An intelligence quotient is a total score derived from several standardized tests designed to assess human intelligence. The abbreviation "IQ" was coined by the psychologist William Stern for the German term Intelligenzquotient, his term for a scoring method for intelligence tests at University of Breslau he advocated in a 1912 book. IQ is a score obtained by dividing a person's mental age score, obtained by administering an intelligence test, by the person's chronological age, both expressed in terms of years and months; the resulting fraction is multiplied by 100 to obtain the IQ score. When current IQ tests were developed, the median raw score of the norming sample is defined as IQ 100 and scores each standard deviation up or down are defined as 15 IQ points greater or less, although this was not always so historically. By this definition two-thirds of the population scores are between IQ 85 and IQ 115. About 2.5 percent of the population scores above 130, 2.5 percent below 70. Scores from intelligence tests are estimates of intelligence.
Unlike, for example and mass, a concrete measure of intelligence cannot be achieved given the abstract nature of the concept of "intelligence". IQ scores have been shown to be associated with such factors as morbidity and mortality, parental social status, and, to a substantial degree, biological parental IQ. While the heritability of IQ has been investigated for nearly a century, there is still debate about the significance of heritability estimates and the mechanisms of inheritance. IQ scores are used for educational placement, assessment of intellectual disability, evaluating job applicants; when students improve their scores on standardized tests, they do not always improve their cognitive abilities, such as memory and speed. In research contexts they have been studied as predictors of job performance, income, they are used to study distributions of psychometric intelligence in populations and the correlations between it and other variables. Raw scores on IQ tests for many populations have been rising at an average rate that scales to three IQ points per decade since the early 20th century, a phenomenon called the Flynn effect.
Investigation of different patterns of increases in subtest scores can inform current research on human intelligence. Before IQ tests were devised, there were attempts to classify people into intelligence categories by observing their behavior in daily life; those other forms of behavioral observation are still important for validating classifications based on IQ test scores. Both intelligence classification by observation of behavior outside the testing room and classification by IQ testing depend on the definition of "intelligence" used in a particular case and on the reliability and error of estimation in the classification procedure; the English statistician Francis Galton made the first attempt at creating a standardized test for rating a person's intelligence. A pioneer of psychometrics and the application of statistical methods to the study of human diversity and the study of inheritance of human traits, he believed that intelligence was a product of heredity, he hypothesized that there should exist a correlation between intelligence and other observable traits such as reflexes, muscle grip, head size.
He set up the first mental testing centre in the world in 1882 and he published "Inquiries into Human Faculty and Its Development" in 1883, in which he set out his theories. After gathering data on a variety of physical variables, he was unable to show any such correlation, he abandoned this research. French psychologist Alfred Binet, together with Victor Henri and Théodore Simon had more success in 1905, when they published the Binet-Simon test, which focused on verbal abilities, it was intended to identify mental retardation in school children, but in specific contradistinction to claims made by psychiatrists that these children were "sick" and should therefore be removed from school and cared for in asylums. The score on the Binet-Simon scale would reveal the child's mental age. For example, a six-year-old child who passed all the tasks passed by six-year-olds—but nothing beyond—would have a mental age that matched his chronological age, 6.0.. Binet came under the control of practical judgment.
In Binet's view, there were limitations with the scale and he stressed what he saw as the remarkable diversity of intelligence and the subsequent need to study it using qualitative, as opposed to quantitative, measures. American psychologist Henry H. Goddard published a translation of it in 1910. American psychologist Lewis Terman at Stanford University revised the Binet-Simon scale, which resulted in the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scales, it became the most popular test in the United States for decades. The many different kinds of IQ tests include a wide variety of item content; some test items are visual. Test items vary from being based on abstract-reasoning problems to concentrating on arithmetic, vocabulary, or general knowledge; the British psychologist Charles Spearman in 1904 made the first formal factor analysis of correlations between the tests. He observed that children's school grades across unrelated school subjects were positively correlated, reasoned that these correlations reflected the influence of an underlying general mental ability that entered into performance on all kinds of mental tests.
