The Ambiani were a Belgic people of Celtic language, who were said to be able to muster 10,000 armed men, in 57 BC, the year of Julius Caesar's Belgic campaign. They submitted to Caesar, their country lay in the valley of the Samara. They were among the people who took part in the great insurrection against the Romans, described in the seventh book of Caesar's Gallic War; the Ambiani were consummate minters and Ambianic coinage has been found throughout the territories of the Belgic tribes, including the Belgae of Britain. There is some evidence from coins that bear a stag on one side and a betorced head on the obverse that the Ambiani were followers of the god Cernunnos. A few Ambiani coins have been found along the south coast of the West Country as the result of trade across the English channel; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Smith, William, ed.. "article name needed". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. London: John Murray
Vienne is a commune in southeastern France, located 35 kilometres south of Lyon, on the river Rhône. It is only the fourth largest city in the Isère department, of which it is a subprefecture, but was a major center of the Roman empire. Before the arrival of the Roman armies, Vienne was the capital city of the Allobroges, a Gallic people. Transformed into a Roman colony in 47 BC under Julius Caesar, Vienne became a major urban center, ideally located along the Rhône a major axis of communication, it was to Vienne in 7 AD that Augustus banished King Herod Archelaus, so the Herodian family may have had land there. The town became a Roman provincial capital. Numerous remains of Roman constructions are still visible in modern Vienne; the town was an important early bishopric in Christian Gaul. Its most famous bishop was Avitus of Vienne. At the Council of Vienne, convened there in October 1311, Pope Clement V abolished the order of the Knights Templar. During the Middle Ages, Vienne was part of the kingdom of Provence, dependent on the Holy Roman Empire, while the opposite bank of the Rhône was French territory, thus making it a strategic position.
Today, the town is a regional industrial center specializing in the food industry. Tourism is a major part of the town's economy. Indeed, there are many important historical monuments that draw the crowds, but the annual Jazz à Vienne festival in July makes it a popular tourist destination, it was mentioned multiple times by Frederick Forsyth. The oppidum of the Allobroges became a Roman colony about 47 BC under Julius Caesar, but the Allobroges managed to expel them. Herod Archelaus was exiled here in 6 AD. During the early Empire, Vienna regained all its former privileges as a Roman colony. In 260 Postumus was proclaimed emperor here of a short-lived Gallo-Roman empire, it became a provincial capital of the Dioecesis Viennensis. In 257 Postumus was proclaimed emperor here of a short-lived Gallo-Roman empire. Vienne became the seat of the vicar of prefects after the creation of regional dioceses. On the bank of the Gère are traces of the ramparts of the old Roman city, on Mont Pipet are the remains of a Roman theatre, while the ruined thirteenth-century castle there was built on Roman footings.
Several ancient aqueducts and traces of Roman roads can still be seen. Two important Roman monuments still stand at Vienne. One is the Early Imperial temple of Augustus and Livia, a rectangular peripteral building of the Corinthian order, erected by the emperor Claudius, which owes its survival, like the Maison Carrée at Nîmes, to being converted to a church soon after the Theodosian decrees and rededicated as "Notre Dame de Vie." The other is the Plan de l'Aiguille, a truncated pyramid resting on a portico with four arches, from the Roman circus. Many popular theories have been advanced as to the original intent of this structure; the provincial capital was an important early seat of a bishop and the legendary first bishop said to have been Crescens, a disciple of Paul. There were Christians here in 177 when the churches of Vienne and Lyon addressed a letter to those of Asia and Phrygia and mention is made of the deacon of Vienne; the first historical bishop was Verus, present at the Council of Arles.
About 450, Vienne's bishops became archbishops,several of whom in the played an important cultural role, e.g. Mamertus, who established Rogation pilgrimages, the poet, Avitus. Vienne's archbishops and those of Lyon disputed the title of "Primate of All the Gauls" based on the dates of founding of the cities compared to the dates of founding of the bishoprics. Vienne's archbishopric was suppressed in 1790 during the revolution and terminated 11 years by the Concordat of 1801. Vienne was a target during the Migration Period: it was taken by the Kingdom of the Burgundians in 438, but re-taken by the Romans and held until 461. In 534 the Merovingian-led Franks captured Vienne, it was sacked by the Lombards in 558, by the Moors in 737. When Francia's king divided Frankish Burgundia into three parts in 843 by the Treaty of Verdun, Vienne became part of Middle Francia. King Charles II the Bald assigned the district in 869 to Comte Boso of Provence, who in 879 proclaimed himself king of Provence and on his death in 887 was buried in the cathedral church of St. Maurice.
