Porto Alegre, São Tomé and Príncipe
Porto Alegre is a village in Caué District on São Tomé Island in São Tomé and Príncipe. Its population is 795. Porto Alegre lies 2.5 km northeast of the southernmost point of São Tomé Island, Ponta Homem da Capa. It is 1.5 km west of Ponta Baleia, 17 km southwest of São João dos Angolares and 40 km southwest of the capital São Tomé. Across the Canal das Rolas lies the Ilhéu das Rolas. On the east side of Ponta Homem da Capa is the beach Praia Inhame; the plantation complex Roça de Porto Alegre was established around 1890 by Jacinto Carneiro de Sousa e Almeida. The oldest preserved building dates from 1918
Pico Cão Grande
The Pico Cão Grande is a landmark needle-shaped volcanic plug peak in São Tomé and Príncipe, in the Caué District of São Tomé Island in Parque Natural Obô de São Tomé. Its summit is 663 m above sea level, it rises about 370 m over the surrounding terrain; the volcanic plug was formed by magma solidifying in the vent of an active volcano. The nearest village is 3 km to the east; the district seat São João dos Angolares is 9 km to the east. The first attempt to climb Pico Cão Grande was in 1975 by a Portuguese team of climbers, the first successful climb was completed by a Japanese group of climbers. In June 2016, climbers Gareth Leah, from England, Sergio Almada, from Mexico, established a new bolt-protected rock-climbing route on the peak; the pair spent four weeks on the peak producing a route. The route is graded F8b, they climbed all but three pitches clean. The route is both long and technically demanding, their climb was plagued with difficulties, including snakebites and blown battery chargers.
The most difficult portions of the climb are in the first 100 meters, after which the difficulty drops considerably. The climb has since been completed by Americans Sam Daulton and Remy Franklin following the first American ascents of Nubivigant and Cão Grande by Michael Swartz and Tyler Rohr; the moss growing on the rocks due to high moisture content, the presence of snakes, make the climb difficult. Media related to Pico Cão Grande at Wikimedia Commons
São João dos Angolares
São João dos Angolares is a small town on the east coast of São Tomé Island in São Tomé and Príncipe. It is the seat of Caué District, its population is 3,605. The town lies 17 km southwest of Santana, 17 km northeast of Porto Alegre and 24 km southwest of the capital São Tomé; the Portuguese-based creole language Angolar is spoken around São João dos Angolares. The plantation complex Roça São João has been restored and is now a restaurant and arts centre; the town's football club is UDRA
An equator of a rotating spheroid is its zeroth circle of latitude. It is the imaginary line on the spheroid, equidistant from its poles, dividing it into northern and southern hemispheres. In other words, it is the intersection of the spheroid with the plane perpendicular to its axis of rotation and midway between its geographical poles. On Earth, the Equator is 21.3 % over land. Indonesia is the country straddling the greatest length of the equatorial line across both land and sea; the name is derived from medieval Latin word aequator, in the phrase circulus aequator diei et noctis, meaning ‘circle equalizing day and night’, from the Latin word aequare meaning ‘make equal’. The latitude of the Earth's equator is, by definition, 0° of arc; the Equator is one of the five notable circles of latitude on Earth. The Equator is the only line of latitude, a great circle — that is, one whose plane passes through the center of the globe; the plane of Earth's equator, when projected outwards to the celestial sphere, defines the celestial equator.
In the cycle of Earth's seasons, the equatorial plane runs through the Sun twice per year: on the equinoxes in March and September. To a person on Earth, the Sun appears to travel above the Equator at these times. Light rays from the Sun's center are perpendicular to Earth's surface at the point of solar noon on the Equator. Locations on the Equator experience the shortest sunrises and sunsets because the Sun's daily path is nearly perpendicular to the horizon for most of the year; the length of daylight is constant throughout the year. Earth bulges at the Equator. Sites near the Equator, such as the Guiana Space Centre in Kourou, French Guiana, are good locations for spaceports as they have a faster rotational speed than other latitudes. Since Earth rotates eastward, spacecraft must be launched eastward to take advantage of this Earth-boost of speed; the precise location of the Equator is not fixed. This effect must be accounted for in detailed geophysical measurements; the International Association of Geodesy and the International Astronomical Union have chosen to use an equatorial radius of 6,378.1366 kilometres.
This equatorial radius is in the 2003 and 2010 IERS Conventions. It is the equatorial radius used for the IERS 2003 ellipsoid. If it were circular, the length of the Equator would be 2π times the radius, namely 40,075.0142 kilometres. The GRS 80 as approved and adopted by the IUGG at its Canberra, Australia meeting of 1979 has an equatorial radius of 6,378.137 kilometres. The WGS 84, a standard for use in cartography and satellite navigation including GPS has an equatorial radius of 6,378.137 kilometres. For both GRS 80 and WGS 84, this results in a length for the Equator of 40,075.0167 km. The geographical mile is defined as one arc-minute of the Equator, so it has different values depending on which radius is assumed. For example, by WSG-84, the distance is 1,855.3248 metres, while by IAU-2000, it is 1,855.3257 metres. This is a difference of less than one millimetre over the total distance; the earth is modeled as a sphere flattened 0.336% along its axis. This makes the Equator 0.16% longer than a meridian.