He suggested that all mental performance could be conceptualized in terms of a single general ability factor and a large num
Das–Naglieri cognitive assessment system
The Das–Naglieri cognitive assessment system test is an individually administered test of cognitive functioning for children and adolescents ranging from 5 through 17 years of age, designed to assess the planning, attention and successive cognitive processes as described in the. CAS development began with an attempt to offer an alternative to the IQ test. Developed and published in 1997 by J. P. Das, PhD of the University of Alberta and Jack Naglieri, PhD at Ohio State University, the CAS has its theoretical bases both in the neuropsychology of Luria as well as in cognitive psychology. CAS is based on the planning, attention-arousal and successive cognitive processing theory, a modern theory within the information-processing framework. Roots of CAS are in Luria’s organization of cognitive functions in the brain as well as in cognitive psychology of Baddeley, Estes and other contemporary psychologists, their work has guided the interpretation of CAS tests. The Kaufman assessment battery for children or KABC by is the first battery of commercially available tests to provide a psychometric assessment of cognitive processes.
K-ABC has used several references to the early research of Das and his colleagues on simultaneous and successive processing, a precursor to PASS theory. KABC did not assess the Arousal-Attention, Planning functions, as CAS did, until K-ABC II appeared in 2004; the latter provides two theoretical bases, one of them in Luria and by default, the 4 PASS processes) and the other in Cattell-Horn-Carroll model, an elaboration of fluid and crystallized intelligence. Some may consider this a strength of KABC-II. However, two important features of CAS have set it apart from ability measures within fluid and crystallized abilities of CHC, verbal-performance IQ: CAS is a system of assessment of ‘processes’, not abilities. Ability tests such as WISC/WAIS those that measure fluid and crystallized abilities address different constructs than process assessments. CAS process measures may have the same contents in several of its sub-tests but the codes are different; the CAS standard battery consists of three subtests for each PASS Scale whereas the basic battery has 2 subtests for each scale.
It takes an hour to administer 40 minutes for the basic battery. The CAS battery provides a standard score for each process as well as a Full Scale standard score; the average internal reliability coefficients across ages 15–17 for the PASS scales are: Planning =.88 Attention =.88 Simultaneous =.93 Successive =.93 Full Scale =.96. Each of these scales are described in detail below. For further explanation, see Naglieri, 1999, Naglieri & Das. Additional details on the origin of each of the 12 tests in CAS have been discussed at some length in Das, Naglieri &Kirby and more in a review by McCrea. Planning helps us select or develop strategies needed to complete tasks for which a solution is needed, is critical to all activities where an individual has to determine how to solve a problem The Planning scale includes matching numbers, planned codes, planned connections. In the matching numbers subtest, children are presented with four pages containing eight rows of numbers; the child is instructed to underline the two numbers.
The planned codes subtest contains two pages, each with a distinct set of codes arranged in seven rows and eight columns. At the top of each page is a legend that indicates how letters relate to simple codes. In the planned connections subtest the child is instructed to connect numbers in sequence that appear in a quasi-random order. For these two tests, the child connects numbers and letters in sequential order, alternating between numbers and letters. All Planning subtests include strategy assessment; this is conducted after the administration of each subtest and recorded in two categories: Observed strategies – those seen by the examiner Reported strategies – those obtained following completion of an item. Attention is a mental process that involves focusing on selected aspects of external events, internal events, or stimuli. Attention is controlled by goals; the Attention scale includes the expressive attention, number detection, receptive attention subtests. Expressive attention has two forms, one for children 7 years and younger, the other 8 & over.
The receptive attention subtest contains two separate tasks. For the second task, targets are letters; this subtest is an adaptation of Boise. Simultaneous processing is essential for organization of information into groups or a coherent whole, it requires both nonverbal and verbal processing for the analyses and synthesis of logical and grammatical components of language and comprehension of word relationships. The Simultaneous scale has nonverbal matrices, verbal spatial relations, figure memory. Nonverbal matrices items present a variety of shapes. Verbal spatial relations subtest measures the comprehension of logical and grammatical descript
Guilford Publications, Inc. is a New York City-based independent publisher founded in 1973 that specializes in publishing books, DVDs in psychology, the behavioral sciences and geography. The firm is owned by its two founding partners, president Bob Matloff and editor-in-chief Seymour Weingarten; the publishing house has over 1,400 titles in print and publishes more than 90 new books each year. The company publishes 1 newsletter and 9 journals. In 2008, Guilford Press now offers e-book editions of most titles. Guilford titles are distributed in Europe and India by Taylor & Francis and in Australia and New Zealand by Footprint Books. Guilford exhibits at over 25 professional conferences each year, such as those held by the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, the American Educational Research Association, the American Psychiatric Association, the American Psychological Association, the Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies, the Association of American Geographers, BookExpo America, the International Literacy Association, the International Neuropsychological Society, the National Association of School Psychologists.