Vienne continued as capital of the Dauphiné Vienne of the Kingdom of Provence, from 882 of the Kingdom of West Francia and from 933 of the Kingdom of Arles until in 1032, when it reverted to the Holy Roman Empire, but the real rulers were the archbishops of Vienne. Their rights were recognized, but they had serious local rivals in the counts of Albon, Dauphins of the neighboring countship of the Viennois. In 1349, the reigning Dauphin sold his rights to the Dauphiné to France, but the archbishop stood firm and Vienne was not included in this sale; the archbishops surrendered their territorial powers to France in 1449. Gui de Bourgogne, archbishop 1090–1119, was pope from 1119 to 1124 as Callixtus II; the Council of Vienne was the fifteenth Ecumenical Council of the Roman Catholic Church that met between 1311 and 1312 in Vienne. Its principal act was to withdraw papal support for the Knights Templar on the instigation of Philip IV o
The Eburones, were a Gallic-Germanic tribe who lived in the northeast of Gaul, in what is now the southern Netherlands, eastern Belgium, the German Rhineland, in the period before this region was conquered by Rome. Though living in Gaul, they were described as being both Belgae, Germani; the Eburones played a major role in Julius Caesar's account of his "Gallic Wars", as the most important tribe within the Germani cisrhenani group of tribes, i. e. Germani living west of the Rhine amongst the Belgae. Caesar claimed that the name of the Eburones was wiped out after their failed revolt against his forces during the Gallic Wars. Whether any significant part of the population lived on in the area as Tungri, the tribal name found here is uncertain but considered likely. Caesar is the primary source for the location of the Eburones; the exact borders are difficult to be certain about, but the region that they and their fellow Germani inhabited corresponds to some extent with the Roman district of Germania Inferior, enclosed by the northern bend of the river Rhine, including a stretch of the Meuse river stretching from the Ardennes until the river deltas of the Rhine and Meuse.
In the early medieval church this evolved into the original church province of Cologne, which included the Diocese of Liège that had evolved from the Civitas Tungrorum. This large area included large parts of what are now the southern Netherlands, eastern Belgium, the German Rhineland. At one point Caesar reported that the greatest part of the Eburones settled between the Mosa and the Rhine, and "on this basis German scholars place them in the northern Eifel". On the other hand, Caesar places Atuatuca, the fort of the Eburones, about the middle of the territory of the Eburones. More Caesar's description of a narrow defile to its west, suitable for ambush, is a type of landscape less common as one goes north in this region, towards the low-lying Campine. In the same passage, Caesar describes the Segni and Condrusi as being south of the Eburones, between them and the Treviri, who lived near the Moselle; this is difficult to reconcile with a territory near the Eifel because the Condrusi are the origin of the name of the Condroz region in the Ardennes, south of the Meuse, west of the Eifel.
"No cultural groupings can be isolated to suit the Eburones in the north Eifel" according to Edith Mary Wightman. In contrast, she writes that Belgian archaeologists identify them with the cultural group in northern Limburg and Kempen which showed such strong continuity in Urnfield times; this would account for the propinquity of Eburones and Menapii mentioned by Caesar. Furthermore, to the north and northwest, the Eburones bordered on the Menapii, who lived near the mouth of the Rhine river, though "protected by one continued extent of morasses and woods", had ties of hospitality with them, and at one point Caesar indicates that when the Eburones went into hiding, they not only dispersed into the Ardennes and morasses, but "those who were nearest the ocean concealed themselves in the islands which the tides form". This is seen to indicate that at least part of the Eburones lived west of the Maas, closer to the river deltas. Nico Roymans has argued, based on concentrations of coin finds, that there were Eburones as far north as the eastern part of the Dutch river-area, an area inhabited by Batavians, a Roman-era Germanic group who may have included remnants of the older Eburonic population.
When the Tencteri and Usipetes, who were Germanic tribes, crossed the Rhine from Germania in 55 BCE, Caesar reported that they first fell on the Menapii crossed the Maas towards a tribe called the Ambivariti and advanced into the territories of the Eburones and Condrusi, who were both "under the protection of" the Treveri to the south. Apart from being under the protection of the Treveri, the Eburones had close dealings with the Nervii, a large Belgic tribe to the west of them, who much had their Roman provincial capital in Bavay. Neighbouring both the Nervii and the Eburones between them, were the Aduatuci. Caesar reported that Ambiorix had been forced to pay tribute to them before the Romans came, that his own son and nephew had been kept by them as hostages in slavery and chains, it was with these two tribes, that the Eburones could form a military alliance against Caesar's forces. The location of the Aduatuci is not clear, but their name appears to be related to the names of both the capital of the Eburones "Aduatuca" and the capital of the Tungri "Aduatuca Tungrorum" which may have been the same place.
