict the effect of its laws to part of the realm, the effect of laws, where restricted, was applied to one or more of the former kingdoms.
Thus, most laws applicable to England applied to Wales. However, Parliament now passes laws applicable to Wales and not to England, a practice, rare before the middle of the 20th century. Examples are the Welsh Language Acts 1967 and 1993 and the Government of Wales Act 1998. Measures and Acts of the National Assembly for Wales passed since the Government of Wales Act 2006 apply in Wales but not in England. Following the Government of Wales Act, effective since May 2007, the National Assembly for Wales can legislate on matters devolved to it. Following a referendum on 3 March 2011, the Welsh Assembly gained direct law-making powers, without the need to consult Westminster; this was the first time in 500 years that Wales had its own powers to legislate. Each piece of Welsh legislation is known as an Act of the Assembly. For a company to be incorporated in the United Kingdom, its application for registration with Companies House must state "whether the company's registered office is to be situated in England and Wales, in Scotland or in Northern Ireland", which will determine the law applicable to that business entity.
A registered office must be specified as "in Wales" if the company wishes to use a name ending cyfyngedig or cyf, rather than Limited or Ltd. or to avail itself of certain other privileges relating to the official use of the Welsh language. Outside the legal system, the position is mixed; some organisations combine as "England and Wales", others are separate. In sports, cricket has a combined international team administered by the England and Wales Cricket Board, who govern the sport across both nations, whilst football, rugby union, rugby league, the Commonwealth Games and other sports have separate national representative teams for each country. A few Welsh association football clubs, most notably Cardiff City F. C. and Swansea City F. C. play in the English football league system, while The New Saints F. C. which represents places on both sides of the border, plays in the Welsh football league system. Some religious denominations organise on the basis of England and Wales, most notably the Roman Catholic Church, but small denominations, e.g. the Evangelical Presbyterian Church.
Prior to the disestablishment of the Church in Wales in 1920, the Anglican churc
Conservative–Liberal Democrat coalition agreement
The Conservative–Liberal Democrat coalition agreement was a policy document drawn up following the 2010 general election in the United Kingdom. It formed the terms of reference governing the Cameron–Clegg coalition, the coalition government comprising MPs from the Conservative Party and the Liberal Democrats; the general election resulted in a hung parliament, with no party emerging with an overall majority in the House of Commons, for the first time in 36 years since February 1974. As a result, the first and third parties in terms of votes and seats, the Conservatives and Liberal Democrats entered into negotiations with the aim of forming a full coalition, the first since the Second World War; the initial agreement was published on 12 May 2010, detailing what had been agreed in the various policy areas, in order for a coalition government to be able to be formed, with a final agreement published on 20 May. The initial agreement was published on 12 May 2010, it consisted in 11 sections. In the foreword, it stated "These are the issues that needed to be resolved between us in order for us to work together as a strong and stable government".
Of the 57 Liberal Democrat MPs, only two refused to support the Conservative Coalition agreement, with former party leader Charles Kennedy and Manchester Withington MP John Leech both rebelling against. The 11 sections were as follows: Deficit Reduction Spending Review – NHS, Schools and a Fairer Society Tax Measures Banking Reform Immigration Political Reform Pensions and Welfare Education Relationship with the EU Civil liberties Environment To tackle the budget deficit and national debt, the agreement detailed "significantly accelerated reduction in the structural deficit" over the Parliament, with £6,000,000,000 cuts to be made in the financial year 2010–11, with plans to be published in an emergency budget within fifty days. In spending, the agreement committed the government to a full Spending Review of government including a full Strategic Security and Defence Review to be completed by the Autumn, an increase in National Health Service funding in real terms and funding of disadvantaged pupils from outside the normal education budget.
It would establish an independent commission to review the long term affordability of public sector pensions, restore the earnings link for the basic state pension from April 2011. Britain's independent nuclear deterrent would be maintained, but the proposed replacement of the Trident system would be reviewed for value for money. In taxation, the agreement committed to increasing the personal income tax allowance to £10,000 by 2015 to take many of those on the lowest salaries out of the tax system; the de-prioritising Inheritance Tax cuts, laid out measures and arrangements on the issues of marriage, non-business capital gains taxes, tax avoidance. The planned 1% rise in National Insurance will be scrapped. In the banking system, the agreement announced various reforms to "avoid a repeat of Labour's financial crisis" and stimulate the flow of credit, including the introduction of a banking levy, controlling unacceptable bankers' bonuses and regulatory reform; the section regarding immigration, markedly shorter than all others stated in one paragraph that there would be an annual cap on the number of non-EU workers admitted to live and work in the UK, with the mechanism decided later.
The practice of child detention for immigration purposes would be ended. As part of reform of the political system, the parties agreed to creating fixed-term parliaments. An early motion would set the date of the next United Kingdom general election as the first Thursday of May 2015, with legislation establishing five-year fixed terms and introducing a new minimum of 55% of MPs supporting a motion before Parliament could be dissolved outside this timetable. Both parties would ensure their MPs voted for the introduction of a Referendum Bill on the question of whether the electoral system for electing MPs to the House of Commons should change from first-past-the-post to alternative vote, whether MPs constituencies should be changed in size or number. On the issue of devolution, the parties agreed to establish a committee on the West Lothian question, implement the Commission on Scottish Devolution proposals, offer a referendum on further devolution for Wales. Other political reform measures included introducing the power to recall MPs, bringing forward the Wright Committee proposals for Commons reform, introducing proposals for reform of the House of Lords by December 2010, review local government and voter registration.