The company's titles are reviewed in prominent publications, including Choice Reviews, Doody’s Review Service, Library Journal. In the academic sphere, Guilford Publications has published books by Aaron T. Beck, known as the father of cognitive therapy and was the winner of the 2006 Lasker Foundation Clinical Medical Research Award. Mind Over Mood by Dennis Greenberger and Christine A. Padesky was chosen for inclusion in the United Kingdom National Health Service's bibliotherapy program, a selective list of proven self-help books that general practitioners and community mental health specialists are encouraged to "prescribe" for patients with mild to moderate mental health concerns; the book was voted by the British Association of Behavioural and Cognitive Therapies as "the most influential cognitive behavioural therapy publication" and was recommended by Scientific American Mind. In the field of literacy education, Guilford has published books by leading scholars such as Isabel Beck and Margaret McKeown - whose books on vocabulary have sold over 500,000 copies- G. Michael Pressley, Kathy Ganske, Lesley Mandel Morrow, Linda Gambrell.
Among Guilford's authors and editors are 11 past and current presidents of the International Literacy Association, 31 members of the Reading Hall of Fame, 13 winners of the Oscar S. Causey Award for lifetime contributions to literacy research from the Literacy Research Association. Guilford's list of authors includes: Shamash Alidina, Anita L. Archer, Russell A. Barkley, David H. Barlow, Donald H. Baucom, Roy F. Baumeister, Aaron T. Beck, Isabel L. Beck, Judith S. Beck, Lorna Smith Benjamin, James M. Blaut, Cathy Collins Block, Rachel Brown-Chidsey, Geraldine Dawson, Peg Dawson, Peter Dicken, Glen H. Elder, Jr. Christopher G. Fairburn, Allen Frances, Kathy Ganske, Christopher K. Germer, Eliana Gil, Leslie S. Greenberg, Dennis Greenberger, Richard Guare, Robert D. Hare, Andrew F. Hayes, Steven C. Hayes, E. Tory Higgins, Susan M. Johnson, Jon Kabat-Zinn, Douglas Kellner, David A. Kenny, Rex B. Kline, Diane Lapp, D. Richard Laws, Robert L. Leahy, Michael Lewis, Marsha Linehan, Kee MacFarlane, Cathy A. Malchiodi, Michael C.
McKenna, Margaret G. McKeown, Nancy McWilliams, David Jay Miklowitz, William R. Miller, Scott L. Montgomery, James R. Morrison, Lesley Mandel Morrow, Lisa M. Najavits, Kristin Neff, Susan B. Neuman, James O'Connor, Christine A. Padesky, Michael Quinn Patton, Susan Pollak, Stephen Rollnick, Norman E. Rosenthal, Zindel Segal, Eric Sheppard, Daniel J. Siegel, Ronald D. Siegel, Robert E. Stake, John D. Teasdale, Bessel van der Kolk, Sharon Walpole, Barent Walsh, Froma Walsh, J. Mark G. Williams, Charles H. Zeanah, Edward L. Zuckerman. Los Angeles Times, "Publisher relies on agent, ocean views." 2 December 2006. Accessed 1 July 2009. New York Times, "Personal Health. 15 February 2000. Accessed 8 July 2009. Publishers Weekly, "Raising'em by the Book." 28 February 2005. Accessed 1 July 2009. Publishers Weekly, "Reader, Heal Thyself." 27 June 2005. Accessed 1 July 2009
Champaign is a city in Champaign County, United States. The city is 135 miles south of Chicago, 124 miles west of Indianapolis, 178 mi northeast of St. Louis, Missouri; the United States Census Bureau estimates the city was home to 87,432 people as of July 1, 2017. Champaign is the tenth-most populous city in Illinois, the state's fourth-most populous city outside the Chicago metropolitan area, it is included in the Champaign–Urbana metropolitan area. Champaign is notable for sharing the campus of the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign with its sister city of Urbana. Champaign is home to Parkland College which serves about 18,000 students during the academic year. Due to the university and a number of well known technology startup companies, it is referred to as the hub, or a significant landmark, of the Silicon Prairie. Champaign houses offices for Sony, for the Fortune 500 companies Abbott, Archer Daniels Midland, Deere & Company, Dow Chemical Company, IBM, State Farm. Champaign was founded in 1855, when the Illinois Central Railroad laid its rail track two miles west of downtown Urbana.