Caesar reports that during his conflict with them, the Eburones had some sort of alliance, organized via their allies the Treveri, with the Germanic tribes over the Rhine. Linguist Maurits Gysseling proposed that placenames such as Avendoren, Averdoingt and Avernas may be derived from the Eburones. Caesar's forces clashed with an alliance of Belgic tribes in 57 BCE in the Battle of the Sabis. Before that battle, information from th
The Atuatuci or Aduatuci were, according to Caesar, a Germanic tribe, allowed to settle amongst the Germanic tribes living in east Belgium. They descended from the Cimbri and Teutones, who were tribes thought to have originated in the area of Denmark. Much the Atuatuci sent troops to assist their Belgic neighbours the Nervii, in the Battle of the Sabis, but were too late, they were defeated by the Romans after withdrawing to a fortified city. After their defeat by Caesar they disappear from the written record, but their survivors contributed to the tribal grouping known as the Tungri in Roman imperial times. Before the Roman attack in 57 BC the oppidum of the Atuatuci were home to 57,000 including refugees fleeing the Romans; the oppidum of the Atuatuci were seized by the Romans and after the fall of the city with 4,000 dead the entire surviving population of 53,000 were sold as slaves. The Cimbri, the Teutones, Ambrones were engaged by, defeated, several Roman armies at the battle of Noreia and at Arausio, where the Romans are said to have lost more than 80,000 men.
After the Marian reforms of the legions, the Teutones and Ambrones were defeated by the Romans at Aquae Sextiae in 102 BC. The Cimbri were defeated by the Romans in northeast Italy in 101 BC; the Atuatuci were said to be the remnants of a group of the Cimbri who stayed in northern Gaul after defeating a previous Roman army under Marcus Junius Silanus in Gaul in 109 BC, before the Germanic tribes moved south towards Italy. From the account of Caesar, the exact position of the Atuatuci is not clear, but they were neighbours of both the Nervii and the Eburones. Edith Wightman states that they "are supposed to have occupied the middle Meuse valley rightly, although the reasoning is suspect". Concerning their fort, Wightman writes From the description, it was a promontory fort or epéron barré, but the lack of any reference to a major river argues against the citadel at Namur, the Mont Falhize near Huy, both of them washed by the Meuse. Reoccupation of the earlier fort of Hastedon is a possibility.
Other candidates are not lacking, but they lie in the Entre-Sambre-et-Meuse area, which belonged to the Nervii. In 2012 a group of historians and archeologists came to the conclusion that the oppidium of the Atuatuci was placed south of the Hainaut city of Thuin; the following arguments for this identification were listed. The discovery of the remains of a fortified Iron Age settlement, enclosing 13 hectares; the fortification was felt to match the description given by Caesar. Concentrations of Roman lead projectiles show. Three troves of gold had been buried near the fortification, all dating to early years of the decade 50 BCE; the place lies in the correct general area. The Battle of Sabis took place in 57 BC between the Nervians. Although the Roman forces under Julius Caesar defeated the Nervians, the Romans were overtaken by the strong tribe; the Atuatuci sent troops to assist the Nervians, but when they learned of the Nervians’ defeat, the Atuatuci retreated towards a single fort, being a place "eminently fortified by nature" and described by Caesar as being the original settlement they had chosen after settling in the area.
The Romans besieged their city. The Atuatuci resisted the Romans' initial attacks but surrendered after the Romans erected siege weapons and approached the city with them. Caesar promised mercy if the Atuatuci surrendered, so the Atuatuci opened their gates and made show of laying down some weapons; this may have been an attempt to trick the Romans and catch them off guard in a attack. Caesar kept his word that evening by sending Roman troops out of the Atuatuci city to avoid looting and violence against the Atuatuci. Using improvised shields and weapons which they had concealed within the city, the Atuatuci engaged the Romans in a surprise attack that night. While the Atuatuci fought well, the Romans were prepared and they defeated the Atuatuci. Many Atuatuci were killed in those that survived were sold into slavery. Caesar wrote. Under Roman rule the name of the Atuatuci never appears any more, but the tribal groupings of the area are to have reformed including more recent immigrants from Germany.
The survivors of the people who fought Caesar are therefore to have joined into the tribal grouping known in imperial times as the Tungri. The place name "Atuatuca" does continue in the region, because the capital of the Tungri's region, the "Civitas Tungrorum" was known as "Atuatuca Tungrorum"; the reasons for this are unclear, but the name of the capital of the Eburones, the distinct neighbours of the Atuatuci, had been referred to as Atuatuca by Caesar, so it is the word was a general term for a fortified settlement. Barbarian invasions List of Germanic tribes Wightman, Edith Mary, Gallia Belgica, University of California Press Caesar, Gallic War C. Julius Caesar. Caesar's Gallic War. Translator. W. A. McDevitte. Translator. W. S. Bohn. 1st Edition. New York. Harper & Brothers. 1869. Harper's New Classical Library. Cassius Dio. Roman History III, Books 36-40. Translator. Earnest Cary. Translator. Herbert B. Foster. Harvard University Press. 1914. Loeb Classical Library; the Oxford Classical Dictionary. Edited by Simon Hornblower and Antony Spawforth.
