Waterford is an unincorporated village in the Catoctin Valley of Loudoun County, located along Catoctin Creek. Waterford is 47 miles northwest of Washington, D. C. and 7 miles northwest of Leesburg. The entire village and surrounding countryside is a National Historic Landmark District, noted for its well-preserved 18th and 19th-century character. In the 1810 United States Census, the population center of the United States was recorded as being just northwest of the village. Waterford was established around 1733 by a Quaker from Bucks County, Pennsylvania. Janney purchased 400 acres on the south fork of Catoctin Creek and established a grist mill and saw mill in the area in the 1740s. Due to the success of the mills, the settlement became known as "Janney's Mill"; the town grew as a center of commerce for growers of grain. Amos Janney died in 1747, leaving his estate to Mahlon. Mahlon replaced the original log mill with a two-story structure; the village continued to grow, in 1780, 12 acres on the south side of Main Street were subdivided into 15 lots, upon which shops and homes were built.
By the 1790s, the village was known as Waterford, named after the city of Waterford, in Ireland, where some of its founders had once lived before immigrating to the United States. New residents continued to come from Pennsylvania, as Quakers were followed by Presbyterians, Lutherans and Methodists. Waterford was populated by African-Americans, both free and enslaved. By the start of the Civil War, the population of Waterford remained Quaker; as pacifists and abolitionists, the Quakers remained loyal to the Union throughout the war. Waterford was the scene of a fierce fight between the county's Unionist and Confederate partisan units, the Loudoun Rangers and White's Rebels, respectively. In those days, it was the home for Quakers who helped slaves escape to the North. After falling into disrepair in the early part of the 20th century, the Waterford Foundation was formed to help save and preserve Waterford and its history. In 1974, the Waterford Foundation helped create an innovative land preservation program in which the historic properties of Waterford are protected through open space and façade easements.
More than 60 easements have been granted. The town today is residential, although a number of businesses are based in the village; the Loudoun Mutual Insurance Company has been located in Waterford since 1849. The village was listed as a Virginia Historic Landmark in 1969. Waterford and a significant portion of its surrounding countryside was declared a National Historic Landmark in 1970; the designation was made in recognition of the town's well-preserved 18th and 19th-century architecture and landscape. Significant buildings include the mill, Arch House Row, Camelot School, the Hague-Hough house, Waterford's oldest house, the 1882 Presbyterian church; the Catoctin Creek Bridge was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1974, the William Virts House was listed in 2011. List of National Historic Landmarks in Virginia National Register of Historic Places listings in Loudoun County, Virginia Waterford Citizens' Association The Waterford Foundation Waterford History Waterford, Virginia: From Mill Town to National Historic Landmark, a National Park Service Teaching with Historic Places lesson plan Waterford Historic District map at Virginia DHR Waterford Historic District, Loudoun County, 4 photos at Virginia DHR Historic American Buildings Survey No.
VA-1042, "Town of Waterford, Loudoun County, VA", 5 photos, about 39 other records for individual structures
Wilson Gap known as Gregory's Gap, is a wind gap in the Blue Ridge Mountain, located on the border of Loudoun County and Jefferson County, West Virginia. The Appalachian Trail crosses the gap; the 1,444 feet gap once served as a thoroughfare between Round Hill, the former terminus of the Washington and Old Dominion Railroad in western Loudoun, the resort communities of Shannondale and Mountain Mission in Jefferson County via the Wilson Gap Road. The resorts fell victim to the Great Depression and the upper reaches of Wilson Gap Road became impassable to vehicular traffic by the outbreak of World War II. Though no longer maintained as a public road, the old road bed can still be found by the discerning hiker
The Potomac River is located within the Mid-Atlantic region of the United States and flows from the Potomac Highlands into the Chesapeake Bay. The river is 405 miles long, with a drainage area of about 14,700 square miles. In terms of area, this makes the Potomac River the fourth largest river along the Atlantic coast of the United States and the 21st largest in the United States. Over 5 million people live within the Potomac watershed; the river forms part of the borders between Maryland and Washington, D. C. on the left descending bank and West Virginia and Virginia on the river's right descending bank. The majority of the lower Potomac River is part of Maryland. Exceptions include a small tidal portion within the District of Columbia, the border with Virginia being delineated from "point to point". Except for a small portion of its headwaters in West Virginia, the North Branch Potomac River is considered part of Maryland to the low water mark on the opposite bank; the South Branch Potomac River lies within the state of West Virginia except for its headwaters, which lie in Virginia.