Called "West Urbana", it was renamed Champaign when it acquired a city charter in 1860. Both the city and county name were derived from Ohio. During February 1969, Carl Perkins joined with Bob Dylan to write the song "Champaign, Illinois", which Perkins released on his album On Top; the band Old 97's took another Bob Dylan song, "Desolation Row", combined its melody with new lyrics to make a new song "Champaign, Illinois", which they released with Dylan's blessing on their 2010 album The Grand Theatre Volume One. It achieved considerable popularity; the two "Champaign, Illinois" songs are not similar to each other, except that Bob Dylan was involved in both of them. On September 22, 1985, Champaign hosted the first Farm Aid concert at the University of Illinois' Memorial Stadium; the concert raised over $7 million for American family farmers. In 2005, Champaign-Urbana was the location of the National Science Olympiad Tournament, attracting young scientists from all 50 states; the city hosts the state Science Olympiad competition every year.
The University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign once again hosted the National competition on May 20–22, 2010. In 2013, Champaign was rated fifth best place in the United States for a healthy work-life balance. According to the 2010 census, Champaign has a total area of 22.457 square miles, of which 22.43 square miles is land and 0.027 square miles is water. Champaign is located on high ground, providing sources to the Kaskaskia River to the west, the Embarras River to the south. Downtown Champaign drains into Boneyard Creek, which feeds the Saline Branch of the Salt Fork Vermilion River. Champaign shares a border with the neighboring city of Urbana. Champaign and the bordering village of Savoy form the Champaign-Urbana Metropolitan Area known as Champaign-Urbana, it may be colloquially known as the "Twin Cities" or Chambana. The following diagram represents localities within a 35 miles radius of Champaign; the city has a humid continental climate, typical of the Midwestern United States, with hot summers and cold, moderately snowy winters.
Temperatures exceed 90 °F on an average of 24 days per year, fall below 0 °F on six nights annually. The record high temperature in Champaign was 109 °F in 1954, the record low was −25 °F, recorded on four separate occasions − in 1899, 1905, 1994 and 1999; as of the 2010 census, 81,055 people and 34,434 total housing units in Champaign. The population density was 3,974.6 people per square mile. There were 28,556 housing units at an average density of 1,681.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 67.8% White, 15.62% African-American, 0.3% Native American, 10.6% Asian, 0.1% Pacific Islander, 2.7% from other races, 3% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino individuals of any race made up 6.3% of the population. According to the 2010 Census the city's 32,152 households, 21.5% included children under age 18, 33.1% were married couples living together, 10.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 53.7% were non-families. 35.9% of all households were made up of individuals, 6.3% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.25 persons and the average family size was 2.97. According to the 2010 Census of all individuals, 17.3% were under age 18, 22.5% from 20 to 24, 25.8% from 25 to 44, 18% from 45 to 64, 7.6% were age 65 or older. The median age was 25.7 years. For every 100 females, there were 102.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 101.9 males. According to the 2010 Census the median income for a household in the city was $41,403, the median income for a family was $72,819; the per capita income for the city was $24,855. About 11.9% of families and 26.3% of the population were below the poverty line, including 24.0% of those under age 18 and 7.6% of those age 65 or over. The current city executive or Mayor of Champaign is Deborah Frank Feinen who assumed office in May 2015; the representative body of Champaign is known as the City Council. The City Council is composed of three At-Large members and one member from each of the five council districts located within the city limits.