In pensions, compulsory retirement at sixty-five years of age would be abolished, although the earliest age for the state pension would be increased from 65 to 66, from a date no earlier than 2016 for men, 2020 for women. Changes would be made to the Jobseeker's Allowance and welfare to work systems, including a rule that receipt of benefits would be conditional on willingness to work. Payments would be made to Equitable Life policy holders. A "significant" funding premium for children from poorer backgrounds will be established, incentivising schools to take them in and giving them more resources to devote to them. In schools, new providers would be allowed to enter the state schooling system where demanded, schools would be granted greater freedom over the National Curriculum, schools would be "held properly accountable." The parties would await Lord Browne's proposals for higher education with the agreement stating the Liberal Democrats may abstain if they do not like proposed changes. As part of the agreement the
Free school (England)
A free school in England is a type of academy established since 2010 under the Government's free school policy initiative. From May 2015, usage of the term was formally extended to include new academies set up via a local authority competition. Like other academies, free schools are non-profit-making, state-funded schools which are free to attend but which are independent of the local authority. Free school is not a generic term for any school. Studio schools and university technical colleges are both sub-types of free school. Like all academies, free schools are governed by non-profit charitable trusts that sign funding agreements with the Education Secretary. There are different model funding agreements for single academy trusts and multi academy trusts, it is possible for a Local Authority to sponsor a free school in partnership with other organisations, provided they have no more than a 19.9% representation on the board of trustees. Free schools are subject to the same School Admissions Code as all other state-funded schools, although they are subject to the 50% Rule whereby oversubscribed free schools with a faith designation must allocate at least half of their places without regard to faith.
Free schools are expected to offer a broad and balanced curriculum, are subject to the same Ofsted inspections as all other maintained schools and are expected to comply with standard performance measures. To set up a free school, founding groups submit applications to the Department for Education. Groups include those run by education charities and religious groups. Start-up grants are provided to establish the schools and ongoing funding is on an equivalent basis with other locally controlled state maintained schools. Free schools were introduced by the Conservative-Liberal Democrat coalition following the 2010 general election as part of the Big Society initiative to make it possible for parents, teachers and businesses to set up their own schools. Free schools are an extension of the existing academies programme; the Academies Act 2010, which allowed all existing state schools to become academies authorised the creation of free schools. The first 24 free schools opened in autumn 2011; the Education Act 2011 gave rise to the academy/free school presumption.
In July 2015 the advice was renamed the free school presumption reflecting the fact that the newly elected Conservative Government regarded all new academies established after May 2015 as free schools. The majority of free schools are similar in shape to other types of academy. However, the following are distinctive sub-types of free school: Studio school – A small free school with around 300 pupils, using project-based learning University Technical College – A free school for the 14–18 age group, specialising in practical, employment focused subjects, sponsored by a university, employer or further education college; the Department for Education publishes and maintains the list of established free schools and those that are due to be established. Free schools approvals are processed and announced in batches, known as'waves'. Wave 1: In the autumn of 2010, Education Secretary Michael Gove announced that 16 proposals for free schools had been given a green light by the Government and were expected to open in September 2011.
This number grew to 24. Five of the original 16 schools were faith schools: two Jewish, one Evangelical Anglican, one Hindu and one Sikh. Wave 2: In September 2012 the Department of Education announced 55 new free schools would open that month. Wave 3: The DfE received 234 applications for the third wave of free schools, of which 102 were approved to progress to the pre-opening stage; the schools were due to open in September 2013. Wave 4: Free schools wishing to open in September 2014 submitted proposals to the DfE in January 2013. In May 2013 it was announced. Waves 5,6,7: In March 2013, the Department for Education announced the application schedule for groups wishing to open free schools in 2015 and beyond; the Wave 5 pre-approvals were announced with 11 new schools being approved. Five months another 38 were pre-approved for Wave 6, in September of the same year, a further 35 schools were pre-approved for Wave 7. Wave 8: In January 2014,the Department for Education confirmed that there would be an eighth free school wave, with applications being accepted in the Autumn of 2014.
The outcome was announced in March 2015, when it was confirmed that 49 applications had been pre-approved. Wave 9: In July 2014, a further funding round was announced for the period following the 2015 General Election, with proposals being invited for submission from 8 May 2015; the Conservative Party manifesto for that election included a proposal for at least 500 further free schools. On September 2, 2015, it was announced that 18 applications had been successful in reaching Wave 9's pre-approval stage. Wave 10 and beyond: In July 2015, the elected Conservative Government invited a tenth wave of free school applications to be submitted in October the same year, they said that there would be further waves with closing dates in March and September each year for the rest of the Parliament. The Parliament had been expected to end in May 2020, but in the event it was dissolved on 3 May 2017. Between 2010 and 2015 more than 400 free schools were approved for opening in England by the Coalition Government, representing more than 230,000 school places across the country, numbers have continued to grow since that time.