The Potomac River runs 405 miles from Fairfax Stone Historical Monument State Park in West Virginia on the Allegheny Plateau to Point Lookout and drains 14,679 square miles. The length of the river from the junction of its North and South Branches to Point Lookout is 302 miles; the average daily flow during the water years 1931-2018 was 11,498 cubic feet /s. The highest average daily flow recorded on the Potomac at Little Falls, was in March 1936 when it reached 426,000 cubic feet /s; the lowest average daily flow recorded at the same location was 601.0 cubic feet /s in September 1966 The highest crest of the Potomac registered at Little Falls was 28.10 ft, on March 19, 1936. The river has two sources; the source of the North Branch is at the Fairfax Stone located at the junction of Grant and Preston counties in West Virginia. The source of the South Branch is located near Hightown in northern Highland Virginia; the river's two branches converge just east of Green Spring in Hampshire County, West Virginia, to form the Potomac.
As it flows from its headwaters down to the Chesapeake Bay, the Potomac traverses five geological provinces: the Appalachian Plateau, the Ridge and Valley, the Blue Ridge, the Piedmont Plateau, the Atlantic coastal plain. Once the Potomac drops from the Piedmont to the Coastal Plain at the Atlantic Seaboard fall line at Little Falls, tides further influence the river as it passes through Washington, D. C. and beyond. Salinity in the Potomac River Estuary increases thereafter with distance downstream; the estuary widens, reaching 11 statute miles wide at its mouth, between Point Lookout and Smith Point, before flowing into the Chesapeake Bay. "Potomac" is a European spelling of Patawomeck, the Algonquian name of a Native American village on its southern bank. Native Americans had different names for different parts of the river, calling the river above Great Falls Cohongarooton, meaning "honking geese" and "Patawomke" below the Falls, meaning "river of swans"; the spelling of the name has taken many forms over the years from "Patawomeck" to "Patomake", "Patowmack", numerous other variations in the 18th century and now "Potomac".
The river's name was decided upon as "Potomac" by the Board on Geographic Names in 1931. The river itself is at least 3.5 million years old extending back ten to twenty million years before present when the Atlantic Ocean lowered and exposed coastal sediments along the fall line. This included the area at Great Falls, which eroded into its present form during recent glaciation periods; the Potomac River brings together a variety of cultures throughout the watershed from the coal miners of upstream West Virginia to the urban residents of the nation's capital and, along the lower Potomac, the watermen of Virginia's Northern Neck. Being situated in an area rich in American history and American heritage has led to the Potomac being nicknamed "the Nation's River." George Washington, the first President of the United States, was born in, spent most of his life within, the Potomac basin. All of Washington, D. C. the nation's capital city lies within the watershed. The 1859 siege of Harper's Ferry at the river's confluence with the Shenandoah was a precursor to numerous epic battles of the American Civil War in and around the Potomac and its tributaries, such as the 1861 Battle of Ball's Bluff and the 1862 Battle of Shepherdstown.