As of May 2017, its members are: Tom Bruno, Will Kyles, Matthew Gladney, Clarissa Fourman, Alicia Beck, Angi
Psychology is the science of behavior and mind. Psychology includes the study of conscious and unconscious phenomena, as well as feeling and thought, it is an academic discipline of immense scope. Psychologists seek an understanding of the emergent properties of brains, all the variety of phenomena linked to those emergent properties; as a social science it aims to understand individuals and groups by establishing general principles and researching specific cases. In this field, a professional practitioner or researcher is called a psychologist and can be classified as a social, behavioral, or cognitive scientist. Psychologists attempt to understand the role of mental functions in individual and social behavior, while exploring the physiological and biological processes that underlie cognitive functions and behaviors. Psychologists explore behavior and mental processes, including perception, attention, intelligence, motivation, brain functioning, personality; this extends to interaction between people, such as interpersonal relationships, including psychological resilience, family resilience, other areas.
Psychologists of diverse orientations consider the unconscious mind. Psychologists employ empirical methods to infer causal and correlational relationships between psychosocial variables. In addition, or in opposition, to employing empirical and deductive methods, some—especially clinical and counseling psychologists—at times rely upon symbolic interpretation and other inductive techniques. Psychology has been described as a "hub science" in that medicine tends to draw psychological research via neurology and psychiatry, whereas social sciences most draws directly from sub-disciplines within psychology. While psychological knowledge is applied to the assessment and treatment of mental health problems, it is directed towards understanding and solving problems in several spheres of human activity. By many accounts psychology aims to benefit society; the majority of psychologists are involved in some kind of therapeutic role, practicing in clinical, counseling, or school settings. Many do scientific research on a wide range of topics related to mental processes and behavior, work in university psychology departments or teach in other academic settings.
Some are employed in industrial and organizational settings, or in other areas such as human development and aging, sports and the media, as well as in forensic investigation and other aspects of law. The word psychology derives from Greek roots meaning study of soul; the Latin word psychologia was first used by the Croatian humanist and Latinist Marko Marulić in his book, Psichiologia de ratione animae humanae in the late 15th century or early 16th century. The earliest known reference to the word psychology in English was by Steven Blankaart in 1694 in The Physical Dictionary which refers to "Anatomy, which treats the Body, Psychology, which treats of the Soul."In 1890, William James defined psychology as "the science of mental life, both of its phenomena and their conditions". This definition enjoyed widespread currency for decades. However, this meaning was contested, notably by radical behaviorists such as John B. Watson, who in his 1913 manifesto defined the discipline of psychology as the acquisition of information useful to the control of behavior.
Since James defined it, the term more connotes techniques of scientific experimentation. Folk psychology refers to the understanding of ordinary people, as contrasted with that of psychology professionals; the ancient civilizations of Egypt, China and Persia all engaged in the philosophical study of psychology. In Ancient Egypt the Ebers Papyrus mentioned thought disorders. Historians note that Greek philosophers, including Thales and Aristotle, addressed the workings of the mind; as early as the 4th century BC, Greek physician Hippocrates theorized that mental disorders had physical rather than supernatural causes. In China, psychological understanding grew from the philosophical works of Laozi and Confucius, from the doctrines of Buddhism; this body of knowledge involves insights drawn from introspection and observation, as well as techniques for focused thinking and acting. It frames the universe as a division of, interaction between, physical reality and mental reality, with an emphasis on purifying the mind in order to increase virtue and power.