The Aedui, Haedui, or Hedui were a Gallic people of Gallia Lugdunensis, who inhabited the country between the Arar and Liger, in today's France. Their territory thus included the greater part of the modern departments of Saône-et-Loire, Côte-d'Or and Nièvre; the country of the Aedui is defined by reports of them in ancient writings. The upper Loire formed their western border; the Saône formed their eastern border. The Sequani did not reside in the region of the confluence of the Doubs into the Saône and of the latter into the Rhône, as Caesar says that the Helvetii, following the pass between the Jura Mountains and the Rhône southwards, which belonged to the Sequani, plundered the territory of the Aedui; these circumstances explain an apparent contradiction in Strabo, who in one sentence says that the Aedui lived between the Saône and the Doubs, in the next, that the Sequani lived across the Saône. Both statements are true, the first in the south, the second to the north. Outside of the Roman province and prior to Roman rule, Independent Gaul was occupied by self-governing tribes divided into cantons, each canton was further divided into communes.
The Aedui, like other powerful tribes in the region, had replaced their monarchy with a council of magistrates called grand-judges. The grand-judges were under the authority of the senate; the senate was made up of the descendants of ancient royal families. Free men in the tribes were vassals to the heads of these families in exchange for military and political interests. According to Livy, they took part in the expedition of Bellovesus into Italy in the 6th century BC. Before Julius Caesar's time, they had attached themselves to the Romans and were honoured with the title of brothers and kinsmen of the Roman people; when the Sequani, their hereditary rivals, with the assistance of a Germanic chieftain named Ariovistus and massacred the Aedui at the Battle of Magetobriga, the Aedui sent Diviciacus, the druid, to Rome to appeal to the senate for help, but his mission was unsuccessful. On his arrival in Gaul, Caesar restored their independence. In spite of this, the Aedui joined the Gallic coalition against Caesar, but after the surrender of Vercingetorix at the Battle of Alesia, were glad to return to their allegiance.
Augustus dismantled their native capital Bibracte on Mont Beuvray and substituted a new town with a half-Roman, half-Gaulish name, Augustodunum. In 21, during the reign of Tiberius, they revolted under Julius Sacrovir, seized Augustodunum, but they were soon put down by Gaius Silius; the Aedui were the first of the Gauls to receive from the emperor Claudius the distinction of jus honorum, thus being the first Gauls permitted to become senators. The oration of Eumenius, in which he pleaded for the restoration of the schools of his native place Augustodunum, shows that the district was neglected; the chief magistrate of the Aedui in Caesar's time was called Vergobretus, elected annually, possessed powers of life and death but was forbidden to go beyond the frontier. Certain clientes, or small communities, were dependent upon the Aedui, it is possible that the Aedui adopted many of the governmental practices of the Romans, such as electing magistrates and other officials or it was a natural development in their political system.
It is thought that other Celtic tribes, such as the Remi and the Baiocasses elected their leaders. List of peoples of Gaul Caesar, Julius. De Bello Gallico. Strabo. Geography. A. E. Desjardins, Geographie de la Gaule, ii. T. Rice Holmes, Caesar's Conquest of Gaul
The Diablintes or Diablintres or Diablindi or Aulerci Diaulitae were an ancient people of Gaul, a division of the Aulerci. Julius Caesar mentions the Diablintes among the allies of the Veneti and other Armoric states whom Caesar attacked; the Diablintes are mentioned between the Menapii. The territory of the Diablintes seems to have been small, it may have been included in that of the Cenomanni, or the former diocese of Mans; the true form of the name in Caesar is doubtful. Schneider, in his edition of the Gallic War, has adopted the form Diablintres, there is good manuscriptual authority for this; the Diablintes are the Diablindi. Their position can be calculated from Pliny's enumeration, Diablindi, Rhedones; the capital of the Diablintes, according to Ptolemy, was Noeodunum the Nudium of the Table. The Notitia of the Gallic provinces, which belongs to the commencement of the fifth century, mentions Civitas Diablintum among the cities of Lugdunensis Tertia. A document of the seventh century speaks of condita Diablintica as situated in Pago Cenomannico, thus one location of the Diablintes is clear.
This document helps explain why Ptolemy used the name Aulerci for both the Diablintes and Cenomanni. Another document of the seventh century speaks of oppidum Diablintes juxta ripam Araenae fiuvioli; the small town of Jublains, where Roman remains have been found, not far from the town of Mayenne to the southeast, is the site of the Civitas Diablintum and Noeodunum. A wooden tablet found in London records the sale of one Fortunata, a Diablintian slave girl; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Smith, William, ed.. "article name needed". Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography. London: John Murray