The IUGG standard meridian is, to the nearest millimetre, 40,007.862917 kilometres, one arc-minute of, 1,852.216 metres, explaining the SI standardization of the nautical mile as 1,852 metres, more than 3 metres less than the geographical mile. The sea-level surface of the Earth is irregular, so the actual length of the Equator is not so easy to determine. Aviation Week and Space Technology on 9 October 1961 reported that measurements using the Transit IV-A satellite had shown the equatorial "diameter" from longitude 11° West to 169° East to be 1,000 feet greater than its "diameter" ninety degrees away; the Equator passes through the land of 11 countries. Starting at the Prime Meridian and heading eastwards, the Equator passes through: Despite its name, no part of Equatorial Guinea lies on the Equator. However, its island of Annobón is 155 km south of the Equator, the rest of the country lies to the north. Seasons result from the tilt of the Earth's axis compared to the plane of its revolution around the Sun.
Throughout the year the northern and southern hemispheres are alternately turned either toward or away from the sun depending on Earth's position in its orbit. The hemisphere turned toward the sun receives more sunlight and is in summer, while the other hemisphere receives less sun and is in winter. At the equinoxes, the Earth's axis
In biology, a population is all the organisms of the same group or species, which live in a particular geographical area, have the capability of interbreeding. The area of a sexual population is the area where inter-breeding is possible between any pair within the area, where the probability of interbreeding is greater than the probability of cross-breeding with individuals from other areas. In sociology, population refers to a collection of humans. Demography is a social science. Population in simpler terms is the number of people in a city or town, country or world. In population genetics a sex population is a set of organisms in which any pair of members can breed together; this means that they can exchange gametes to produce normally-fertile offspring, such a breeding group is known therefore as a Gamo deme. This implies that all members belong to the same species. If the Gamo deme is large, all gene alleles are uniformly distributed by the gametes within it, the Gamo deme is said to be panmictic.
Under this state, allele frequencies can be converted to genotype frequencies by expanding an appropriate quadratic equation, as shown by Sir Ronald Fisher in his establishment of quantitative genetics. This occurs in Nature: localization of gamete exchange – through dispersal limitations, preferential mating, cataclysm, or other cause – may lead to small actual Gamo demes which exchange gametes reasonably uniformly within themselves but are separated from their neighboring Gamo demes. However, there may be low frequencies of exchange with these neighbors; this may be viewed as the breaking up of a large sexual population into smaller overlapping sexual populations. This failure of panmixia leads to two important changes in overall population structure: the component Gamo demos vary in their allele frequencies when compared with each other and with the theoretical panmictic original; the overall rise in homozygosity is quantified by the inbreeding coefficient. Note that all homozygotes are increased in frequency – both the deleterious and the desirable.
The mean phenotype of the Gamo demes collection is lower than that of the panmictic original –, known as inbreeding depression. It is most important to note, that some dispersion lines will be superior to the panmictic original, while some will be about the same, some will be inferior; the probabilities of each can be estimated from those binomial equations. In plant and animal breeding, procedures have been developed which deliberately utilize the effects of dispersion, it can be shown that dispersion-assisted selection leads to the greatest genetic advance, is much more powerful than selection acting without attendant dispersion. This is so for both autogamous Gamo demes. In ecology, the population of a certain species in a certain area can be estimated using the Lincoln Index. According to the United States Census Bureau the world's population was about 7.55 billion in 2019 and that the 7 billion number was surpassed on 12 March 2012. According to a separate estimate by the United Nations, Earth’s population exceeded seven billion in October 2011, a milestone that offers unprecedented challenges and opportunities to all of humanity, according to UNFPA, the United Nations Population Fund.
According to papers published by the United States Census Bureau, the world population hit 6.5 billion on 24 February 2006. The United Nations Population Fund designated 12 October 1999 as the approximate day on which world population reached 6 billion; this was about 12 years after world population reached 5 billion in 1987, 6 years after world population reached 5.5 billion in 1993. The population of countries such as Nigeria, is not known to the nearest million, so there is a considerable margin of error in such estimates. Researcher Carl Haub calculated that a total of over 100 billion people have been born in the last 2000 years. Population growth increased as the Industrial Revolution gathered pace from 1700 onwards; the last 50 years have seen a yet more rapid increase in the rate of population growth due to medical advances and substantial increases in agricultural productivity beginning in the 1960s, made by the Green Revolution. In 2017 the United Nations Population Division projected that the world's population will reach about 9.8 billion in 2050 and 11.2 billion in 2100.