General Robert E. Lee crossed the river, thereby invading the North and threatening Washington, D. C. twice in campaigns climaxing in the battles of Antietam and Gettysburg. Confederate General Jubal Early crossed the river in July 1864 on his attempted raid on the nation's capital; the river not only divided the Union from the Confederacy, but gave name to the Union's largest army, the Army of the Potomac. The Patowmack Canal was intended by George Washington to connect the Tidewater region near Georgetown with Cumberland, Maryland. Started in 1785 on the Virginia side of the river, it was not completed until 1802. Financial troubles led to the closure of the canal in 1830; the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal operated along the banks of the Potomac in Maryland from 1831 to 1924 and connected Cumberland to Washington, D. C; this allowed freight to be transported around the rapids known as the
Short Hill Mountain
Short Hill Mountain is a mountain ridge of the Blue Ridge Mountains in northwest Loudoun County, Virginia. Short Hill rises from the Piedmont countryside of the Loudoun Valley, northwest of Purcellville, as a low-lying ridge over 400 feet above the surrounding area; the mountain ridge extends northeast for 3 miles before descending to the Hillsboro Gap, through which the North Fork of Catoctin Creek flows and the town of Hillsboro is located. North of the gap, the ridge achieves heights of greater than 600 feet above the gap, continues for 12 miles gaining elevation, before dropping precipitously to the Potomac River; the portion of the mountain south of Hillsboro Gap is known as Signal Mountain for the Union Army signaling station located on its 1,020 feet summit during the American Civil War. North of the Potomac, the ridge continues as South Mountain in Pennsylvania. Short Hill is about 4 miles east of the crest of the Blue Ridge Mountain, which forms the western border of Loudoun County, the valley in between the mountains is known as Between the Hills and includes the villages of Loudoun Heights and Neersville.
To the east of the mountain is the Catoctin Valley. A small portion of Short Hill on its northwestern slope, along the Potomac, is owned by the National Park Service to preserve downriver views for Harpers Ferry National Historical Park; the rest of the mountain is in private hands. The only road crossing of the mountain is Virginia State Route 9 at Hillsboro; the rocks underlying Short Hill are of the late Proterozoic and early Paleozoic eras. The formation consists of metabasalt greenstone deposited during the early Catoctin Formation and interspersed with metasedimentary phyllite and breccia, which were deposited later; the rocks were deposited contiguous with those of the Blue Ridge Mountains and uplifted together during the Grenville Orogeny. The two ridges were separated in the late Paleozoic era by movement along the Short Hill Fault, which runs along the western edge of the mountain. During the Alleghenian Orogeny the rocks were pushed westward to their present location and uplifted once more
Point of Rocks, Maryland
Point of Rocks is an unincorporated community and census-designated place in Frederick County, United States. As of the 2010 census it had a population of 1,466, it is named for the striking rock formation on the adjacent Catoctin Mountain, formed by the Potomac River cutting through the ridge in a water gap, a typical formation in the Appalachian Mountains. The formation is not visible from the town and can only be seen from boats on the river, or from the southern bank of the river in Virginia. For centuries before European settlers arrived in the Point of Rocks area, indigenous populations inhabited the region; the Piscataway Nation was one of the Native American cultures to live in Point of Rocks, inhabiting an island in the Potomac River today known as Heater's Island. Forced from their homelands in modern-day Prince George's County by English settlement in the mid-18th century, the Piscataway migrated to Heater's Island around 1699, though their population was decreased by an outbreak of smallpox in 1704.
The Piscataways remained on the island for a few more years before migrating north into Pennsylvania and New York. About a decade after the Piscataway abandoned their settlement on Heater's Island, the first European settler in Point of Rocks, Arthur Nelson, received a patent for a tract of land called "Nelson's Island." The Nelson Family retained their status as prominent landholders in Point of Rocks in the early-18th century, developing several plantations on which tobacco was grown. Commercial interests in the region led the Nelsons to petition for a road to be built connecting Frederick and "Nelson's Ferry," the first English name assigned to the village that became Point of Rocks; this road was constructed and became known as Ballenger Creek Pike. In the early-19th century, the arrival of the Chesapeake and Ohio Canal and the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad led to an increase in settlement and industry in the Point of Rocks area; the village became a temporary terminus for both the C&O Canal and the B&O Railroad in 1828 when the companies went to court to determine which would control the right of way through the narrow passage between the Potomac River and Catoctin Mountain west of Point of Rocks.