Personal Ordinariate of Our Lady of Walsingham
The Personal Ordinariate of Our Lady of Walsingham in England and Wales is a personal ordinariate of the Roman Catholic Church subject to the Holy See within the territory of the Catholic Bishops' Conference of England and Wales, of which its ordinary is a member, encompassing Scotland also. It was established on 15 January 2011 for groups of former Anglicans in England and Wales in accordance with the apostolic constitution Anglicanorum coetibus of Pope Benedict XVI; the personal ordinariate is set up in such a way that "corporate reunion" of former Anglicans with the Catholic Church is possible while preserving elements of a "distinctive Anglican patrimony". The ordinariate was placed under the title of Our Lady of Walsingham and under the patronage of John Henry Newman, a former Anglican himself. Roman Catholic church buildings throughout England and Wales are used by the ordinariate alongside the established congregations; the Church of Our Lady of the Assumption and Saint Gregory in Warwick Street, London, which belongs to the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Westminster, has been designated for the ordinariate's exclusive use from Lent in 2013.
In 2013, the Church of the Most Precious Blood in Borough, London was placed in the care of the ordinariate by the Archbishop of Southwark. It was a Salvatorian parish. In 2017, the ordinariate established its first parish in Torbay, Our Lady of Walsingham and St Cuthbert Mayne Church; the church was a former Methodist chapel. St Agatha's Church in Landport, Portsmouth was part of the Traditional Anglican Communion before being used by the ordinariate; the use of Church of England buildings by the ordinariate requires permission from the relevant Anglican bishop. The apostolic constitution that allows for the institution of personal ordinariates for Anglicans who join the Roman Catholic Church was released on 9 November 2009, after being announced on 20 October 2009 by Cardinal William Levada at a press conference in Rome; some senior Church of England leaders have been reported as considering the establishment of the ordinariate to be damaging to relations between the Anglican and Roman Catholic churches.
The Bishop of Lincoln, John Saxbee, said that "I can't judge the motives behind it, but the way it was done doesn't sit with all of the talk about working towards better relations" and that "Fence mending will need to be done to set conversations back on track."Roman Catholic clergy who were present at an ecumenical service at Westminster Cathedral for the Week of Prayer for Christian Unity were reported as being "dismayed" by the sermon by Canon Giles Fraser Chancellor of St Paul's Cathedral, which included comments that the ordinariate had a "slightly predatory feel" and that "In corporate terms, a little like a takeover bid in some broader power play of church politics."Bishop Christopher Hill, the chairman of the Church of England's Council for Christian Unity described the erection of the ordinariate as an "insensitive act". In October 2010, the Parochial Church Council of St Peter's Church in Folkestone became the first Church of England parochial group to formally begin the process of joining the Roman Catholic Church.
However, St Peter's remains an Anglican church. On 8 November 2010, three serving and two retired bishops of the Church of England announced their intention to join the Roman Catholic Church; the serving bishops were provincial episcopal visitors Bishop Andrew Burnham of Ebbsfleet, Bishop Keith Newton of Richborough, Bishop John Broadhurst of Fulham. The retired bishops were Edwin Barnes Bishop of Richborough, David Silk Bishop of Ballarat in Australia and an honorary assistant bishop in the diocese of Exeter; the Archbishop of Canterbury, Rowan Williams, announced that he had with regret accepted the resignations of Bishops Burnham and Newton. In the following week, the Catholic Bishops' Conference of England and Wales considered the proposed ordinariate and gave assurances of a warm welcome for those who wish to be part of it. On 1 January 2011, Broadhurst and Newton, three former Anglican nuns of a convent at Walsingham and former members of 20 different Anglican parishes, were received into the Roman Catholic Church.
The first personal ordinariate, the Personal Ordinariate of Our Lady of Walsingham, within the territory of the Catholic Bishops' Conference of England and Wales, was established on 15 January 2011 with Keith Newton appointed as the first Ordinary. About half the St Peter's Parish, including their priest, were received into the ordinariate on 9 March 2011, along with 600 other Anglicans from south-east England, with six groups from the Southwark diocese; the "ordinariate groups", numbering 900 members, entered the ordinariate at Easter 2011, thereby becoming Roman Catholics. 61 Anglican priests were expected to be received, but some subsequently withdrew, remaining in the Church of England. John Hunwicke, who joined the ordinariate, had his reordination "deferred" owing to unspecified comments made by him on his Internet blog site, but was subsequently ordained to the Catholic presbyterate. In 2012, Robert Mercer, a former bishop in both the Anglican Communion and the Traditional Anglican Communion, was received into the ordinariate and ordained on 27 March 2012 by Bishop Alan Hopes in the Cathedral of St John the Evangelist, Portsmouth.
In 2013, the Personal Ordinariate of Our Lady of Walsingham became the first such ordinariate to have a married layman on his way to priesthood. In 2014, Monsignor Keith Newton, the ordinary, admitted that the ordinariate had not grown as much as was hop