An ancient text known as The Yellow Emperor's Classic of Internal Medicine identifies the brain as the nexus of wisdom and sensation, includes theories of personality based on yin–yang balance, analyzes mental disorder in terms of physiological and social disequilibria. Chinese scholarship focused on the brain advanced in the Qing Dynasty with the work of Western-educated Fang Yizhi, Liu Zhi, Wang Qingren. Wang Qingren emphasized the importance of the brain as the center of the nervous system, linked mental disorder with brain diseases, investigated the causes of dreams and insomnia, advanced a theory of hemispheric lateralization in brain function. Distinctions in types of awareness appear in the ancient thought of India, influenced by Hinduism. A central idea of the Upanishads is the distinction between a person's transient mundane self and their eternal unchanging soul. Divergent Hindu doctrines, Buddhism, have challenged this hierarchy of selves, but have all emphasized the importance of reaching higher
OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Incorporated d/b/a OCLC is an American nonprofit cooperative organization "dedicated to the public purposes of furthering access to the world's information and reducing information costs". It was founded in 1967 as the Ohio College Library Center. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat, the largest online public access catalog in the world. OCLC is funded by the fees that libraries have to pay for its services. OCLC maintains the Dewey Decimal Classification system. OCLC began in 1967, as the Ohio College Library Center, through a collaboration of university presidents, vice presidents, library directors who wanted to create a cooperative computerized network for libraries in the state of Ohio; the group first met on July 5, 1967 on the campus of the Ohio State University to sign the articles of incorporation for the nonprofit organization, hired Frederick G. Kilgour, a former Yale University medical school librarian, to design the shared cataloging system.
Kilgour wished to merge the latest information storage and retrieval system of the time, the computer, with the oldest, the library. The plan was to merge the catalogs of Ohio libraries electronically through a computer network and database to streamline operations, control costs, increase efficiency in library management, bringing libraries together to cooperatively keep track of the world's information in order to best serve researchers and scholars; the first library to do online cataloging through OCLC was the Alden Library at Ohio University on August 26, 1971. This was the first online cataloging by any library worldwide. Membership in OCLC is based on use of services and contribution of data. Between 1967 and 1977, OCLC membership was limited to institutions in Ohio, but in 1978, a new governance structure was established that allowed institutions from other states to join. In 2002, the governance structure was again modified to accommodate participation from outside the United States.
As OCLC expanded services in the United States outside Ohio, it relied on establishing strategic partnerships with "networks", organizations that provided training and marketing services. By 2008, there were 15 independent United States regional service providers. OCLC networks played a key role in OCLC governance, with networks electing delegates to serve on the OCLC Members Council. During 2008, OCLC commissioned two studies to look at distribution channels. In early 2009, OCLC negotiated new contracts with the former networks and opened a centralized support center. OCLC provides bibliographic and full-text information to anyone. OCLC and its member libraries cooperatively produce and maintain WorldCat—the OCLC Online Union Catalog, the largest online public access catalog in the world. WorldCat has holding records from private libraries worldwide; the Open WorldCat program, launched in late 2003, exposed a subset of WorldCat records to Web users via popular Internet search and bookselling sites.
In October 2005, the OCLC technical staff began a wiki project, WikiD, allowing readers to add commentary and structured-field information associated with any WorldCat record. WikiD was phased out; the Online Computer Library Center acquired the trademark and copyrights associated with the Dewey Decimal Classification System when it bought Forest Press in 1988. A browser for books with their Dewey Decimal Classifications was available until July 2013; until August 2009, when it was sold to Backstage Library Works, OCLC owned a preservation microfilm and digitization operation called the OCLC Preservation Service Center, with its principal office in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania. The reference management service QuestionPoint provides libraries with tools to communicate with users; this around-the-clock reference service is provided by a cooperative of participating global libraries. Starting in 1971, OCLC produced catalog cards for members alongside its shared online catalog. OCLC commercially sells software, such as CONTENTdm for managing digital collections.
It offers the bibliographic discovery system WorldCat Discovery, which allows for library patrons to use a single search interface to access an institution's catalog, database subscriptions and more. OCLC has been conducting research for the library community for more than 30 years. In accordance with its mission, OCLC makes its research outcomes known through various publications; these publications, including journal articles, reports and presentations, are available through the organization's website. OCLC Publications – Research articles from various journals including Code4Lib Journal, OCLC Research, Reference & User Services Quarterly, College & Research Libraries News, Art Libraries Journal, National Education Association Newsletter; the most recent publications are displayed first, all archived resources, starting in 1970, are available. Membership Reports – A number of significant reports on topics ranging from virtual reference in libraries to perceptions about library funding. Newsletters – Current and archived newsletters for the library and archive community.
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