After six years of court battles, the companies agreed to compromise and share the right of way, the B&O Railroad constructing a tunnel through the mountain to broaden its lines through the narrow water gap. With the construction of the C&O Canal and the B&O Railroad and its strategic location on the Potomac River, Point of Rocks was poised to become a regional transportation hub and center of industrial activity. In 1835, Charles Johnson, the owner of the land on which Point of Rocks was built, had lots surveyed and streets laid out for a new town. From the earliest days of European settlement in Point of Rocks, forced labor through indentured servitude and enslavement of African Americans drove the local economy. Tobacco plantations in the fertile lands of the lower Monocacy Valley were operated based on the labor of enslaved men and women; the plantation owners used their slaves to build houses, places of business, public buildings, such as St. Paul's Episcopal Church, completed in 1841 using the labor of enslaved men and women from the Duval Plantation.
Nearby Licksville, a small community located near Noland's Ferry crossing the Potomac River was the site of an active slave market. Situated on the border between Maryland and the seceded state of Virginia, Point of Rocks was the site of several small skirmishes and military actions during the American Civil War; the B&O Railroad and C&O Canal were important targets for Confederate raiders across the Potomac River. In 1861 Colonel Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson led a raid at Point of Rocks, shutting off the rail lines east of the town and capturing 56 locomotives and 300 rail cars. Neighboring Loudon County was home to several small pockets of Union supporters, including Quakers who lived in villages like Waterford and Lincoln who did not support secession or the Confederate cause for defending the institution of slavery. Point of Rocks became a haven for those families. In 1862, Captain Samuel C. Means, a native of Waterford, but living in Point of Rocks where he was a merchant and the B&O Railroad station manager, raised a cavalry unit called the Loudoun Rangers, the only organized unit from Virginia to fight for the Union.
The Loudoun Rangers spent most of 1862 and 1863 fighting alongside Cole's Maryland Cavalry to protect the C&O Canal and the B&O Railroad from frequent Confederate raids. Cole's Maryland Cavalry encamped at Point of Rocks, occupying St. Paul's Episcopal Church where they burned the interior furnishings. Lt. Col. John S. Mosby and his 43rd Battalion of Virginia Cavalry, known as "Mosby's Raiders" crossed the Potomac and attached Union garrison forces at Point of Rocks in 1864 in a brief campaign called the "Calico Raid." The area was the scene of military maneuvers and brief skirmishes during Valley Campaigns of 1864 and the Battle of Monocacy on July 9, 1864. In the years after the Civil War, Point of Rocks remained a place of conflict. In 1879, James Carroll was lynched in Point of Rocks after being accused of breaking into the home of Richard Thomas and raping his wife. Having fled down the C&O Canal towpath to Georgetown, Carroll was apprehended on April 16, 1879. While being transported to Frederick for trial, a mob swarmed the train as it approached the station in Point of Rocks, removed Carroll from police custody, hanged him in an adjacent field.
The death of Carroll, whose alleged crimes have never been proven or disproven, was one of three recorded lynchings to take place in Frederick County. In 1873, the B&O Railroad opened
Pennsylvania the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a state located in the northeastern and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States. The Appalachian Mountains run through its middle; the Commonwealth is bordered by Delaware to the southeast, Maryland to the south, West Virginia to the southwest, Ohio to the west, Lake Erie and the Canadian province of Ontario to the northwest, New York to the north, New Jersey to the east. Pennsylvania is the 33rd-largest state by area, the 6th-most populous state according to the most recent official U. S. Census count in 2010, it is the 9th-most densely populated of the 50 states. Pennsylvania's two most populous cities are Philadelphia, Pittsburgh; the state capital and its 10th largest city is Harrisburg. Pennsylvania has 140 miles of waterfront along the Delaware Estuary; the state is one of the 13 original founding states of the United States. Part of Pennsylvania, together with the present State of Delaware, had earlier been organized as the Colony of New Sweden.