In the future, the world's population is expected to peak, after which it will decline due to economic reasons, health concerns, land exhaustion and environmental hazards. According to one report, it is likely that the world's population will stop growing before the end of the 21st century. Further, there is some likelihood that population will decline before 2100. Population has declined in the last decade or two in Eastern Europe, the Baltics and in the Commonwealth of Independent States; the population pattern of less-developed regions of the world in recent years has been marked by increasing birth rates. These followed an earlier sharp reduction in death rates; this transition from high birth and death rates to low birth
Parque Natural Obô de São Tomé
The Obô Natural Park of São Tomé is a natural park of São Tomé and Príncipe, covering 195 km2 of the island of São Tomé. It was established in 2006, it has not yet been assigned to a IUCN protected area category. It covers parts of the districts of Caué, Lobata and Mé-Zóchi; the Natural Park covers three geographically separated zones: the largest part is the central massif, including the mountains Pico de São Tomé and Pico Cão Grande the zone of Malanza, in the south of the island the zone of Praia das Conchas and Lagoa Azul, in the north of the islandThe park is known internationally amongst conservationists for its biologically rich dense virgin rainforests. It is characterized by a wide range of biotopes, from lowland and mountain forests, to mangroves and savanna area, which contribute to its unique ecosystem; the park includes virgin Atlantic high altitude rainforest and secondary rainforest which contains abandoned plantations. In 1988, scientists classified the forests of São Tomé and Príncipe as the second most important in terms of biological interest out of 75 forests of Africa.
The WWF has listed the forests of the national park as among the Global 200, the 200 most important biological areas on the planet. The forest of Obo is listed as an Important Bird Area of Africa. There are about 700 plant species on the island of which 95 endemic. Flora includes. Orchids and mosses are common in the area. There are 16 endemic bird species on the island, including São Tomé olive pigeon, São Tomé ibis, São Tomé fiscal, São Tomé shorttail, São Tomé grosbeak, Giant sunbird, São Tomé oriole and São Tomé thrush; the amphibians Ptychadena newtoni, Hyperolius thomensis, Hyperolius molleri, Phrynobatrachus leveleve, Schistometopum thomense are found in the park. The shrew Crocidura thomensis is the only endemic terrestrial mammal. There are three endemic species of bats: São Tomé collared fruit bat, São Tomé free-tailed bat, São Tomé leaf-nosed bat. Invertebrates include the moths Theretra viridis, Hyalobathra barnsalis and Pseudoclanis tomensis and the ant Tetramorium renae. Official site Video walking through the virgin rainforest Video of the secondary forest
São Tomé Island
São Tomé Island, at 854 km2, is the largest island of São Tomé and Príncipe and is home to about 157,000 or 96% of the nation's population. The island is divided into six districts, it is located 2 km north of the equator. São Tomé Island is about 48 kilometres long by 32 kilometres wide, it rises to 2,024 metres at Pico de São Tomé and includes the capital city, São Tomé, on the northeast coast. The nearest city on mainland Africa is the port city of Port Gentil in Gabon located 240 kilometres to the east; the island is surrounded by a number of small islands, including Ilhéu das Rolas, Ilhéu das Cabras and Ilhéu Gabado. The main language is Portuguese, but there are many speakers of Forro and Angolar, two Portuguese-based creole languages; the entire island of São Tomé is a massive shield volcano that rises from the floor of the Atlantic Ocean, over 3,000 m below sea level. It formed along the Cameroon line, a line of volcanoes extending from Cameroon southwest into the Atlantic Ocean. Most of the lava erupted on São Tomé over the last million years has been basalt.
The youngest dated rock on the island is about 100,000 years old, but numerous more recent cinder cones are found on the southeast side of the island. The higher slopes of the island are forested and form part of the Parque Natural Obô de São Tomé, but agriculture is important near the north and east coasts; the chief exports are cocoa, coffee and palm products, while there is a fishing industry. Large reserves of oil are in the ocean between Nigeria and São Tomé; the discovery has been lamented by some as endangering the nation's political stability and natural environment. In response to these concerns the government of São Tomé and Príncipe has drawn up legislation in an attempt to ensure the efficient and equitable use of oil revenues over time; the island has a total of 63 regular bird species, plus an additional 36 vagrant and unconfirmed species. Of these, 19 are endemic and 3 near endemic. Six species are considered vulnerable, two critically endangered. São Tomé is divided into the following six districts: Água Grande Cantagalo Caué Lembá Lobata Mé-Zóchi Villages on the island include: "Sao Tome".
Global Volcanism Program. Smithsonian Institution. CIA Word Fact Book