It was the second state to ratify the United States Constitution, on December 12, 1787. Independence Hall, where the United States Declaration of Independence and United States Constitution were drafted, is located in the state's largest city of Philadelphia. During the American Civil War, the Battle of Gettysburg was fought in the south central region of the state. Valley Forge near Philadelphia was General Washington's headquarters during the bitter winter of 1777–78. Pennsylvania is 170 miles north to south and 283 miles east to west. Of a total 46,055 square miles, 44,817 square miles are land, 490 square miles are inland waters, 749 square miles are waters in Lake Erie, it is the 33rd-largest state in the United States. Pennsylvania has 51 miles of coastline along Lake Erie and 57 miles of shoreline along the Delaware Estuary. Of the original Thirteen Colonies, Pennsylvania is the only state that does not border the Atlantic Ocean; the boundaries of the state are the Mason–Dixon line to the south, the Twelve-Mile Circle on the Pennsylvania-Delaware border, the Delaware River to the east, 80° 31' W to the west and the 42° N to the north, with the exception of a short segment on the western end, where a triangle extends north to Lake Erie.
Cities include Philadelphia, Reading and Lancaster in the southeast, Pittsburgh in the southwest, the tri-cities of Allentown and Easton in the central east. The northeast includes the former anthracite coal mining cities of Scranton, Wilkes-Barre and Hazleton. Erie is located in the northwest. State College serves the central region while Williamsport serves the commonwealth's north-central region as does Chambersburg the south-central region, with York and the state capital Harrisburg on the Susquehanna River in the east-central region of the Commonwealth and Altoona and Johnstown in the west-central region; the state has five geographical regions, namely the Allegheny Plateau and Valley, Atlantic Coastal Plain and the Erie Plain. New York Ontario Maryland Delaware West Virginia New Jersey Ohio Pennsylvania's diverse topography produces a variety of climates, though the entire state experiences cold winters and humid summers. Straddling two major zones, the majority of the state, with the exception of the southeastern corner, has a humid continental climate.
The southern portion of the state has a humid subtropical climate. The largest city, has some characteristics of the humid subtropical climate that covers much of Delaware and Maryland to the south. Summers are hot and humid. Moving toward the mountainous interior of the state, the winter climate becomes colder, the number of cloudy days increases, snowfall amounts are greater. Western areas of the state locations near Lake Erie, can receive over 100 inches of snowfall annually, the entire state receives plentiful precipitation throughout the year; the state may be subject to severe weather from spring through summer into fall. Tornadoes occur annually in the state, sometimes in large numbers, such as 30 recorded tornadoes in 2011; as of 1600, the tribes living in Pennsylvania were the Algonquian Lenape, the Iroquoian Susquehannock & Petun and the Siouan Monongahela Culture, who may have been the same as a little known tribe called the Calicua, or Cali. Other tribes who entered the region during the colonial era were the Trockwae, Saponi, Nanticoke, Conoy Piscataway, Iroquois Confederacy—possibly among others.
Other tribes, like the Erie, may have once held some land in Pennsylvania, but no longer did so by the year 1600. Both the Dutch and the English claimed both sides of the Delaware River as part of their colonial lands in America; the Dutch were the first to take possession. By June 3, 1631, the Dutch had begun settling the Delmarva Peninsula by establishing the Zwaanendael Colony on the site of present-day Lewes, Delaware. In 1638, Sweden established the New Sweden Colony, in the region of Fort Christina, on the site of present-day Wilmington, Delaware. New Sweden claimed and, for the most part, controlled the lower Delaware River region (parts of present-day Delaware, New Jersey, Pe